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  1. 1. OPERATING SYTEMS B.TECH II YR (TERM 08-09) UNIT 2 PPT SLIDESTEXT BOOKS:Operating System Concepts- Abraham Silberchatz, Peter B. Galvin, Greg Gagne 7th Edition, John WileyOperating systems- A Concept based Approach- D.M.Dhamdhere, 2nd Edition, TMH.No. of slides: 52
  2. 2. INDEX UNIT 2 PPT SLIDESS.NO. TOPIC LECTURE NO. PPTSLIDES1. Process concepts threads L9 L9.1 to L9.102. scheduling-criteria alg L10 L10.1 to L10.74. scheduling-criteria alg L11 L11.1 to L11.75. Algorithms evaluation L12 L12.1 to L12.65. Thread scheduling L13 L13.1 to L13.116. Case studies UNIX,LINUX L14 L14.1 to L14.47. Windows L15 L15.1 to L15.28. REVISION L16
  3. 3. Process Concept• An operating system executes a variety of programs: – Batch system – jobs – Time-shared systems – user programs or tasks• Textbook uses the terms job and process almost interchangeably• Process – a program in execution; process execution must progress in sequential fashion• A process includes: – program counter – stack – data section
  4. 4. Process State• As a process executes, it changes state – new: The process is being created – running: Instructions are being executed – waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur – ready: The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor – terminated: The process has finished execution
  5. 5. Diagram of Process State
  6. 6. Process Control Block (PCB)Information associated with each process• Process state• Program counter• CPU registers• CPU scheduling information• Memory-management information• Accounting information• I/O status information
  7. 7. Process Control Block (PCB)
  8. 8. CPU Switch From Process to Process
  9. 9. Process Scheduling Queues• Job queue – set of all processes in the system• Ready queue – set of all processes residing in main memory, ready and waiting to execute• Device queues – set of processes waiting for an I/O device• Processes migrate among the various queues
  10. 10. Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues
  11. 11. Representation of Process Scheduling
  12. 12. Schedulers• Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes should be brought into the ready queue• Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process should be executed next and allocates CPU
  13. 13. Producer-Consumer Problem• Paradigm for cooperating processes, producer process produces information that is consumed by a consumer process – unbounded-buffer places no practical limit on the size of the buffer – bounded-buffer assumes that there is a fixed buffer size
  14. 14. Bounded-Buffer – Shared-Memory Solution• Shared data #define BUFFER_SIZE 10 typedef struct { ... } item; item buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; int in = 0; int out = 0;• Solution is correct, but can only use BUFFER_SIZE-1 elements
  15. 15. Bounded-Buffer – Producerwhile (true) { /* Produce an item */ while (((in = (in + 1)% BUFFER SIZE count) == out) ; /* do nothing -- nofree buffers */ buffer[in] = item; in = (in + 1) % BUFFERSIZE;
  16. 16. Bounded Buffer – Consumerwhile (true) { while (in == out) ; // do nothing-- nothing to consume // remove an item from thebuffer item = buffer[out]; out = (out + 1) % BUFFERSIZE;
  17. 17. Scheduling Criteria• CPU utilization – keep the CPU as busy as possible• Throughput – # of processes that complete their execution per time unit• Turnaround time – amount of time to execute a particular process• Waiting time – amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue• Response time – amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment)
  18. 18. Scheduling Algorithm Optimization Criteria• Max CPU utilization• Max throughput• Min turnaround time• Min waiting time• Min response time
  19. 19. First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) Scheduling ProcessBurst Time P1 24 P2 3 P3 3• Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P1 , P2 , P3 The Gantt Chart for the schedule is: P1 P2 P3 0 24 27 30
  20. 20. FCFS Scheduling (Cont)Suppose that the processes arrive in the order P2 , P3 , P 1• The Gantt chart for the schedule is: Waiting time for P1 = 6; P2 = 0; P3 = 3• Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3• Much better than previous case• Convoy effect short process behind long process P2 P3 P1 0 3 6 30
  21. 21. Shortest-Job-First (SJF) Scheduling• Associate with each process the length of its next CPU burst. Use these lengths to schedule the process with the shortest time• SJF is optimal – gives minimum average waiting time for a given set of processes – The difficulty is knowing the length of the next CPU request
  22. 22. Determining Length of Next CPU Burst• Can only estimate the length• Can be done by using the length of previous CPU bursts, using exponential averaging τ n = 1 = α t n + ( 1 − α )τ n . 1. t n = actual length of n th CPU burst 2. τ n +1 = predicted value for the next CPU burst 3. α , 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 4. Define :
  23. 23. Examples of Exponential Averaging∀ α =0 τn+1 = τn – Recent history does not count∀ α =1 – τn+1 = α tn – Only the actual last CPU burst counts• If we expand the formula, we get: τn+1 = α tn+(1 - α)α tn -1 + … +(1 - α )j α tn -j + … +(1 - α )n +1 τ0• Since both α and (1 - α) are less than or equal
  24. 24. Priority Scheduling• A priority number (integer) is associated with each process• The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority (smallest integer ≡ highest priority) – Preemptive – nonpreemptive• SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next CPU burst time• Problem ≡ Starvation – low priority processes may never execute• Solution ≡ Aging – as time progresses increase the priority of the process
  25. 25. Round Robin (RR)• Each process gets a small unit of CPU time (time quantum), usually 10-100 milliseconds. After this time has elapsed, the process is preempted and added to the end of the ready queue.• If there are n processes in the ready queue and the time quantum is q, then each process gets 1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time units at once. No process waits more than (n-1)q time units.• Performance – q large ⇒ FIFO – q small ⇒ q must be large with respect to context switch, otherwise overhead is too high Process Burst Time P1 24 P2 3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P3 3 0 4 7 10 14 18 22 26 30 The Gantt chart is: Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better response
  26. 26. Time Quantum and Context Switch Time
  27. 27. Multilevel Queue SchedulingMultilevel Feedback Queues NUMA and CPU Scheduling
  28. 28. Algorithm Evaluation• Deterministic modeling – takes a particular predetermined workload and defines the performance of each algorithm for that workload• Queueing models• Implementation
  29. 29. Evaluation of CPU schedulers by Simulation
  30. 30. Dispatch Latency
  31. 31. Time-SlicingSince the JVM Doesn’t Ensure Time- Slicing, the yield() MethodMay Be Used: while (true) { // perform CPU-intensive task ... Thread.yield(); }
  32. 32. Thread Priorities Priority CommentThread.MIN_PRIORITY Minimum Thread PriorityThread.MAX_PRIORITY Maximum Thread PriorityThread.NORM_PRIORITY Default Thread PriorityPriorities May Be Set Using setPriority() method: setPriority(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY + 2);
  33. 33. Solaris 2 Scheduling
  34. 34. User Threads• Thread management done by user-level threads library• Three primary thread libraries: – POSIX Pthreads – Win32 threads Kernel – Java threads Threads • Supported by the Kernel • Examples – Windows XP/2000 – Solaris – Linux – Tru64 UNIX – Mac OS X
  35. 35. Thread Scheduling• Distinction between user-level and kernel-level threads• Many-to-one and many-to-many models, thread library schedules user-level threads to run on LWP – Known as process-contention scope (PCS) since scheduling competition is within the processKernel thread scheduled onto available CPU is system-contention scope (SCS) – competition among all threads in system
  36. 36. Pthread Scheduling• API allows specifying either PCS or SCS during thread creation – PTHREAD SCOPE PROCESS schedules threads using PCS scheduling – PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM schedules threads using SCS scheduling.
  37. 37. Pthread Scheduling API#include <pthread.h>#include <stdio.h>#define NUM THREADS 5int main(int argc, char *argv[]){ int i; pthread t tid[NUM THREADS]; pthread attr t attr; /* get the default attributes */ pthread attr init(&attr); /* set the scheduling algorithm to PROCESS or SYSTEM */ pthread attr setscope(&attr, PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM); /* set the scheduling policy - FIFO, RT, or OTHER */ pthread attr setschedpolicy(&attr, SCHED OTHER); /* create the threads */ for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++)
  38. 38. Pthread Scheduling API /* now join on each thread */ for (i = 0; i < NUM THREADS; i++) pthread join(tid[i], NULL);} /* Each thread will begin control in this function */void *runner(void *param){ printf("I am a threadn"); pthread exit(0);}
  39. 39. Multiple-Processor Scheduling• CPU scheduling more complex when multiple CPUs are available• Homogeneous processors within a multiprocessor• Asymmetric multiprocessing – only one processor accesses the system data structures, alleviating the need for data sharing• Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) – each processor is self- scheduling, all processes in common ready queue, or each has its own private queue of ready processes• Processor affinity – process has affinity for processor on which it is currently running – soft affinity – hard affinity
  40. 40. Thread Libraries• Thread library provides programmer with API for creating and managing threads• Two primary ways of implementing – Library entirely in user space – Kernel-level library supported by the OS
  41. 41. Pthreads• May be provided either as user-level or kernel-level• A POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and synchronization• API specifies behavior of the thread library, implementation is up to development of the library• Common in UNIX operating systems (Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X)
  42. 42. Threading Issues• Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls• Thread cancellation of target thread – Asynchronous or deferred• Signal handling• Thread pools• Thread-specific data• Scheduler activations
  43. 43. Thread Cancellation• Terminating a thread before it has finished• Two general approaches: – Asynchronous cancellation terminates the target thread immediately – Deferred cancellation allows the target thread to periodically check if it should be cancelled
  44. 44. Linux ThreadsLinux refers to them as tasks rather than threadsThread creation is done through clone() system callclone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process)
  45. 45. Windows XP Threads
  46. 46. Local Procedure Calls in Windows XP
  47. 47. Windows XP Threads• Implements the one-to-one mapping, kernel-level• Each thread contains – A thread id – Register set – Separate user and kernel stacks – Private data storage area• The register set, stacks, and private storage area are known as the context of the threads• The primary data structures of a thread include: – ETHREAD (executive thread block) – KTHREAD (kernel thread block) – TEB (thread environment block)
  48. 48. Alternating Sequence of CPU And I/O Bursts
  49. 49. Windows XP Priorities
  50. 50. Linux Scheduling• Constant order O(1) scheduling time• Two priority ranges: time-sharing and real-time• Real-time range from 0 to 99 and nice value from 100 to 140• (figure 5.15)
  51. 51. Examples of IPC Systems – Windows XP• Message-passing centric via local procedure call (LPC) facility – Only works between processes on the same system – Uses ports (like mailboxes) to establish and maintain communication channels – Communication works as follows: • The client opens a handle to the subsystem’s connection port object • The client sends a connection request • The server creates two private communication ports and returns the handle to one of them to the client • The client and server use the corresponding port handle to send messages or callbacks and to listen for replies
  52. 52. Priorities and Time-slice length