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Delivering Value Through Data
Insights From Multiple Expert Discussions Around The World
December 2019
Context
Based on insights from 30 expert workshops, this summary shares global
and regional views on the shifts likely to take place around the ‘value of data’
over the next decade - and identifies areas that could drive change.
Open Data Barometer — https://opendatabarometer.org/
Internet Penetration — https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS
ICT Development Index (2017) — http://www.itu.int/net4/ITU-D/idi/2017/
Level of Privacy Regulation: DLA Piper
https://www.dlapiperdataprotection.com
Heavy Robust Moderate LimitedC Top 3 Challenges O Top 3 Opportunities E Top 3 Emerging Issues
Future Value of Data
Key Insights: 2018
COUNTRY
ICT
Development
Index
(2017)
Australia
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Cote D’Ivoire
Denmark
Germany
India
Indonesia
Japan
Kenya
Mexico
Nigeria
Philippines
Senegal
Singapore
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Thailand
UAE
UK
USA
Open
Data
Barometer
(2016)
Internet
Penetration
%
(2016)
8.24
7.77
6.57
8.61
5.36
3.14
8.71
8.39
3.03
4.33
8.43
2.91
5.16
2.60
4.67
2.66
8.05
4.96
7.79
8.41
5.67
7.21
8.65
8.18
81
89
47
20
52
11
71
70
43
38
75
40
73
21
55
9
53
34
73
70
28
26
100
82
88
91
82
89
62
27
97
84
30
25
93
26
64
26
56
26
81
54
81
90
48
91
95
76
London 01 OCT 2018
C Rising Cyber Security Threats
Rise of the Machines
Fake Data
O Open Data
Digital Taxation
Data Ownership
E Hidden Environmental Costs
Data Marketplaces
Declining Significance of Privacy
Host: Imperial College /
Royal College of Art
Johannesburg 17 MAY 2018
C Digital Literacy / Inclusion
Cyber Security Threats
Fake Data
O Open Data
Data Governance
Public Good / Human Rights
E Data Ethics
Data Sovereignty
Privatisation of Data
Host: Facebook / IBM Research
London 13 SEP 2018
C Data Ethics
Partial Inclusion
Rise of Machines
O Contextual Data Sharing
Data Ownership
Open Data
E Transparency
Power and Agency
Data Bias
Host: Mastercard
Copenhagen 29 AUG 2018
C Fake Data
Rise of the Machines
Digital Literacy
O Data Ownership
Open Data
Data as an Asset
E Data Marketplaces
Democracy and Data
Low Trust in Poor Data
Host: DTU Executive School
of Business
Toronto 12 NOV 2018
C Digital Literacy
Data Bias
Informed Consent
O Open Data
Individual Custodians
Public Good
E Data Ethics
Rise of Machines
Data Imperialism
Host: York University
Toronto 09 NOV 2018
C Rising Security Threats
Digital Literacy
Fake Data
O Open Data
Individual Custodians
Decentralised Secure Data
E Data Localisation
Informed Consent
Data Ethics
Host: Lassonde School
of Engineering
Dakar 26 / 27 JUL 2018
C Data Capital
Digital Skills
Fake Data
O Tax for Development
Digital Skills
Digital Education
E Data Imperialism
Human Capital
Latent Regulation
Host: CRES / Facebook
Abidjan 30 JUL 2018
C Cyber Security
Data Imperialism
Data Ownership
O Data Ethics
AI and Humanity
Skills and Education
E Data Inequality
Regulation and Control
Democracy and Data
Host: Africa Content Group /
Facebook / UVCI
Mexico City 13 NOV 2018
C Data Ethics
Rise of the Machines
Security Threats
O International Bodies
Decentralised Secure Data
Establishing Accountability
E Human Rights
Future of Work
Algorithmic Discretion
Host: CECIED / Escuela Libre de
Derecho / Facebook
Bogotá 08 NOV 2018
C Digital Literacy
Rising Security Threats
Democracy and Government
O Positive Value of Data
Data Ownership
Trust in Data Use
E Data and Public Policy
Data Ethics
Talent for a Digital Economy
Host: Facebook / Universidad
Externado de Colombia
Abidjan 29 JUL 2018
C Fake Data
Digital Literacy
Data Ownership
O A Public Good
Individual Custodians
Common Vocabulary
E Data Imperialism
Global vs Local
Digital Taxation
Host: UVCI
San Francisco 30 OCT 2018
C Digital Literacy
Data Bias
China vs. The US
O Responsible Sharing
Democracy and Government
GDPR Setting Standards
E The Nature of the Firm
Data Ethics
Data Imperialism
Host: Facebook / Orange
Silicon Valley
Washington DC 02 NOV 2018
C Digital Literacy
Data Bias
Cyber Security Threats
O Open Data
Data Ethics
Trust in Data Use
E Future of Work
Fake Data
Data Imperialism
Host: Brookings Institution / Facebook
Pretoria 21 MAY 2018
C Data Literacy
Fake Data
Regulation
O Data Governance
Digital Taxation
Human Rights and Data
E Data Decolonisation
Government as Custodian
Data Bias
Host: Centre for Human Rights,
University of Pretoria
Abuja 13 JUL 2018
C Cyber Security
Digital Equality
Fake Data
O Digital Literacy
Data for Public Good
Transparency and Democracy
E Data Governance
Digitisation of Culture
Educating Government
Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of
Government and Public Policy
Bangkok 23 MAY 2018
C Cyber Threats
Data Literacy
Data Politics
O Data Governance
Access Inequality
Open Data
E Data Ownership
Data Ethics
Digital Taxation
Host: Facebook
Hong Kong 20 SEP 2018
C Data Regulation
Data Sovereignty
Rising Security Threats
O Shared Understanding
AI Supporting People
Demarginalisation
E Data Morals
Transparency
Establishing Accountability
Host: Facebook / HKU
Women’s Studies Research Centre
Dubai 30 APR 2018
C Data Ethics
Cyber Security Threats
Informed Consent
O Data Ownership
Open Data
Blockchain
E Data Sovereignty
Trust in Data Use
Data Liability
Host: DMCC
Nairobi 04 JUL 2018
C Cyber Security
Data Literacy
Identifying Truth
O Monetisation of Data
Understanding of Value
Data for Public Services
E Cultural Diversity
Empowering National Identity
Data Regulation
Host: CIPIT / Facebook / KICTAnet
Bengaluru 10 JAN 2018
C Informed Consent
Privacy Harms
Individual Custodianship
O Machine Learning
India Setting Standards
Social Value of Data
E Data Ethics
Data Sovereignty
Data Liability
Host: Carnegie India / Facebook
Santiago 16 NOV 2018
C Rise of the Machines
Democracy and Governance
Data Bias
O Public Understanding
Establishing Accountability
Open Data
E Transparency
Data Ethics
Data Politics
Host: Facebook / Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile
Tokyo 23 APR 2018
C Cyber Security Threats
Fake Data
Trust in Data Use
O Open Data
Metadata Value
Digital Skills
E Data Liability
Data Marketplaces
Digital Taxation
Host: NISTEP / RISTEX
Singapore 27 APR 2018
C Data Ethics / Principles
Data Sovereignty
Cyber Security Threats
O Democracy and Data
Data Education
Open Data
E Data Marketplaces
Data Liability
Privatisation of Data
Host: Facebook / Lee Kwan
Yew School of Public Policy
Manila 24 SEP 2018
C Data Silos
Information Warfare
Fake Data
O Personal Data Monetisation
Open Data
Data Governance
E Data Rights
Data (In)visibility
Data Humans
Host: Ateneo Law School /
DICT / Facebook
Jakarta 17 MAY 2018
C Fake Data
Data Literacy
Data Imperialism
O Data for Development
Digital Taxation
Access to Data and Analytics
E Data Sovereignty
Data Ethics
Data Bias
Host: Facebook
Sydney 21 MAY 2018
C Data Ethics
Data Ownership
Rise of AI
O Open Data
Common Approach
Social Impact
E Data Liability / Negligence
Informed Consent
Data Literacy
Host: TAL
Stockholm 18 JUN 2018
C Digital Literacy
Rising Cyber Security
Data Ethics
O Open Data
Data Marketplaces
Broader Collaboration
E Data and Democracy
Data Liability
Privatisation of Data
Host: ISPIM / TACIT
Frankfurt 08 NOV 2018
C Cyber Security Threats
Data Liability
Data Bias
O Personal Choice
New Business Models
Transparent Algorithms
E Data Ethics
Social Impact
Data Capital
Host: Cognizant
Lagos 10 JUL 2018
C Data Collection
Data Ethics
Data Inequality
O Data Regulation
Infrastructure Development
Data Literacy
E Data Ownership
Fake Data
Data Ethics
Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of
Government and Public Policy
Madrid 22 FEB 2018
C Ulterior Motives
Joined Up Regulation
Democracy and Data
O Data Ownership
Data Ethics
Education and Social Contract
E Data-ism
Data Liability
Data Sovereignty
Host: Facebook
Project Partners
This global research programme was undertaken in partnership with
34 different organisations that (co)hosted the varied workshops.
We thank them and all the participants who gave their time and insight.
THREE MAIN SECTIONS
3 | Conclusions
• Summary Implications
• Questions
2 | Our Key Insights
• 6 Macro Themes
• 12 Future Shifts
1 | Setting the Scene
• Value
• Data
DELIVERING
VALUE
THROUGH DATA
01
02
03
SETTING THE SCENE
A Value for Data
The promises and possibilities of big data have led many organisations to
believe that ‘more is better’ - many have rushed to grab as much of it as
possible. However, understanding where its real value lies is, as yet, unclear.
The Unique Quality of Data
As with knowledge and ideas, when data is used it doesn’t get “used up”.
Far from being a depleting resource it is an accumulating one. This
challenges both the possibilities data creates and the dilemmas it generates.
How to Look at Value
The value of data (both positive and negative) lies in how it is used and / or
exchanged. Many agree that, rather than focus solely on the economics,
we should take a more holistic view. But how to do this is undecided.
OUR KEY INSIGHTS
Drivers of Change
We see 12 key shifts underway that are impacting the future value of
data. These, in turn, group and link to six overarching macro themes.
6 MACRO THEMES
Data About Me
Rising concerns about personal data collection and use cover many issues.
Pressure for solutions that inform and 'empower' individuals strengthens.
Ownership and Value
Ownership and rights to value extracted from data are inextricably linked. As
traditional notions of ownership don’t apply new models are sought and tested.
Power and Influence
Data is a means of exercising power as well as a focus for multiple struggles for
power. Regulation focuses on rebalancing influence from companies to society.
Global vs Regional vs Local
While many support more globalisation of data, others seek to assert stronger
regional and national control to protect citizens and strengthen economies.
Trust and Trustworthiness
Organisations seek to build trust in data use. This is increasingly about being
more ‘trustworthy’ which is focused on being truthful and more transparent.
Shared Language
People are unclear on where the value in data comes from or what form it takes.
A key step is a common language about data that provides clarity about terms.
12 FUTURE SHIFTS
Data and Digital Literacy
An informed perspective of data, how it is acquired and used, increases public
confidence, overcomes misunderstanding and aids better decision-making.
Culture Governance and Privacy
Differences in culture and governance drive attitudes towards privacy. Some
believe in a right to privacy; others see it as a contradictory, outdated concept.
Consent and Control
Depending on informed consent as the basis for processing data is unworkable:
Rethinking our view of what it is designed to achieve drives a new approach.
Open Data
Momentum around open data is constrained by the privatisation of public data
and increased security concerns. This limits the potential of data for good.
Ownership of Machine Data
Debates on who has what rights to which data escalate. Questions on title,
control and usage of data lead to many sectors taking different views.
Data as an Asset
Organisations are obliged to account for what data they own or access.
They are required to report their full data portfolio and are taxed on this.
Data Localisation
Nations see benefit in copies of all citizen and machine data in regional centres.
Government and local companies can access data held by foreign corporations.
Data Sovereignty
More governments see control of national data as a way to protect citizens’
rights, develop the economy, and maintain a sense of cultural identity.
Data Quality
As we seek better insight, concern about biased, poor and false data grows.
Cleaning and validating data is a social, political and commercial battleground.
A Question of Ethics
Ethical data use grows as a concern, but we struggle to agree a global approach.
Sectors set their own standards and try to align on some common principles.
The Organisational Response
The management of data needs a 21st not a 19th century approach to business.
With digital the norm we evolve from principles based on physical products.
Accountability and Regulation
Rising concern about the use of data influences public opinion. Policy makers
seek a more joined-up approach to regulation, governance and accountability.
CONCLUSIONS
Summary Implications
Today’s technological changes are transforming society. Many believe that
those profiting have a responsibility to help address the consequences.
Constructive Debate
We need a process that brings all stakeholders together to allow constructive
debate. This may be in multiple forums operating at many different levels.
Institutional Reform and Development
The issues are multi-faceted and contextual. Each has distinct requirements
which cannot be managed by regulation alone. Institutional reform is needed.
Global Frameworks
We need a global body able to align national (and often hostile) governments
and multinational corporations to address global data governance challenges.
Regional or Industry Solutions
Although a global framework is a long-term goal, the process is iterative.
Regional or industry solutions may first emerge to set standards.
QUESTIONS
Questions for Individuals (1)
How can education help us to navigate the internet and digital platforms,
and engage with social media? Who is best placed to teach us?
How can we ensure that we have the skills needed to work in a digital age?
Do we need to train or retain so we can actively participate in the digital economy?
How would you assess if your data is being valued fairly,
when it is used in exchange for something else?
Is ‘ownership’ a useful/practical concept when it comes to certain types of data,
such as personal data? If not, what alternative concepts can we use to replace it?
How can we become more aware of our individual rights and responsibilities online? Should
citizens be more proactive in making decisions around how to gain value from their data?
Questions for Individuals (2)
Who can we trust most to manage our data? Why?
What do you think the most significant digital rights should be and
should they vary dependent on culture and region?
Given that we live in an era of increased surveillance,
does privacy matter? Is it possible to achieve?
Would you be prepared to pay for services in exchange for greater privacy?
Would you be happy for data about you to be shared for social causes?
Questions for Companies (1)
Organisations collecting and using large quantities of data can generate significant value for
individuals, society, the economy and for themselves. They may also create excessive concentrations
of power and/or use this unfairly or inappropriately. How should these dangers best be addressed?
Aside from ownership, what ways can we use to allocate rights, benefits, and
responsibilities relating to data across stakeholders including governments,
technology companies, multinational corporations, and individuals?
Is it possible to create a ‘common language’ where, across the world, key stakeholders
all use the same terms and definitions to describe what is happening with data?
Is there enough understanding amongst policy makers to manage the transition to and the
impact of digital technologies successfully? Can regulators better support digital literacy?
If it is impossible to deliver “informed consent” in any practical form, what should replace it?
Questions for Companies (2)
How should these decisions be implemented and enforced?
If the momentum towards data sovereignty continues, will it be
possible to ensure an international market for data?
What would encourage you to make your data sets available for public good?
What constitutes ‘good quality’ open data?
Given the race to collect, store, and use data, and the commercial opportunities that this
creates, how can businesses ensure that ethics are not side-lined? How can this incorporate
the enormous variety in moral and ethical beliefs between different cultures?”
What does it take to be trustworthy?
Questions for Governments (1)
If a corporate entity is deemed to have too much power or to be exercising
its power irresponsibly, what are the appropriate mechanisms for effective action?
How can government enable citizens to have a value from their data,
either for themselves or for others?
When is it necessary/desirable for data to flow across national borders?
What different rules should be applied to different types of data (e.g. personal,
non-personal), and different circumstances and use cases?
How can/should disputes between different entities and jurisdictions
(local, regional, global) relating to the collection and use of data be handled?
Which bodies, at what level (local, regional, global), are best placed to take a lead on the on this,
and how can we ensure a) their legitimacy in the eyes of key stakeholders and b) their effectiveness?
Questions for Governments (2)
What is the best way to address key stakeholders’ concerns (e.g. the dangers of a new ‘data
imperialism’, the risks that constrained data flows could undermine innovation and economic
prosperity)?
Will IoT data have greater value if it is proprietary or open to all? How do you
ensure clarity about what data should be opened up, for what uses, and by who?
How can we create a regulatory environment which encourages competition, while making
information-intensive organisations more accountable for the data in their care?
New commercial sources of value are being created from public, academic and government
information, which are being used for private enterprise.
Is it possible to limit the ‘privatisation’ of open data?
Do new innovations around AI and Machine Learning need
a different form of governance and regulatory approach?
Future Agenda, 84 Brook Street, London W1K 5EH +44 203 0088 141
www.futureagenda.org | @futureagenda

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Delivering value through data final ppt 2019

  • 1. Delivering Value Through Data Insights From Multiple Expert Discussions Around The World December 2019
  • 2. Context Based on insights from 30 expert workshops, this summary shares global and regional views on the shifts likely to take place around the ‘value of data’ over the next decade - and identifies areas that could drive change. Open Data Barometer — https://opendatabarometer.org/ Internet Penetration — https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS ICT Development Index (2017) — http://www.itu.int/net4/ITU-D/idi/2017/ Level of Privacy Regulation: DLA Piper https://www.dlapiperdataprotection.com Heavy Robust Moderate LimitedC Top 3 Challenges O Top 3 Opportunities E Top 3 Emerging Issues Future Value of Data Key Insights: 2018 COUNTRY ICT Development Index (2017) Australia Canada Chile China Colombia Cote D’Ivoire Denmark Germany India Indonesia Japan Kenya Mexico Nigeria Philippines Senegal Singapore South Africa Spain Sweden Thailand UAE UK USA Open Data Barometer (2016) Internet Penetration % (2016) 8.24 7.77 6.57 8.61 5.36 3.14 8.71 8.39 3.03 4.33 8.43 2.91 5.16 2.60 4.67 2.66 8.05 4.96 7.79 8.41 5.67 7.21 8.65 8.18 81 89 47 20 52 11 71 70 43 38 75 40 73 21 55 9 53 34 73 70 28 26 100 82 88 91 82 89 62 27 97 84 30 25 93 26 64 26 56 26 81 54 81 90 48 91 95 76 London 01 OCT 2018 C Rising Cyber Security Threats Rise of the Machines Fake Data O Open Data Digital Taxation Data Ownership E Hidden Environmental Costs Data Marketplaces Declining Significance of Privacy Host: Imperial College / Royal College of Art Johannesburg 17 MAY 2018 C Digital Literacy / Inclusion Cyber Security Threats Fake Data O Open Data Data Governance Public Good / Human Rights E Data Ethics Data Sovereignty Privatisation of Data Host: Facebook / IBM Research London 13 SEP 2018 C Data Ethics Partial Inclusion Rise of Machines O Contextual Data Sharing Data Ownership Open Data E Transparency Power and Agency Data Bias Host: Mastercard Copenhagen 29 AUG 2018 C Fake Data Rise of the Machines Digital Literacy O Data Ownership Open Data Data as an Asset E Data Marketplaces Democracy and Data Low Trust in Poor Data Host: DTU Executive School of Business Toronto 12 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias Informed Consent O Open Data Individual Custodians Public Good E Data Ethics Rise of Machines Data Imperialism Host: York University Toronto 09 NOV 2018 C Rising Security Threats Digital Literacy Fake Data O Open Data Individual Custodians Decentralised Secure Data E Data Localisation Informed Consent Data Ethics Host: Lassonde School of Engineering Dakar 26 / 27 JUL 2018 C Data Capital Digital Skills Fake Data O Tax for Development Digital Skills Digital Education E Data Imperialism Human Capital Latent Regulation Host: CRES / Facebook Abidjan 30 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Data Imperialism Data Ownership O Data Ethics AI and Humanity Skills and Education E Data Inequality Regulation and Control Democracy and Data Host: Africa Content Group / Facebook / UVCI Mexico City 13 NOV 2018 C Data Ethics Rise of the Machines Security Threats O International Bodies Decentralised Secure Data Establishing Accountability E Human Rights Future of Work Algorithmic Discretion Host: CECIED / Escuela Libre de Derecho / Facebook Bogotá 08 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Rising Security Threats Democracy and Government O Positive Value of Data Data Ownership Trust in Data Use E Data and Public Policy Data Ethics Talent for a Digital Economy Host: Facebook / Universidad Externado de Colombia Abidjan 29 JUL 2018 C Fake Data Digital Literacy Data Ownership O A Public Good Individual Custodians Common Vocabulary E Data Imperialism Global vs Local Digital Taxation Host: UVCI San Francisco 30 OCT 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias China vs. The US O Responsible Sharing Democracy and Government GDPR Setting Standards E The Nature of the Firm Data Ethics Data Imperialism Host: Facebook / Orange Silicon Valley Washington DC 02 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias Cyber Security Threats O Open Data Data Ethics Trust in Data Use E Future of Work Fake Data Data Imperialism Host: Brookings Institution / Facebook Pretoria 21 MAY 2018 C Data Literacy Fake Data Regulation O Data Governance Digital Taxation Human Rights and Data E Data Decolonisation Government as Custodian Data Bias Host: Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria Abuja 13 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Digital Equality Fake Data O Digital Literacy Data for Public Good Transparency and Democracy E Data Governance Digitisation of Culture Educating Government Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of Government and Public Policy Bangkok 23 MAY 2018 C Cyber Threats Data Literacy Data Politics O Data Governance Access Inequality Open Data E Data Ownership Data Ethics Digital Taxation Host: Facebook Hong Kong 20 SEP 2018 C Data Regulation Data Sovereignty Rising Security Threats O Shared Understanding AI Supporting People Demarginalisation E Data Morals Transparency Establishing Accountability Host: Facebook / HKU Women’s Studies Research Centre Dubai 30 APR 2018 C Data Ethics Cyber Security Threats Informed Consent O Data Ownership Open Data Blockchain E Data Sovereignty Trust in Data Use Data Liability Host: DMCC Nairobi 04 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Data Literacy Identifying Truth O Monetisation of Data Understanding of Value Data for Public Services E Cultural Diversity Empowering National Identity Data Regulation Host: CIPIT / Facebook / KICTAnet Bengaluru 10 JAN 2018 C Informed Consent Privacy Harms Individual Custodianship O Machine Learning India Setting Standards Social Value of Data E Data Ethics Data Sovereignty Data Liability Host: Carnegie India / Facebook Santiago 16 NOV 2018 C Rise of the Machines Democracy and Governance Data Bias O Public Understanding Establishing Accountability Open Data E Transparency Data Ethics Data Politics Host: Facebook / Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Tokyo 23 APR 2018 C Cyber Security Threats Fake Data Trust in Data Use O Open Data Metadata Value Digital Skills E Data Liability Data Marketplaces Digital Taxation Host: NISTEP / RISTEX Singapore 27 APR 2018 C Data Ethics / Principles Data Sovereignty Cyber Security Threats O Democracy and Data Data Education Open Data E Data Marketplaces Data Liability Privatisation of Data Host: Facebook / Lee Kwan Yew School of Public Policy Manila 24 SEP 2018 C Data Silos Information Warfare Fake Data O Personal Data Monetisation Open Data Data Governance E Data Rights Data (In)visibility Data Humans Host: Ateneo Law School / DICT / Facebook Jakarta 17 MAY 2018 C Fake Data Data Literacy Data Imperialism O Data for Development Digital Taxation Access to Data and Analytics E Data Sovereignty Data Ethics Data Bias Host: Facebook Sydney 21 MAY 2018 C Data Ethics Data Ownership Rise of AI O Open Data Common Approach Social Impact E Data Liability / Negligence Informed Consent Data Literacy Host: TAL Stockholm 18 JUN 2018 C Digital Literacy Rising Cyber Security Data Ethics O Open Data Data Marketplaces Broader Collaboration E Data and Democracy Data Liability Privatisation of Data Host: ISPIM / TACIT Frankfurt 08 NOV 2018 C Cyber Security Threats Data Liability Data Bias O Personal Choice New Business Models Transparent Algorithms E Data Ethics Social Impact Data Capital Host: Cognizant Lagos 10 JUL 2018 C Data Collection Data Ethics Data Inequality O Data Regulation Infrastructure Development Data Literacy E Data Ownership Fake Data Data Ethics Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of Government and Public Policy Madrid 22 FEB 2018 C Ulterior Motives Joined Up Regulation Democracy and Data O Data Ownership Data Ethics Education and Social Contract E Data-ism Data Liability Data Sovereignty Host: Facebook
  • 3. Project Partners This global research programme was undertaken in partnership with 34 different organisations that (co)hosted the varied workshops. We thank them and all the participants who gave their time and insight.
  • 4. THREE MAIN SECTIONS 3 | Conclusions • Summary Implications • Questions 2 | Our Key Insights • 6 Macro Themes • 12 Future Shifts 1 | Setting the Scene • Value • Data DELIVERING VALUE THROUGH DATA 01 02 03
  • 6. A Value for Data The promises and possibilities of big data have led many organisations to believe that ‘more is better’ - many have rushed to grab as much of it as possible. However, understanding where its real value lies is, as yet, unclear.
  • 7. The Unique Quality of Data As with knowledge and ideas, when data is used it doesn’t get “used up”. Far from being a depleting resource it is an accumulating one. This challenges both the possibilities data creates and the dilemmas it generates.
  • 8. How to Look at Value The value of data (both positive and negative) lies in how it is used and / or exchanged. Many agree that, rather than focus solely on the economics, we should take a more holistic view. But how to do this is undecided.
  • 10. Drivers of Change We see 12 key shifts underway that are impacting the future value of data. These, in turn, group and link to six overarching macro themes.
  • 12. Data About Me Rising concerns about personal data collection and use cover many issues. Pressure for solutions that inform and 'empower' individuals strengthens.
  • 13. Ownership and Value Ownership and rights to value extracted from data are inextricably linked. As traditional notions of ownership don’t apply new models are sought and tested.
  • 14. Power and Influence Data is a means of exercising power as well as a focus for multiple struggles for power. Regulation focuses on rebalancing influence from companies to society.
  • 15. Global vs Regional vs Local While many support more globalisation of data, others seek to assert stronger regional and national control to protect citizens and strengthen economies.
  • 16. Trust and Trustworthiness Organisations seek to build trust in data use. This is increasingly about being more ‘trustworthy’ which is focused on being truthful and more transparent.
  • 17. Shared Language People are unclear on where the value in data comes from or what form it takes. A key step is a common language about data that provides clarity about terms.
  • 19. Data and Digital Literacy An informed perspective of data, how it is acquired and used, increases public confidence, overcomes misunderstanding and aids better decision-making.
  • 20. Culture Governance and Privacy Differences in culture and governance drive attitudes towards privacy. Some believe in a right to privacy; others see it as a contradictory, outdated concept.
  • 21. Consent and Control Depending on informed consent as the basis for processing data is unworkable: Rethinking our view of what it is designed to achieve drives a new approach.
  • 22. Open Data Momentum around open data is constrained by the privatisation of public data and increased security concerns. This limits the potential of data for good.
  • 23. Ownership of Machine Data Debates on who has what rights to which data escalate. Questions on title, control and usage of data lead to many sectors taking different views.
  • 24. Data as an Asset Organisations are obliged to account for what data they own or access. They are required to report their full data portfolio and are taxed on this.
  • 25. Data Localisation Nations see benefit in copies of all citizen and machine data in regional centres. Government and local companies can access data held by foreign corporations.
  • 26. Data Sovereignty More governments see control of national data as a way to protect citizens’ rights, develop the economy, and maintain a sense of cultural identity.
  • 27. Data Quality As we seek better insight, concern about biased, poor and false data grows. Cleaning and validating data is a social, political and commercial battleground.
  • 28. A Question of Ethics Ethical data use grows as a concern, but we struggle to agree a global approach. Sectors set their own standards and try to align on some common principles.
  • 29. The Organisational Response The management of data needs a 21st not a 19th century approach to business. With digital the norm we evolve from principles based on physical products.
  • 30. Accountability and Regulation Rising concern about the use of data influences public opinion. Policy makers seek a more joined-up approach to regulation, governance and accountability.
  • 32. Summary Implications Today’s technological changes are transforming society. Many believe that those profiting have a responsibility to help address the consequences.
  • 33. Constructive Debate We need a process that brings all stakeholders together to allow constructive debate. This may be in multiple forums operating at many different levels.
  • 34. Institutional Reform and Development The issues are multi-faceted and contextual. Each has distinct requirements which cannot be managed by regulation alone. Institutional reform is needed.
  • 35. Global Frameworks We need a global body able to align national (and often hostile) governments and multinational corporations to address global data governance challenges.
  • 36. Regional or Industry Solutions Although a global framework is a long-term goal, the process is iterative. Regional or industry solutions may first emerge to set standards.
  • 38. Questions for Individuals (1) How can education help us to navigate the internet and digital platforms, and engage with social media? Who is best placed to teach us? How can we ensure that we have the skills needed to work in a digital age? Do we need to train or retain so we can actively participate in the digital economy? How would you assess if your data is being valued fairly, when it is used in exchange for something else? Is ‘ownership’ a useful/practical concept when it comes to certain types of data, such as personal data? If not, what alternative concepts can we use to replace it? How can we become more aware of our individual rights and responsibilities online? Should citizens be more proactive in making decisions around how to gain value from their data?
  • 39. Questions for Individuals (2) Who can we trust most to manage our data? Why? What do you think the most significant digital rights should be and should they vary dependent on culture and region? Given that we live in an era of increased surveillance, does privacy matter? Is it possible to achieve? Would you be prepared to pay for services in exchange for greater privacy? Would you be happy for data about you to be shared for social causes?
  • 40. Questions for Companies (1) Organisations collecting and using large quantities of data can generate significant value for individuals, society, the economy and for themselves. They may also create excessive concentrations of power and/or use this unfairly or inappropriately. How should these dangers best be addressed? Aside from ownership, what ways can we use to allocate rights, benefits, and responsibilities relating to data across stakeholders including governments, technology companies, multinational corporations, and individuals? Is it possible to create a ‘common language’ where, across the world, key stakeholders all use the same terms and definitions to describe what is happening with data? Is there enough understanding amongst policy makers to manage the transition to and the impact of digital technologies successfully? Can regulators better support digital literacy? If it is impossible to deliver “informed consent” in any practical form, what should replace it?
  • 41. Questions for Companies (2) How should these decisions be implemented and enforced? If the momentum towards data sovereignty continues, will it be possible to ensure an international market for data? What would encourage you to make your data sets available for public good? What constitutes ‘good quality’ open data? Given the race to collect, store, and use data, and the commercial opportunities that this creates, how can businesses ensure that ethics are not side-lined? How can this incorporate the enormous variety in moral and ethical beliefs between different cultures?” What does it take to be trustworthy?
  • 42. Questions for Governments (1) If a corporate entity is deemed to have too much power or to be exercising its power irresponsibly, what are the appropriate mechanisms for effective action? How can government enable citizens to have a value from their data, either for themselves or for others? When is it necessary/desirable for data to flow across national borders? What different rules should be applied to different types of data (e.g. personal, non-personal), and different circumstances and use cases? How can/should disputes between different entities and jurisdictions (local, regional, global) relating to the collection and use of data be handled? Which bodies, at what level (local, regional, global), are best placed to take a lead on the on this, and how can we ensure a) their legitimacy in the eyes of key stakeholders and b) their effectiveness?
  • 43. Questions for Governments (2) What is the best way to address key stakeholders’ concerns (e.g. the dangers of a new ‘data imperialism’, the risks that constrained data flows could undermine innovation and economic prosperity)? Will IoT data have greater value if it is proprietary or open to all? How do you ensure clarity about what data should be opened up, for what uses, and by who? How can we create a regulatory environment which encourages competition, while making information-intensive organisations more accountable for the data in their care? New commercial sources of value are being created from public, academic and government information, which are being used for private enterprise. Is it possible to limit the ‘privatisation’ of open data? Do new innovations around AI and Machine Learning need a different form of governance and regulatory approach?
  • 44. Future Agenda, 84 Brook Street, London W1K 5EH +44 203 0088 141 www.futureagenda.org | @futureagenda