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- 1. Open Gas‐Turbine Cycle Fuel Combustion chamber Turbine Shaft Wnet Compressor Combustion Air products Fig.1: Schematic for an open gas-turbine cycle.Working Principal Fresh air enters the compressor at ambient temperature where its pressure andtemperature are increased.The high pressure air enters the combustion chamber where the fuel is burned at constantpressure.The high temperature (and pressure) gas enters the turbine where it expands to ambientpressure and produces work.Features: Gas-turbine is used in aircraft propulsion and electric power generation. High thermal efficiencies up to 44%. Suitable for combined cycles (with steam power plant) High power to weight ratio, high reliability, long life Fast start up time, about 2 min, compared to 4 hr for steam-propulsion systems High back work ratio (ratio of compressor work to the turbine work), up to 50%, compared to few percent in steam power plants.Brayton Cycle Brayton cycle is the ideal cycle for gas-turbine engines in which the working fluidundergoes a closed loop. That is the combustion and exhaust processes are modeled byconstant-pressure heat addition and rejection, respectively. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 1
- 2. The Brayton ideal cycle is made up of four internally reversible processes: 1-2 isentropic compression (in compressor) 2-3 const. pressure heat-addition (in combustion chamber) 3-4 isentropic expansion (in turbine) 4-1 const. pressure heat rejection (exhaust) T 3 P QH QH 3 2 P= Const. 2 Isentropic 4 QL Isentropic P = Const. 4 1 s 1 QL v Fig. 2: T-s and P-v diagrams for ideal Brayton cycle.Thermal efficiency for the Brayton cycle is: th, Brayton 1 q out T T T T / T 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 qin T3 T2 T2 T3 / T2 1 k 1 / k k 1 / kT2 P2 P T3 3 T1 P1 P 4 T4thus 1 th, Brayton 1 k 1 / k rP P2 P3rP P1 P4where rP is called the pressure ration and k = cp /cv is the specific heat ratio.Maximum Pressure Ratio Given that the maximum and minimum temperature can be prescribed for the Braytoncycle, a change in the pressure ratio can result in a change in the work output from thecycle. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 2
- 3. The maximum temperature in the cycle T3 is limited by metallurgical conditions becausethe turbine blades cannot sustain temperatures above 1300 K. Higher temperatures (up to1600 K can be obtained with ceramic turbine blades). The minimum temperature is set bythe air temperature at the inlet to the engine. Fig. 3: An optimum pressure ratio exists for a given max., min. temperature ratio that maximized the net work output.Actual Brayton Cycle Irreversibilities exist in actual cycle. Most important differences are deviations of actualcompressor and turbine from idealized isentropic compression/expansion, and pressuredrop in combustion chamber. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 3
- 4. T Pressure drop 3 Pressure drop 4a 2s 4s 2a 1 s Fig. 4: Actual Brayton cycle. ws h2 s h1 wa h3 h4 a c T wa h2 a h1 ws h3 h4 sThe Brayton Cycle with Regeneration The high pressure air leaving the compressor can be heated by transferring heat fromexhaust gases in a counter-flow heat exchanger which is called a regenerator. Regenerator 6 Combustion 4 chamber Q Combustion products 2 3 5 Wnet Turbine Shaft Compressor Air 1 Fig. 5: Schematic for a Brayton cycle with regenerator. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 4
- 5. T 3 QH 5’ 4 Qregen 5 Regeneration Qregen 6 2 QL 1 s Fig. 6: T-s diagram for a Brayton cycle with regeneration.In the ideal case, the air exits the regenerator at the inlet temperature of the exhaust gases,T4. One can write:qregen, actual = h5 – h2qregen, max = h5’ – h2 = h4 – h2The effectiveness of regenerator is defined as: q regen,act h5 h2 T5 T2 assuming cold - air - standard conditions q regen,max h4 h2 T4 T2Thermal efficiency of an ideal Brayton cycle with regenerator can be found from: T1 k 1 / k th,regen 1 rp T3 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating, and Regeneration The net work output of the cycle can be increased by reducing the work input to thecompressor and/or by increasing the work output from turbine (or both).Using multi-stage compression with intercooling reduces the work input the compressor.As the number of stages is increased, the compression process becomes nearly isothermalat the compressor inlet temperature, and the compression work decreases.Likewise utilizing multistage expansion with reheat (in a multi-turbine arrangement) willincrease the work produced by turbines. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 5
- 6. 10 Regenerator QReheater 5 QH 9 Reheater 1 4 Combustion 6 Compressor 1 chamber 7 8 Wnet Compressor 2 Turbine 1 Turbine 2 2 3 Intercooler QIntercooler Fig. 7: A gas-turbine engine with two-stage compression with intercooling, two-stage expansion with reheating, and regeneration.When intercooling and reheating are used, regeneration becomes more attractive since agreater potential for regeneration exists.The back work ratio of a gas-turbine improves as a result of intercooling and reheating.However; intercooling and reheating decreases thermal efficiency unless they areaccompanied with regeneration. T Qin Qin 6 8 5 9 Qregen. 7 2 4 10 Qout 3 Qout 1 s Fig. 8: T-s diagram for an ideal gas-turbine cycle with intercooling, reheating, and regeneration. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 6
- 7. As shown in Fig. 8:T1 = T3, T2 = T4In an ideal regenerator, T5 = T9. In practice (actual regenerator), T5 < T9.T8 = T6, T7 = T9The net work input to a two-stage compressor is minimized when equal pressure ratiosare maintained across each stage. That is:P2 P4 P1 P3This procedure also maximizes the turbine work output.P6 P8 P7 P9 M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 7

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