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Types of turbine & thier application


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turbine types . applications

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Types of turbine & thier application

  2. 2. What is a TURBINE???  A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fast moving flow of water, steam, gas, air, or other fluid and converts it into useful work.  A turbine is a turbo-machine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached.  Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.
  3. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE: The working principle is very much simple. • When the fluid strikes the blades of the turbine, the blades are displaced, which produces rotational energy. • When the turbine shaft is directly coupled to an electric gene- -rator mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. • This electrical power is known as hydroelectric power.
  4. 4. Basic types of turbines • Water Turbine • Steam Turbine • Gas Turbine • Wind Turbine Although the same principles apply to all turbines, their specific designs differ sufficiently to merit separate descriptions.
  5. 5. Water turbines • Impulse turbines • Reaction turbines
  6. 6. Impulse Turbine • In an impulse turbine, fast moving fluid is fired through a narrow nozzle at the turbine blades to make them spin around. • The blades of an impulse turbine are usually bucket-shaped so they catch the fluid and direct it off at an angle. • In an impulse turbine, the fluid is forced to hit the turbine at high speed.
  7. 7. Types of Impulse Turbines I. Pelton Turbine II. Cross-flow Turbine
  8. 8. Pelton Wheel • These are usually used for high head, low flow power plants. • It was invented by Lester Ella Pelton in the 1870s. • Nozzles are direct forceful, high speed streams of water against a rotary series of spoon-shaped buckets, also known as impulse blades, which are mounted around the circumferential rim of a drive wheel also called a runner. • As the water jet hit the bucket-blades, the direction of water velocity is changed to follow the contours of the bucket. • Water impulse energy exerts torque on the bucket and wheel system, spinning the wheel; the water stream itself does a "u- turn" and exits at the outer sides of the bucket. • Pelton wheels operate best with Drop height: (50 - 2000 m) and Flow rate is (4 - 15 m3/s)
  9. 9. Pelton’s Wheel
  10. 10. Applications • Pelton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro-power, when the available water source has relatively high hydraulic head at low flow rates. • Pelton wheels are made in all sizes. For maximum power and efficiency, the wheel and turbine system is designed such that the water jet velocity is twice the velocity of the rotating buckets. • There exist in multi ton Pelton wheels mounted on vertical oil pad bearing in hydroelectric power.
  11. 11. Cross-flow Turbine • It is developed by Anthony Michel, in 1903 and is used for low heads. (10–70 meters) • As with a water wheel, the water is admitted at the turbine's edge. After passing the runner, it leaves on the opposite side. • Going through the runner twice provides additional efficiency. • The cross-flow turbine is a low-speed machine that is well suited for locations with a low head but high flow.
  12. 12. Applications • The peak efficiency of a cross-flow turbine is somewhat less than a kaplon, francis or pelton turbine. • It has a low price, and good regulation. • As water going through the runner twice, provides additional efficiency. • Cross-flow turbines are mostly used in mini and micro hydropower units. • Its good point as When the water leaves the runner, it also helps clean the runner of small debris and pollution.
  13. 13. Reaction Turbine • In a reaction turbine, forces driving the rotor are achieved by the reaction of an accelerating water flow in the runner while the pressure drops. The reaction principle can be observed in a rotary lawn sprinkler where the emerging jet drives the rotor in the opposite direction. • In reaction turbines torque developed by reacting to the fluid's pressure. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.
  14. 14. Types of Reaction Turbines • Kaplan Turbine • Francis Turbine • Kinetic Turbine
  15. 15. Kaplan Turbine • The Kaplan turbine is a water turbine which has adjustable blades and is used for low heads and high discharges. • It was developed in 1913 by the Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan. • The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. • The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The Kaplan turbine having drop height: 10 - 700 m and Flow rate 4 - 55 m3/s
  16. 16. Kaplan Turbine
  17. 17. Applications • Kaplan turbines are widely used throughout the world for electrical power production. They cover the lowest head hydro sites and are especially suited for high flow conditions. • Inexpensive micro turbines on the Kaplan turbine model are manufactured for individual power production with as little as two feet of head. • Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency, typically over 90%. They are very expensive to design, manufacture and install, but operate for decades.
  18. 18. Francis Turbine • The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B.Franceis and are used for medium head(45-400 m) and medium discharge.(10-700 m^3/s) • The Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine, a category of turbine in which the working fluid comes to the turbine under immense pressure and the energy is extracted by the turbine blades from the working fluid. • The turbine's exit tube is shaped to help decelerate the water flow and recover the pressure. • Water flow is radial from exterior to interior.
  19. 19. Francis Turbine
  20. 20. Applications • Francis type units cover a head range from 40 to 600 m (130 to 2,000 ft). • Its efficiency decreases as flow decreases. • They may also be used for pumped storage, where a reservoir is filled by the turbine (acting as a pump) driven by the generator acting as a large electrical motor during periods of low power demand.
  21. 21. Kinetic Turbines • Kinetic energy turbines, also called free-flow turbines, generate electricity from the kinetic energy present in flowing water. • The systems may operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents. • Kinetic systems utilize the water stream's natural pathway. • They do not require the diversion of water through manmade channels, riverbeds, or pipes, • They might have applications in such conduits. • Kinetic systems do not require large civil works; however, they can use existing structures such as bridges, tailraces and channels and do not require any dam or reservoir.
  22. 22. Kinetic Turbines
  23. 23. Steam Turbine • A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. • This turbine was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884 • Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants using coal fuel oil or nuclear fuel. • Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small to large . used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment, used to generate electricity (upto1.5 GW) .
  24. 24. Stream Turbine
  25. 25. Applications • Fuel used are biomasses, coal etc. • Modern steam turbines has automatic control system. • steam heated processes in plants and factories. • steam driven turbines in electric power plants. • Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about 90% of all electricity generation in the United States (1996)
  26. 26. Gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine. • Fresh atmospheric air flows through a compressor that brings it to higher pressure. • Energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow. • Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators or even tanks.
  27. 27. Gas Turbine
  28. 28. Wind Turbine • A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power . • Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components:. • The rotor component , includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. • The generator component, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox • The structural support component, includes the tower etc • Wind turbine used for charging batteries may be referred to as a wind charger.
  29. 29. Wind Turbines
  30. 30. Types of wind turbines Horizontal-axis wind turbines Vertical-axis wind turbines • Horizontal-axis wind turbines are being parallel to the ground, the axis of blade rotation is parallel to the wind flow. • Vertical-axis wind turbines has its blades rotating on an axis perpendicular to the ground.
  31. 31. Application • Our small wind turbines are used in a variety of industries and applications, including marine applications, off-grid systems. • Industrial applications including road signage, remote telemetry, mobile base stations and for houses, schools and farms.
  32. 32. References • Mechanical engineering department manuals Bhagwant universty ajmer . • Fluid mechanics with engineering applicatations 10 edition by E.John Finnemore and Joesph B. Franzini • Hydraulics and Fluid mechanics by E.H.Lewitt 10th edition