What is a TURBINE???
A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy
from a fast moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other
fluid and converts it into useful work.
A turbine is a turbo-machine with at least one moving part
called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades
Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart
rotational energy to the rotor.
The working principle is very much simple.
• When the fluid strikes the blades of the turbine, the blades are
displaced, which produces rotational energy.
• When the turbine shaft is directly coupled to an electric gene-
-rator mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
• This electrical power is known as hydroelectric power.
Basic types of turbines
• Water Turbine
• Steam Turbine
• Gas Turbine
• Wind Turbine
Although the same principles apply to all turbines, their specific
designs differ sufficiently to merit separate descriptions.
• Impulse turbines
• Reaction turbines
• In an impulse turbine, fast moving fluid is fired through a
narrow nozzle at the turbine blades to make them spin around.
• The blades of an impulse turbine are usually bucket-shaped so
they catch the fluid and direct it off at an angle.
• In an impulse turbine, the fluid is forced to hit the turbine at
Types of Impulse Turbines
I. Pelton Turbine
II. Cross-flow Turbine
• These are usually used for high head, low flow power plants.
• It was invented by Lester Ella Pelton in the 1870s.
• Nozzles are direct forceful, high speed streams of water
against a rotary series of spoon-shaped buckets, also known as
impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential
rim of a drive wheel also called a runner.
• As the water jet hit the bucket-blades, the direction of water
velocity is changed to follow the contours of the bucket.
• Water impulse energy exerts torque on the bucket and wheel
system, spinning the wheel; the water stream itself does a "u-
turn" and exits at the outer sides of the bucket.
• Pelton wheels operate best with Drop height: (50 - 2000 m)
and Flow rate is (4 - 15 m3/s)
• Pelton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro-power, when
the available water source has relatively high hydraulic head at
low flow rates.
• Pelton wheels are made in all sizes. For maximum power and
efficiency, the wheel and turbine system is designed such that
the water jet velocity is twice the velocity of the rotating
• There exist in multi ton Pelton wheels mounted on vertical oil
pad bearing in hydroelectric power.
• It is developed by Anthony Michel, in 1903 and is used for
low heads. (10–70 meters)
• As with a water wheel, the water is admitted at the turbine's
edge. After passing the runner, it leaves on the opposite side.
• Going through the runner twice provides additional efficiency.
• The cross-flow turbine is a low-speed machine that is well
suited for locations with a low head but high flow.
• The peak efficiency of a cross-flow turbine is somewhat less
than a kaplon, francis or pelton turbine.
• It has a low price, and good regulation.
• As water going through the runner twice, provides additional
• Cross-flow turbines are mostly used in mini and micro
• Its good point as When the water leaves the runner, it also
helps clean the runner of small debris and pollution.
• In a reaction turbine, forces driving the rotor are achieved by
the reaction of an accelerating water flow in the runner while
the pressure drops. The reaction principle can be observed in a
rotary lawn sprinkler where the emerging jet drives the rotor in
the opposite direction.
• In reaction turbines torque developed by reacting to the fluid's
pressure. The pressure of the fluid
changes as it passes through the
turbine rotor blades.
Types of Reaction Turbines
• Kaplan Turbine
• Francis Turbine
• Kinetic Turbine
• The Kaplan turbine is a water turbine which has adjustable
blades and is used for low heads and high discharges.
• It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor
• The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which
means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves
through the turbine and gives up its energy.
• The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the
turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the
wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner,
causing it to spin.
The Kaplan turbine having drop height: 10 - 700 m and Flow
rate 4 - 55 m3/s
• Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for
electrical power production. They cover the lowest head hydro
sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions.
• Inexpensive micro turbines on the Kaplan turbine model are
manufactured for individual power production with as little as
two feet of head.
• Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for each site
to operate at the highest possible efficiency, typically over
90%. They are very expensive to design, manufacture and
install, but operate for decades.
• The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was
developed by James B.Franceis and are used for medium
head(45-400 m) and medium discharge.(10-700 m^3/s)
• The Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of
turbine in which the working fluid comes to the turbine under
immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine
blades from the working fluid.
• The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water
flow and recover the pressure.
• Water flow is radial from exterior to interior.
• Francis type units cover a head range from 40 to 600 m (130 to
• Its efficiency decreases as flow decreases.
• They may also be used for pumped storage, where a reservoir
is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) driven by the
generator acting as a large electrical motor during periods of
low power demand.
• Kinetic energy turbines, also called free-flow turbines,
generate electricity from the kinetic energy present in flowing
• The systems may operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal
waters, or ocean currents.
• Kinetic systems utilize the water stream's natural pathway.
• They do not require the diversion of water through manmade
channels, riverbeds, or pipes,
• They might have applications in such conduits.
• Kinetic systems do not require large civil works; however,
they can use existing structures such as bridges, tailraces and
channels and do not require any dam or reservoir.
• A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal
energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do
mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
• This turbine was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884
• Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity
in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal fuel oil
or nuclear fuel.
• Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging
from small to large . used as mechanical drives for
pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment,
used to generate electricity (upto1.5 GW) .
• Fuel used are biomasses, coal etc.
• Modern steam turbines has automatic control system.
• steam heated processes in plants and factories.
• steam driven turbines in electric power plants.
• Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly
suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about 90% of
all electricity generation in the United States (1996)
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of
internal combustion engine.
• Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings
it to higher pressure.
• Energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting
it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow.
• Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical
generators or even tanks.
• A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from
the wind into electrical power .
• Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three
• The rotor component , includes the blades for converting
wind energy to low speed rotational energy.
• The generator component, includes the electrical generator,
the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox
• The structural support component, includes the tower etc
• Wind turbine used for charging batteries may be referred to as
a wind charger.
Types of wind turbines
Horizontal-axis wind turbines Vertical-axis wind turbines
• Horizontal-axis wind
turbines are being parallel to
the ground, the axis of blade
rotation is parallel to the
• Vertical-axis wind turbines
has its blades rotating on an
axis perpendicular to the
• Our small wind turbines are used in a variety of industries and
applications, including marine applications, off-grid systems.
• Industrial applications including road signage, remote
telemetry, mobile base stations and for houses, schools and
• Mechanical engineering department manuals Bhagwant
universty ajmer .
• Fluid mechanics with engineering applicatations 10 edition by
E.John Finnemore and Joesph B. Franzini
• Hydraulics and Fluid mechanics by E.H.Lewitt 10th edition