City poland _15_mw_[revisionii][proj]

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Zintegrowany System Gospodarki Odpadami - energia odnawialna z Odpadow Komunalnych - Kanadyjskie rozwiazania dla Polskich Gmin

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City poland _15_mw_[revisionii][proj]

  1. 1. 1    Prepared for: Warsaw, Poland MSW - Energy Implementation of an Integrated Municipal Waste Processing (Waste to Energy) Complex March, 2010; Revision I Prepared by BioCRUDE Technologies, Inc This document outlines the process, details, and methodology of a Waste to Energy Power Project involving BioCRUDE Technologies Inc.
  2. 2. 2    CONTENTS GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ....................................................................................................    6 Purpose of the Project ................................................................................................................................................    6 Present Technologies  ..............................................................................................................................................  0  . 1 MSW Processing / Treatment / disposal technologies .............................................................................  0  1 Sanitary Land Filling .........................................................................................................................................  0  1 Landfill gas .........................................................................................................................................................  0  1 Recovery and Recycling ..................................................................................................................................  1  1 Composting ........................................................................................................................................................  1  1 Energy Recovery from MSW ............................................................................................................................  2  1 Incineration ........................................................................................................................................................  2  1 Anaerobic Digestion..........................................................................................................................................  2  1 Refuse Derived Fuel .........................................................................................................................................  3  1 Critical Analysis of Various Technologies ...................................................................................................  5  1 LIMITATION IN SANITARY LANDFILL .........................................................................................................  5  1 Limitation in Incineration Technologies..........................................................................................................  5  1 Limitation in Composting  .................................................................................................................................  5  . 1 Limitation in Bio-methanation ..........................................................................................................................  6  1 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................................  6  1 View of project participants on the contribution of the project activity to sustainable development: ............  7  1 Social well being: ..............................................................................................................................................  7  1 Economical well being: .....................................................................................................................................  7  1 Environmental well being: ................................................................................................................................  8  1 TECHNOLOGICAL WELL BEING:  ................................................................................................................  9  . 1 GARBAGE (MSW) CHARACTERISTICS, COLLECTION AND ISSUES INVOLVED .............................  1  2 Current Waste Management ...........................................................................................................................  1  2
  3. 3. 3    SOURCE OF WASTE GENERATION ...........................................................................................................  1  2 SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE ..................................................................................................  2  2 WASTE DISPOSAL ..........................................................................................................................................  2  2 Waste Characterization Methodology ............................................................................................................  3  2 Technical description of the Project: ............................................................................................................  4  2 Location of the Project: ....................................................................................................................................  4  2 MUNICIPAL CHARACTERISTICS & MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) CLASSIFICATION: ..........  6  2 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS & CLASSIFICATION: ..............................................  7  2 SEWAGE: ..........................................................................................................................................................  9  2 MEDICAL/CLINICAL WASTE: ........................................................................................................................  0  3 Category of project activity: .............................................................................................................................  1  3 Technology of project activity: .........................................................................................................................  1  3 TECHNOLOGIES’ DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................  2  3 Technology adopted in the RDF Plant ..........................................................................................................  2  3 Municipal solid waste is converted into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in the following manner: .............  5  3 RDF FLOW DIAGRAM  ............................................................................................................................................  9  . 3 MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION OF THE RDF APPARATUS ................................................................  1  4 BioCRUDE Technologies’ Biogas Process ...........................................................................................................  4  5 Description of Technology ...............................................................................................................................  4  5 Covered Lagoon ................................................................................................................................................  5  5 Complete Mix Digester .....................................................................................................................................  6  5 Plug Flow Digester ............................................................................................................................................  6  5 Technology adopted in the BioGAS Plant: ....................................................................................................  8  5 REASONS FOR APPLYING BIOCRUDE TECHNOLOGIES’ BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY ......................  9  5 Generation of stable, high quality liquid fertilizer and solid soil amendment: ..........................................  0  6 Reduction in odours:  ........................................................................................................................................  1  . 6
  4. 4. 4    Reduction in ground and surface water contamination: ..............................................................................  1  6 Reduction in public health risk: .......................................................................................................................  1  6 THE ROLE OF BIOCRUDE TECHOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS ....................................................................  2  6 ORGANIC WASTE TREATMENT FLOW DIAGRAM ..........................................................................................  3  6 LAYOUT OF THE BIOGAS PLANT .......................................................................................................................  4  6 MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION OF THE BIOGAS APPARATUS .........................................................  5  6 COMPOSTING ......................................................................................................................................................  1  7 Generation of stable, high quality liquid fertilizer and solid soil amendment: ..........................................  1  7 Reduction in odours:  ........................................................................................................................................  2  . 7 Reduction in ground and surface water contamination: ..............................................................................  2  7 Reduction in public health risk: .......................................................................................................................  3  7 DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNOLOGY .........................................................................................................  3  7 Windrow composting: .......................................................................................................................................  4  7 Static aerated piles: ..........................................................................................................................................  4  7 Within-vessel composting: ...............................................................................................................................  4  7 THE ROLE OF BIOCRUDE TECHOLOGY IN THE PROCESS ........................................................................  5  7 COMPOSTING MAJOR EQUIPMENT description ..............................................................................................  5  7 LAYOUT OF THE COMPOSTING PLANT ...........................................................................................................  6  7 Technology adopted in the power PlanT: ......................................................................................................  7  7 Boiler: ..................................................................................................................................................................  7  7 Turbo Generator:  ..............................................................................................................................................  8  . 7 Water System: ...................................................................................................................................................  9  7 LAND REQUIREMENTS: ................................................................................................................................  9  7 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM: ........................................................................................................................  0  8 PROJECT COST ......................................................................................................................................................  1  8 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  ..........................................................................................................................................  2  . 9
  5. 5. 5    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................  4  9 APPLICATION OF A BASELINE AND MONITORING METHODOLOGY .......................................................  5  9 Title and reference of the approved baseline and monitoring methodology applied to the Project: .....  5  9 Justification of the choice of the methodology and why it is applicable to the Project ...........................  5  9 Description of the sources and gases included in the Project boundary ..................................................  7  9 PROCESS DESIGN/REDESIGN ...........................................................................................................................  9  9 Cause / Effect / Solution ..................................................................................................................................  9  9 Baseline scenario is identified and description of the identified baseline scenario ...............................  01  1 Identification of alternatives to the project activity consistent with current laws and regulations: .......  01  1 Barrier analysis ................................................................................................................................................  02  1 Technological Barrier: ....................................................................................................................................  03  1 Barrier due to prevailing practices: ...............................................................................................................  03  1 Common practice analysis: ...........................................................................................................................  04  1 Emission reductions: ......................................................................................................................................  04  1 ANNEX 1: BASELINE INFORMATION ...............................................................................................................  13  1 ANNEX 2: MONITORING INFORMATION .........................................................................................................  16  1 ANNEX 3: ESTIMATION OF CARBON CREDITS ............................................................................................  18  1 ANNEX 4: PROJECT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................  31  1 ANNEX 5: CIVIL ENGINEERING REPORT .......................................................................................................  44  1 ANNEX 6: REVISION TO THE APPROVED BASELINE METHODOLOGY - ...............................................  53  1 AM0025 V. 6 ............................................................................................................................................................  53  1 ANNEX 7: BOILER/STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR (CHP)  .........................................................................  97  . 1 ANNEX 8: STUDY ON COMPOSTING OF SEWAGE SLUDGE USING A CLAY SUBSTRATE OF INOCULUM BY THE TOLUCA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ....................................................................  02  2 ANNEX 9: STUDY OF BIOGAS YIELD, MASS AND HEAT PARAMETERS IN A PLUG FLOW DIGESTER ...............................................................................................................................................................  14  2 ANNEX 10: FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS............................................................................................................  15  2
  6. 6. 6    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT The proposed Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), an Integrated Municipal Waste to Energy Complex to be built conforming to Clean Design Mechanism (CDM) for Carbon Emissions Reduction (CER’s), includes a MSW processing plant of 2000 TPD and an additional Power Plant (maximum capacity of 15.0 MW). Biogas and Refuse Derived Fuel derived from the waste will be used as fuel to produce approximately 11.6 MW of Renewable Electricity (Approximately). The various components of the integrated projects are further detailed below: 1. RDF Plant: the plant shall be capable of processing up to a design capacity of 650 TPD of MSW to yield approximately 7.2 MW of Energy, in 2 RDF streamline facilities of 325 TPD each; 2. A Biogas Plant: The plant shall be capable of processing up to a design capacity 800 TPD of MSW which will yield approximately 4.4 MW of Energy, in the Biogas Plug Flow Digesters system; 3. A Composting Facility: The plant shall be capable of processing 50 TPD of Organic Waste; 4. A Power Plant: 15 MW derived from the Biogas and RDF systems; 5. Expandability for addition of more digesters: increasing the amount of input that can be handled, and the yield of marketable products. PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT The project has been initiated by the participants to address the critical environmental problem faced in solid waste management. In addition, the project would achieve significant reduction in green house gas emissions due to the following three components: 1. Avoidance of methane emission from dumping solid waste in the landfill site. 2. Avoidance of contamination of water table and soil, eliminating potential breeding grounds for bacteria, and reduction of odors in immediate area of plant
  7. 7. 7    3. Provisions of a supply of renewable electricity. BioCRUDE Technologies proposes viable and cost effective solutions for this problem. Reformation of organic waste products diverts large amount of MSWs from landfills and incineration facilities, reducing environmentally damaging emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. The value of reducing 2000 TPD of MSW cannot be underestimated. This is a major issue affecting Warsaw today. BioCRUDE Technologies proposes viable and cost effective solutions for this problem. Reformation of organic waste products diverts large amount of MSWs from landfills and incineration facilities, reducing environmentally damaging emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. Here are some environmental facts about Warsaw, Poland:  In recent years, waste management has proved to be one of Poland’s most complicated environmental, political, legal and social problems. Poland has been condemned on numerous occasions by the European Court of Justice for failing to comply with the requirements of European Waste Management Law.  The European Environment Agency, an EU body, has ranked Poland last among the 15 pre-2004 Union members for levels of recycling. It also named Poland as one of Europe's fastest- growing producer of garbage, after Malta.  Of the total waste generated in Poland it is estimated that some 8.8% is recovered while the remaining 91.2% is deposed of, legally or illegally. The existing authorized and controlled landfill sites cover 53% of the population, while the remainder of the population is served by unauthorized landfill sites currently in operation in Poland. Warsaw, Poland Environmental Policy: The more specific goals in the field of environment policy of the Organization of Warsaw are:  Reduction of pollution, which will ensure a high quality of the physical environment. This will be achieved through application of measures aimed at eliminating all pollution emitting sources, the construction of necessary infrastructure works, the granting of incentives and levying penalties.  Enhancement of the environment and quality of life through operational improvements of the City.
  8. 8. 8     Restoration of Attica's landscape and ecology, including the protection and management of mountain regions, the areas of exceptional natural beauty and the coastal zones. It is important for Warsaw to show that along with its monumental financial and physical growth, it is able to handle the consequences and environmental impact of its success. As regards to citizens, they feel that waste generated by them can be just thrown in the public places and it is the duty of the urban local bodies only to take care of it. There has been a lack of community sensitization and public awareness towards waste minimization, storing waste in a segregated manner and disposing of it in the proper places. The leftover garbage in the public places gives rise to morbidity especially due to microbial and parasitic infections and infestations in all segments of populations, with the urban slum dwellers and the waste handlers being the worst affected. In addition, the non-sanitary land filling practice currently followed has been causing uncontrolled methane emission into the atmosphere. A host of other hazardous gases like CO, CO2, SOX, and NOX are also generated from the dump yards due to uncontrolled and incomplete combustion of garbage as well as due to decomposition (by auto-ignition) causing atmospheric pollution. Since MSW is dumped on the open ground, it also gives rise to ground water contamination by leachate that is produced out of garbage and contains a number of dissolved and suspended materials. It is reported that the bigger urban local bodies spend around 65% of its waste management budget on collection, 30% on transportation and a mere 5% on disposal. With the overloading of the existing landfill sites in cities, garbage may have to be transported nearly twice the current distance for land filling, escalating the cost of transportation. Once the existing landfill site is exhausted, identification of new landfill sites is exhausted; identification of new landfill sites has also become a very difficult task. Most of the developed countries have been successful in addressing the problem of solid waste management by evolving efficient MSW management systems and providing suitable technological solutions to garbage disposal / treatment. With the ever- increasing generation of garbage, it is time for immediate and concerted action. The proper disposal of urban waste is not only absolutely necessary for the preservation and improvement of public health, but it has an immense potential for resource recovery. Municipal Corporations/ Urban bodies in the countries are attempting to set up facilities for processing of MSW as with Management & Handling Rules, which involve
  9. 9. 9    Infrastructure development for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal of MSW. The process of recovering raw materials from waste is often called “Urban Mining”, and can be a lucrative as gold mining was in the boom days of the old west (U.S.). After the sorting is completed, and the recyclable material is removed for processing, the remaining organic waste must be treated and reformed. The concept of a “circular flow economy” can be graphically demonstrated here. A product is made; the waste resulting from the process is reformed into biomass or converted to biogas, which in turn is used to generate electricity that powers the plant which makes the product. High calorific residual waste, what remains after sorting for recyclable material, can be used as substitute fuel to provide electricity for power stations. Organic waste can composted to create nutrient rich soil enhancement and fertilizer. These are valuable by-products of a good waste management plan. There are important factors for Warsaw to consider, some new avenues that they can explore in the processing of their organic waste. Such as the ones we propose. BioCRUDE Technologies has new and unique processes that can drastically improve waste management planning for industry and municipalities in general. While existing practices and technologies are often highly effective, there are new and exciting break-troughs being made every day, and BioCRUDE sits at the cutting edge of this new frontier. New rapid composting technologies provided by BioCRUDE effectively reduce the resident and turnover times to a maximum time frame of 4 weeks. As well we can offer a new system that will outperform that already impressive reduction in time. Our unique enzymes can further condense the time to a matter of days. With a resident time of 5-7 days, the yield is increased many times over. This would ensure that the power output will equal, and surpass the 12 MW required to recover the investment costs. BioCRUDE technology can make a 15 MW output a very realistic expectation, with expandability for additional digesters. The growth potential is limited only by the land available. As long as there is an adequate MSW supply the plant can meet and surpass its available power goals.
  10. 10. 10    PRESENT TECHNOLOGIES MSW PROCESSING / TREATMENT / DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGIES The organic content of MSW tends to decompose, which apart from being a health hazard also leads to various odour problems. It also leads to pollution of the environment. To ensure a safe disposal of the MSW it is desirable to reduce its pollution potential as well as to recover useful products out of it. Several processing methods are adopted for this purpose. SANITARY LAND FILLING Garbage disposal by land filling is widely resorted to by city/ town Municipalities. Low- lying wastelands on the out skirts of cities are identified and the MSW is dumped at such sites. Rag pickers collect recyclable items from the dump yard and also fire to the MSW dump. Such indiscriminate acts cause soil, air and water pollution in its neighborhood. Also if some form of waste disposal systems are not operational, it would necessitate creation of new dump yards farther away which results not only in wastage of land but also increase cost of transportation garbage. If land filling can be made clean as scientific (free from pollution) such operations termed as Sanitary Land Filling can be encouraged. As per MSW handling rules 2000, the organic waste is not supposed to be disposed at landfill site. Only the inert and the construction & demolition waste should be disposed at landfill site. The local bodies have initiated treatment of garbage by using various technologies to reduce the landfill site as much as possible. In India, the first scientific engineered landfill site is in the process of implementation at Surat. LANDFILL GAS When large amount of MSW are disposed off at landfill sites, the sites act as bio- reactors in which micro-organisms produce bio-gas composed of about 50% carbon dioxide and 50% methane. In an engineered / sanitary landfill, this can be extracted
  11. 11. 11    from gas wells through network of perforated plastic pipes laid within the refuse. About 400 cubic meters of gas (at NTP) can be produced from each ton of waste in a landfill. Over a period of 10 years, one ton of domestic solid waste is expected to produce in excess of 100 times its own volume in bio-gas. The generation of large quantities of methane from landfill sites improved throughout the early 1980s, and the number of sites using this technology is on an increase. Selection of suitable landfill sites has become an important and major step, which dictates the extent of preparations required for safe disposal and tapping of the gas. RECOVERY AND RECYCLING The practice of recovering recyclable items like papers, plastics, metals, glass, leather / rubber, bio-mass etc from MSW is well established in developed countries. Automated plants of different capacities are operational at different levels of techno-economics, specific to each plant. The biomass separated is either composted, pelletized into densified fuel pellets or compacted for ease in transporting and burning. COMPOSTING The organic matter separated from MSW can be converted into fertilizer by mechanical composting, bio-technological process using special cultures or using vermin-culture. All these processes are being carried out in small-scale operations in different parts of the world. There exists a weakness in the compost plant on a standalone basis. The composting requires a large area and the cycle time is very high for conversion. Since glass pieces and inerts are mixed with the garbage, the quality of the compost is not very suitable for any efforts made in each of agricultural purpose. These methods and their success rates are briefly described in the following paragraphs.
  12. 12. 12    ENERGY RECOVERY FROM MSW The energy content in MSW in urban areas is due to the presence of combustibles such as plastics, paper, rags and various other biomass wastes discarded by domestic and commercial establishments. The Energy Content Fraction (ECF) of garbage in India is lower compared to the ECF factor of garbage in developed countries. However, it is important to note that the moisture content of Indian garbage is rather high at 50% - 60% and paper / plastic fraction is low. These factors dictate the technology options suitable for Indian city garbage for energy recovery. The major technology options for energy recovery under practice in the developed countries include Incineration, Anaerobic digestion, Landfill gas and Fuel pellets, amongst others. INCINERATION There are over 500 mass burn municipally owned incinerators in USA and UK burning about 13% of MSW. The modern mass incinerators reduce the volume of MSW and the ash that is virtually sterile is land filled. There are two types of incinerators in use. These include incinerators which burn MSW as received and the other type of incinerators which burn loose combustible waste derived from MSW after processing / refining. The thermal energy generated through incineration is utilized for production of electricity and/or for heating purposes. The post 1995 incinerators are required to operate to new European Commission (EC) requirements of emission controls. The Toxic emissions should be brought down to concentrations as low as 0.1 to 2.0 nanograms per cubic meter by appropriate combustion control methods. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION The biodegradable wastes of organic or vegetable origin can be processed in anaerobic digestion plants to produce a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane fraction can be separated and used as fuel for power generation, heating purposes including domestic cooking. The organic material separated from MSW is shredded and fed into the Anaerobic Digester (AD). The process is similar to that of generation of
  13. 13. 13    sludge gas from sewage. The solid to liquid ratio in the digester is of the order of 15% - 25% and some improved AD converters can take as high as 30% solids. The wastes remain in the heated digester at temperatures in the mesophilic range (25 - 45 deg. C) for varying periods (10-20 days), the duration being dictated by different criteria like external temperature fluctuations and others variables like the waste composition itself. Some newer processes operate at the thermophilic range (temperature of 55. - 60 Deg C) and offers better rate of degradation. Gases given off during the decomposition are continuously drawn off. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL The Fuel pellets generally known as Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) are made by refining municipal solid waste in a series of mechanical sorting and shredding stages to separate the combustible portion of the waste. A loose fuel, known as fluff, floe or coarse RDF (c-RDF), or densified pellets or briquettes (d-RDF) are produced. RDF production can complement materials recycling schemes. Glass, clean paper, metals and any other materials are removed from the waste stream for recycling before it is delivered to the plant. Further materials recovery is conducted at the RDF production site, as many plants incorporate some degree of manual sorting and most plants provide eddy current separators for non-ferrous metal extraction. The mechanically separated organic wastes that will not form part of the fuel are either land filled or subjected to further treatment to produce compost. Various recycling stages can be incorporated into the RDF process, enabling maximum recycling to take place. RDF production also permits a level of flexibility, so that, if for example, no markets were available for low-grade waste paper, it could instead be temporarily redirected to the fuel process rather than being wastefully land filled. The majority of d-RDF plants produce pellets approximately the size and shape of wine bottle corks, while c-RDF usually looks a little like the fluff from a vacuum cleaner. The Studies on the calorific value of RDF indicate that removing the non-combustibles like glass 85 metals and combustibles like waste paper still leaves MSW with sufficient energy content fraction to make RDF production viable. In Europe, much of the early development work on RDF technology was done in England, where construction began on the Byker, Newcastle, and Doncaster, South Yorkshire plants in 1976. Poland was also a pioneer in the construction of RDF plants, and two plants were commissioned in 1978 in Pieve di Corano and Ceresara, both in the northern Italian Mantua District. The Herten plant in Germany with two production
  14. 14. 14    lines was commissioned in 1981 and each of the two lines is capable of producing 7.5 tonnes of RDF and one tonne of ferrous scrap an hour. RDF is sold to the cement industry. In Netherlands, the ICO power plant in Amsterdam has been treating 150,000 tonnes of waste each year since 1983. Such plants also exist in France at Laval in Mayenne; in Switzerland at Chatel St Denis and five plants are installed in Sweden. In USA a number of d-RDF plants are operational including Thief Falls in Michigan, Northern Tier in Pennsylvania, Yankton in South Dakota and Iowa Falls and Cherokee, both in Iowa. In Asia, one such plant is known to exist in Korea at Seoul. Densified RDF, which is manufactured in most of the plants, has the advantage that it is easy to handle, transport and store. The d-RDF is often transported to considerable distances for use in cement plants and co-generation power plants. For example, the RDF from Udine plant is transported 400 km to a fluidized bed gasification plant in Chinati, South of Florence. Pellets from Mantua plants are delivered 150 km to Ravenna cement works. Separation of combustibles from MSW is an important step in the production of fuel pellets. Further, the moisture content of Indian city garbage makes the process much more complicated. As most of the recyclable items such as glass, plastic, paper and metals are picked up by rag pickers, the garbage received at the dump yards cannot justify investment for automatic separation system employed by the developed nations. The experience of handling large quantities of garbage indicates that it was preferable to design a commercial scale garbage processing plant as an Integrated Process Plant which can produce energy rich fuel fluff / densified fuel. After the successful demonstration of the fuel pellets production, it was decided to transfer the Technology to the interested agencies for commercial exploitation.
  15. 15. 15    CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES LIMITATION IN SANITARY LANDFILL The sanitary landfill site is only for the disposal of the inert material generated from the garbage. The matter that is not used for any other purpose is to be dumped at the landfill site, thus reducing the requirement of landfill area. The infrastructure cost required for setting up and the operating cost for maintaining a landfill site is very high. In the case the municipal body of Warsaw has to implement guidelines of Solid Waste Handling, the cost of implementing such guidelines can have a significant cost impact on the citizen. Green waste is not supposed to go to the Sanitary Landfill. The international trend is to reduce quantity of MSW going to Sanitary landfill. LIMITATION IN INCINERATION TECHNOLOGIES High moisture content; Since segregation is not done the heating value varies over considerable range; Requires extensive support fuel thus making the project unviable LIMITATION IN COMPOSTING The cost of installation of this technology is comparatively lower than the other alternatives but the cost of end product i.e. organic fertilizer is high because of the following reasons: Tried in various cities but a very few are working; The land requirement for treatment is high. A plant processing 1000 TPD of MSW by vermin-culture technology would typically require more than 50 Hectares of land;
  16. 16. 16    Cost of transportation is very high because of the location of end consumer at farther distance from the city limit; Process rejections are very high; Cost of operation is high because of the quantum of mechanization required for initial segregation of the waste; Required sale price for self-sustaining operations is high. A mechanized composting plant of 300 TPD input capacity was set up in Okhla sewage treatment plant in 2.5 Hectares land adjacent to the NDMC compost plant. The process involved aerobic composting in windrows after separation of in-organics, magnetic separation followed by mixing in a homogenizer after size reduction in rasper. The organic fertilizer thus produced failed to find the market at desired sale price. The plant operation was discontinued in the year 2000 due to the absence of buyers of compost on account of high transportation cost. LIMITATION IN BIO-METHANATION Suitable for only segregated green waste; Stand alone project based on bio-methanation tried in Pune & Lucknow failed due to incompatibility of mixed waste/ low yield of methane; Bio-methanation is a better option than composting. Land area requirement in the biomethanation is very nominal compare to the composting plant. SUMMARY The above mentioned technologies have been tried on a standalone basis in various countries none of which could provide a comprehensive solution to treat the MSW. Since the garbage is heterogeneous in nature, there should be different technologies that can treat the mixed and green waste separately.
  17. 17. 17    VIEW OF PROJECT PARTICIPANTS ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PROJECT ACTIVITY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: BioCRUDE Technologies, the initiator of the project, believes that it has the potential to enhance the economic, environmental and social well being of the people in the region. The project activity has a beneficial effect on the local industries and employment in the region. All governments are concerned that the following indicators for sustainable development be addressed: 1. Social well being 2. Economic well being 3. Environmental well being 4. Technological well being SOCIAL WELL BEING: The project will contribute to improving the environmental conditions in the city of Warsaw, Poland by hygienic treatment of municipal solid waste, resulting in improvement of the health standards in the city. The manual as well as mechanical segregation of waste prior to feeding the solid waste for size reduction results in separation of substantial quantity of inert non-biodegradable matter like plastics, rags, stones, metals, glass, tires etc. Some of these items, such as organics, textiles, large woody mats etc., will be recycled within the plant itself as feed for the furnace, producing flue gas for the dryer. Other recyclable items will be disposed of through local contractors/kabari, providing monetary benefits to the local population. The project will provide both direct and indirect employment opportunities to the people of the region. ECONOMICAL WELL BEING: With all the financial input that will be earmarked for the project there will be a direct and indirect positive effect on the employment opportunities and economics of the region. This will improve the livelihood of the local people. Further unmanaged land filling of MSW will result health hazards in the localities which are in close proximity with the
  18. 18. 18    landfill site resulting in additional health related expenditure. The project by avoiding land filling and scientifically treating the MSW shall improve the hygienic conditions, resulting in reduced health related expenditures in the nearby localities. The project converts solid waste into electricity which helps in reducing the demand on limited natural resources. The project will also earn additional revenue to the local and central government. ENVIRONMENTAL WELL BEING: From an environmental perspective, the project helps to reduce methane emission as well as any leachate that would otherwise have generated from the current practice of waste disposal. The project activity diverts 300 tonnes of waste per day from being deposited in landfills or incinerated. This enables the city of Warsaw to exercise better methods in land utilization, such as construction of housing, hospital etc. The project also results in a net decrease in transportation distance for MSW due to optimization of transportation route. This again reduces emission associated with transportation of MSW in the Grecian region. The technology and processes developed by BioCRUDE Technologies are truly “green” from the functionality of the equipment to the finished by- products. Their techniques work especially well in hot climates such as that to be found in Poland. The process is dependent on a specific temperature to fast track the composting process. Of course, the new unique enzymes are a vital part of the mix, reducing resident time in the digester from weeks to days. The system has the added benefits of reducing health risk and the odours usually associated with MSW piles. Future plans for a biogas plant would ensure not only a greater output, but biogas is a clean burning, environmentally friendly fuel. Despite the fact that the waste delivered to the plants have a large diversity resulting in reduced amounts of truly green material, our technology makes effective use of the waste, utilizing 50% or more green waste. The faster turnover in the composting procedure means that more Psychology. Green waste: Green waste comprises of primarily segregated bio-degradable waste from hotels/restaurants/vegetable and fruit markets.
  19. 19. 19    TECHNOLOGICAL WELL BEING: INTEGRATION The limitations of individual technologies can be mitigated by bringing together a mix of technologies by integrating them together to provide a holistic solution to the treatment of urban waste. An integration of technology so carried out would have the following benefits:  It treats various components of urban waste in an efficient manner so as to provide optimum utilization of optimum utilization to waste to produce compost, bio-gas, power and building materials;  Liquid and solid wastes when treated in the same complex provide tremendous synergy for being treated in an efficient manner;  It leads to optimization of cost by treating larger quantities at the same place, sharing infrastructure and variable costs;  It is environmentally desirable, as the rejects of one process becomes inputs for the other process;  An integrated complex can treat the residual wastes by making building blocks as well as other products;  When treatment of liquid waste is integrated with urban solid waste, viability of treatment of liquid waste also improves substantially. INTEGRATION OF SOLID WASTES AND LIQUID WASTES The integration essentially means: Solid & liquid wastes could be treated in the same complex. The treatment process would be well integrated in terms of input and output. Each stream of the garbage will be treated by the technology most suitable for it; thus, such a complex would have compost and methane from bio- methanation process, fuel and power from RDF plant, bricks and roadblocks from inert plant. The integration is essential for the following reasons:
  20. 20. 20     This replaces the requirement of bio-mass for the RDF plant which has been observed as a major weakness of that technology;  It reduces the cost of the bio-methanation process, because separate fuel engines are not required;  The integration improves the viability of the project, as it leads to cost optimization;  The integration is also environmentally desirable, as it uses wastewater. Secondly, it substantially reduces need of land for landfill and thirdly it produces very high quality compost much superior to the product of a compost plant;  It produces green fuel and reduces methane emissions – one of Warsaw’ supports to the cause of Kyoto Protocol;  It improves viability of Municipal Body, as it does not have to spend money on acquiring land for landfill sites and about 40% of capital expenditure on STP (sludge pumping station, digesters, gas holders and sludge drying beds); it is loaded to the project operator along with about 50% of O&M costs. Secondly, it reduces the average distance of transportation, thereby bringing long-term benefits to the Municipality. Thirdly, it ensures sustained treatment of sewage;  Such a complex can further add value to the Municipal Body by integrating door-to- door collection and transportation of garbage by the operator. This would ensure that door-to- door segregation of garbage takes place by the operator which improves operational viability of the projects. Major Stakeholders in the Project: Municipal Corporation of Warsaw - The Municipal Corporation of Warsaw is one of the largest Municipalities in the world providing civic services to an estimated population of 1.7 million citizens (not including the residents of the suburbs). The project has been designed to accept waste from the entire area of Warsaw, Poland. At present, waste from the Warsaw area is being disposed of by the Warsaw Municipal Corporation at dumpsites (landfills) which is already over exhausted. To decrease the load on the landfill site and eventually establishing ZERO landfill dumping, the Municipal Corporation of
  21. 21. 21    Warsaw, Poland should agreed to provide the land and garbage at a proposed strategic plant site to set up the proposed MSW processing complex. GARBAGE (MSW) CHARACTERISTICS, COLLECTION AND ISSUES INVOLVED CURRENT WASTE MANAGEMENT The management of municipal of solid waste is an essential service and an obligatory duty of all municipal bodies. Waste management services are typically divided into the following main components: primary collection, secondary collection, treatment or processing and disposal. Primary collection includes the collection of waste from generators and centralizes it for pick up. The secondary collection system picks up the waste at these centralized points and transfers it to processing or disposal sites (dumping grounds). Processing can include a number of activities, most common being composting and material recovery of recyclable materials). Residual waste that cannot be further reduced or processed must be disposed, generally in landfills. The problem of solid waste management is assuming serious proportions due to increasing population, urbanization, changing lifestyles and consumption patterns. The garbage from unauthorized developments and slums is not collected which further adds to the environmental degradation. SOURCE OF WASTE GENERATION The majority of waste received at municipal dumping grounds is generated by residential, commercial and institutional sources and municipal activities such as street sweeping and drain cleaning.
  22. 22. 22    SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE In certain project areas, segregation of waste at the household level is limited to separation of newspaper and glass bottles and there is no formalized system of segregation. Though Municipal Corporation of Warsaw is promoting the concept of waste segregation into dry and wet waste, through awareness campaigns and also placing two separate bins in market places and street corners, however, this concept is yet to be efficiently effected. Informal garbage collectors (privately employed contractors and other associations) and rag pickers mainly carry out segregation. The garbage collector picks out the recyclable waste from the mixed waste during primary collection. Rag pickers also separate recyclables from the waste dumped at the open dumpsites. Since the waste is not segregated at source recyclables lose its commercial value due to cross contamination. As a result of this, a lot of recyclables regain in the waste stream and reach the land fill site.  WASTE DISPOSAL The present system of garbage disposal in landfills being followed by the Municipal Corporation of Warsaw is primitive and environmentally unsound. The landfill sites are marginal lands identified and earmarked in the Master Plan by the appropriate Regulating Division of the Municipal Corporation of Warsaw. This system of disposing garbage in landfills has long been in operation, prior to which there was no organized system and garbage was collected and dumped in low lying areas. According to some resources, some alternative sites have already been identified for future landfill requirements. The transport vehicles carrying the waste are weighed at the landfill site and are then dumped at the specific working place. A single pass of bulldozer thereafter spreads the deposited waste. The soil/sand and silt brought from various areas is used as a soil cover over the area where the waste is spread.
  23. 23. 23    WASTE CHARACTERIZATION METHODOLOGY Physical testing of the municipal waste has to be carried out by reputable institutions at the Warsaw Landfill site(s). From general experiences and during study, it was observed that large amount of mixing of MSW occurs with the inerts and other waste during collection and transportation of waste to landfill site. So, a landfill has to be selected to carry out the physical characterization of waste in order to know the true picture of the waste coming at the receipt point (at landfill site in present and hence in the future proposed complex). MSW arriving at the landfill site from selected locations have to be segregated into the different categories. The laboratory appointed for MSW Characterization along with the Municipal Corporation of Warsaw officials have to identify the trucks in order to have indicative sampling of the wastes reaching the landfill site from the identified zones for the physical characterization of waste. Random sampling has to be done to select a truck from the identified zone reaching the landfill site. From amongst 3-4 vehicles coming to the landfill site from each of the identified locations, one vehicle has to be chosen for the physical characterization of waste. The conventional method of the gravimetric profiling has been adopted by emptying out the entire trucks contents of the truck on a Plastic Sheet/suitable surface so that there occurs no mixing of linderneath waste/ soil. The entire truck contents have to be physically separated by rag pickers and arranged by laboratory into different categories. Considering wet nature of kitchen waste and due to intermixing with inerts, there will still be some contents of inerts and other material in the kitchen waste, so further analysis will have to be carried out, to arrive out the actual fractions of the kitchen waste. Accordingly, the kitchen waste will have to be further segregated after drying for at least one hour. Each of these fractions will be weighed individually using weighing machines. By the quartering 8s coning method, representative samples of around 2-3 kg will be prepared and samples of mixed waste and kitchen waste components of the Physical segregation will be taken in separate plastic envelopes (to ensure minimum loss of moisture). The collected samples from the mixed waste & kitchen waste will also be analyzed for its proximate analysis in addition to other chemical characteristics. Calorific value will be determined for four fractions separated after physical segregation i.e., for mixed waste, Kitchen waste, Fuels & Organic matter. An approximate Waste Analysis (hereinunder mentioned) of Warsaw, Poland was furnished to the principals of BioCRUDE Technologies, Inc. from agents of the
  24. 24. 24    Municipal Corporation of Warsaw, Poland and was used as the basis for generating the total amounts of by-products, relative to the inherent influx. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT: Please refer to Annex 4: “PROJECT DESCRIPTION” and Annex 5: “CIVIL ENGINEERING REPORT” for a comprehensive description of the Design of the Plant. LOCATION OF THE PROJECT:   Host Party (ies): Municipality of Warsaw Region/State/Province/Country: Poland The location detail of the project activity along with the map is given below. Location Latitude Longitude Warsaw 52° 13' N 21º 00 E
  25. 25. 25    Figure 1: Warsaw, Poland map Warsaw suffers from a lack of sustainable and effective waste management.
  26. 26. 26    MUNICIPAL CHARACTERISTICS & MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) CLASSIFICATION: These questions will determine the best placement of a facility, the amounts of possible future waste production, and for the economics of the current situation. It is important to include how much is currently being paid per ton for each of the wastes to be included, the frequency of pickup to determine the amount storage required, and the percentage of water to determine the best possible destruction of the waste.        Tons / amount per day / week Municipal – tons per day/ week 3,080 Tonnes / Day Sewage – amount per day Industrial- tons per day/week Tonnes / Day Oil Sludge- amount per day Commercial – tons per day/ week Tonnes / Day Controlled / Toxic – tons per day/week Hazardous – tons per day/week Medical – tons per day Tonne / Day Other – specify type /amount/ charge
  27. 27. 27    MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS & CLASSIFICATION: This section deals with the types and amounts of waste that is to be considered in its evaluation for the total waste available and guaranteed for delivery and payment by the local authority. Approximate Breakdown of the Waste: FRACTION PERCENTAGE (%) FUEL Wooden Pieces 17.6 Paper 6.0 Textiles 2.3 Coconut Shell Polythene Plastics 6.0 Thermocol Total: 31.9 ORGANICS Green Waste 35.0 Kitchen Waste 6.0 Total: 41.0
  28. 28. 28    INERTS Concrete/Stone/Bricks Sand/Solid Cement Lime Total: 10.4 RECYCLABLES Glass 3.6 Metal 9.5 Rubber/Leather 3.6 Total: 16.7 OTHERS Battery NA Human Hair NA Total: NA TOTAL: 100 *Note: Waste composition may vary from time to time.
  29. 29. 29    SEWAGE:   This section refers to the amount of sewage that can be guaranteed for daily delivery as some sewage is collected from septic systems and trucked to the plant. Sewage can be handled by a GES treatment facility or the sludge can be delivered from existing treatment plants. 1  Amount   Daily  10 T/Day      Weekly    2  Current Charge for sewage      3  What form delivered in  Sludge/Cake/Other(specify)  Sludge  4  Liquid  Percentage  80  5  Analysis of Solids        a.  feces  Percentage  50%    b. debris  Percentage  20%     c.  other (specify)  Percentage  30%  
  30. 30. 30    MEDICAL/CLINICAL WASTE:           1  Amount of waste generated daily  700 kg‐1000kg/Day (max)  2  Amount of waste currently in storage  NIL  3   What percentage of the waste is water  NIL   4  Waste is stored in how many locations   All Hospital / Clinic  5  How many separate facilities are generating waste  Approximately 300 clinics.    a. Amount generated at each facility    6  How is waste collected and stored  Manually in closed vehicles  7  How are the different wastes identified‐bag color, size, etc.    8  What is the present cost of handling/storage    9  Who is responsible for management‐ Government/ Private  Private  10  Give analysis of medical/clinical waste in percentages:  AVE %    a.  Syringes  1‐5 %    b.  Specimens  1‐5%     c.  Paper  10‐15%     d.  Chemicals  Not available  
  31. 31. 31      e.  Radiological  1‐5%    f.   Human parts  10‐15%     g.  Viral  Not available     h.  Clothing  60‐80%    i.  Contaminated human feces  5‐8%    j.   Other (specify)  Not available   CATEGORY OF PROJECT ACTIVITY: “The project activity uses approved methodology AM0025/ version 06 (Refer to Annex 7: “REVISION TO THE APPROVED BASELINE METHODOLOGY”) which falls under Sectoral Scope 13: waste handling and disposal as per UNFCCC website.” TECHNOLOGY OF PROJECT ACTIVITY: The project activity, which involves refuse derived fuel (RDF), composting, anaerobic digestion and biogas processing of organic waste for energy generation, involves a 15 MW power plant and expanded potential capacity for additional Waste Processing Capacity, if so required. We have an exclusive and unique method of composting organic waste/sewage sludge that can produce a finished product in 4 weeks. We also have low cost enzymes that reduce the resident time in the digester from 30 to 45 to 5 to 7 days; at the same time the biogas yield will be dramatically higher, with an accompanying rise in profitability.
  32. 32. 32    TECHNOLOGIES’ DESCRIPTION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED IN THE RDF PLANT RDF Fluff requirement to produce 7.2 MW, its portion of the Procured Energy from the Waste to Energy Complex, would be about 10 to 13.5 TPH. The RDF Fluff production at the Warsaw plant from 650 TPD of MSW is estimated to be around 225 TPD, based on 18 hour a day operations. The RDF Plant will have a provision to have a separate receiving and processing line for biomass / horticultural waste whenever available during season. This will be mixed with RDF in RDF storage pits. Power Plant will have storage of approximately two days RDF Fluff requirement of about 450 T. RDF Plant will have following operations  Manual Segregation  Shredding  Screening to separate both fine inerts and some percentage of bio- degradable matter  Rotary conveying and as per requirements Drying System  Fines screening  Density separator (ballistic separation) RDF Plant will have dust collection and disposal facility. RDF Plant will have provision for suitable ventilation system to reduce smell inside the plant. Hot gas introduced in the drier will have proper pollution control equipment like settling Chamber and the air from the system will be let out through a vertical pipe after washing it with suitable reagents to remove SPM and odorous pollutants. There will be a 4.0 TPH capacity pelletizing facility (optional) to produce RDF pellets from RDF, biomass and horticultural waste. The pellets will be 20 mm to 25 mm diameter and 20 mm to 40 mm long with a bulk density of 650 kg/cum. These pellets could be used for boiler start up and during high moisture RDF firing.
  33. 33. 33    Ash coming out of HAG and power plant boiler (both bottom ash and fly ash) will be disposed to landfill site. If there is a demand, it will be given to building contractors / fly ash brick manufacturers or recycled through contractors. Once MSW is received at the facility, it will be weighed and inspected then brought to the MSW storage area via truck and the material will be unloaded into pits. After unloading the MSW shall be segregated and the portion aggregated to the RDF processing facility portion will be sprayed with herbal pesticide to retard its decomposition and prepare it for conversion to RDF fluff. EOT Cranes will pick up this material from the pits through Grab buckets and deposit it on to a main conveyor through vibrator regulatory feeders. The main conveyor shall discharge the MSW to a manual inspection conveyor at an elevated level of 7.0 M. From the slow moving inspection conveyor, all the odd sized and unwanted objects shall be handpicked at the manual separation station. These will be mostly large textile pieces, large twigs and woody pieces, thermocole, as well as consumer durables. These items will be dropped into the respective chutes for collection and dispatch. After manual inspection the material is transferred to the magnetic separator to remove ferrous objects. The MSW, after inspection and magnetic separation is fed into a primary shredder. This shredder is a matrix of moving blades, cutting blades and fixed blades which are capable of determining the size of the end product. During this operation, all the materials will get homogenized and its size will be reduced to minus 100 mm. These shredders are very sensitive to hard materials. Therefore, natural separation and manual operation previously deployed are to be very effective. Materials from primary shredder will be put into a rotary screening trommel having minus 15 mm holes. The minus 15 mm fraction shall have considerable bio-degradable material and shall be sent outside for use as a soil enricher. Plus 15 mm fraction will be fed to the dryer. Depending upon the moisture content of plus 15 mm, a requisite amount of hot air produced by Hot Gas Generator (HAG) can be adjusted. Material having more than 25% moisture will be put into a Rotary Dryer. In the Rotary dryer, material is dried in a co-current manner. The hot air is generated in a fixed grate hot gas generator. Woody Biomass separated from MSW or RDF will be combusted in the HAG. The output from Rotary Dryer is fed into a fine Rotary screen (Trommel) and minus 8 mm fraction consisting of dust, grit, sand, etc is separated. This fraction has commercial demand and is used as a soil enricher, especially for ash mounts of power stations. The screened material from the dryer is then subjected to classification /density separation through a Ballistic Separator and heavy & light fractions are separated. Light fraction will be conveyed to the RDF storage yard. Heavy fraction will be further segregated. Recovered woody Biomass shall be sent to HAG as fuel and inert will be put into recycling / processing and or disposal to land fill. The Ballastic separator will also produce some dust which will be that of rotary screen and disposed of.
  34. 34. 34    The light fraction thus separated and conveyed to RDF yard comprises of biomass, paper, textile, fine plastics and other combustible materials and is termed as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF Fluff). As per need, RDF can be further ground in a Secondary Shredder and then converted into RDF pellets. The RDF fluff generated from the RDF facility portion of the Waste to Energy Complex will be stored in a covered area adjacent to the boiler. The Fluff will be transferred from this storage to a Belt feeder by a grab crane, which in turn will feed the boiler Receiving Hopper. The Boiler, bag house, Flue Gas treatment facilities, ID fan and 65 m high Chimney-win will be positioned such that they could be accommodated in the layout. The turbo generator building will be located adjacent and/or parallel to the boiler. The TG auxiliaries like, lube oil system, gland steam condenser, boiler feed pumps, condensate pumps, and piping will be located in the TG building. The air cooled condenser will be located behind the Turbine building. The Electrical room will be located in the TG building and the power plant control room will be located in a floor above the electrical room. The switchyard will be located parallel to the air cooled condenser. The water treatment facilities such as filters, RO plant and MB (mixed bed) unit, DM water storage tank should be located near the air cooled condenser. The common monitoring basis is provided near the RDF plant, where reject water from RO plant, DM plant and cooling water blow down will be collected, neutralized and corrected as per required Standards. The reject water from the power plant will be forwarded to the municipal sewerage disposal. Fly Ash from economizer hoppers and ESP hoppers will be pneumatically collected and conveyed to a fly ash silo, which is located near the chimney. Road access has been provided for the trucks to collect ash from the silo for disposal. Bottom ash will be collected in wet form. The ash water requirement for the plant is to be utilized from the treated water effluent from the Municipal water supply. It is necessary that the recyclables and ash are disposed off on a daily basis since the space available is much less for the plant. Scheme for an Inert processing facility shall be considered in the design. Depending on the viability, this fraction can be disposed to landfill site. Recyclable matter coming out of RDF plant would be given to Recycling units. Storage space for such items would be provided in the plant.
  35. 35. 35    MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IS CONVERTED INTO REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER: The integrated waste to power complex will have a section for processing municipal solid waste (MSW) into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) required for combustion in the boiler. The Boundary conditions of MSW to RDF sections are as follows: a. The plant will have two process streamlines of 325 T of MSW/day, per streamline, to produce a total of 243 T/day of RDF. b. The RDF Plant will have dust collection and disposal facilities. The RDF Plant will have provisions for a suitable ventilation system to reduce odours inside the plant. c. Hot gas introduced in the drier will have proper pollution control equipment such as a cyclone, settling Chamber, etc. Air from the system will be let out through a vertical pipe. d. There will be a 4.0 TPH capacity pelletizing facility to produce RDF pellets from RDF, biomass and horticultural waste. The pellets will be 20 mm to 25 mm in diameter and 20 mm to 40 mm long with a bulk density of 650 kg/cum. These pellets could be used for boiler start up and during high moisture RDF firing. e. Ash coming out of the HAG and power plant boiler (both bottom ash and fly ash) will be disposed at a landfill site. If there is a demand, it will be given to building contractors / fly ash brick manufacturers. f. Recyclable matter coming out of RDF plant would be given to Recycling units. Storage space for such items would be provided in the plant. g. The Power Plant will be designed for the following emission levels:  SPM 50 mg/Nm3  SOx 100 mg/Nm3  NOx 200 mg/Nm3 h. The plant will be designed to work for two shifts per day and shall operate for 330 days in a year. i. The size of RDF fluff should be minus 100 mm; edge to edge and its density should be around 80-100 kg/m3. j. Depending on many factors, the CV of the fuel should be about 2600 kcal/kg ± l00 kcal/kg.
  36. 36. 36    k. During screening of MSW through (-) 15 mm size the smaller fraction will be separated out and sold as soil enricher, especially to a nearby coal based power plant as an organic cover for fly ash damper. l. A separate inert processing disposal scheme may also be worked out. m. The RDF stream will have identical sequence of unit operations as given below, if the need of expansion is required. n. Receipts of leaves and horticultural waste directly to the RDF storage. o. Receipt of MSW in one of the pits. p. Manual separation and rejection of odd size objects. q. Primary size reduction and homogenization. r. Screening to remove minus 50 mm size. s. Drying (when required). t. Screening to remove Grits. u. Classification into light fraction (RDF), heavy rejects and residual dust. v. Secondary Size reduction & pelletizing option. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) PROPERTIES MSW collected from different sources has different calorific values. However, after drying and separation of non-combustible fraction, MSW on conversion to RDF, possesses an average calorific value of 2600 kcal / kg. The RDF fluff / pellet produced from MSW combustibles have the following properties.
  37. 37. 37    Physical Properties of RDF RDF Fluff RDF Pellets RDF Fluff Pellets Shape Irregular Cylindrical Size 100 x 100 mm Dia.: 20 – 25 mm Length N/A 20 – 40 mm Bulk Density 80 – 100 kg/cum +650 kg/cum Proximate Analysis: Moisture 15% - 25% Ash Content 15% - 25% Volatile Matter 40% - 60% Fixed Carbon 10% - 20%
  38. 38. 38    Ultimate Analysis: Moisture 15% - 25% Mineral Matter 15% - 25% Carbon 35% - 40% Hydrogen 5% - 8% Nitrogen 1% - 1.5% Sulphur 0.2% - 0.5% Oxygen 25% - 30% Combustion Properties: Gross Calorific Value of RDF (Avg) 2,600 kcal/kg ±100 Ash Fusion Temperature N/A Initial Deformation Temperature 860° C Softening Temperature 950 °C Hemispherical Temperature 1040° C Fluid Temperature 1100°C Chloride Content 0.04% Elemental Ash Analysis: (% of Oxides) Silica 53.10% Alumina 11.18% Iron Oxide 4.87% Titanium dioxide 0.89% Calcium Oxide 13.15% Magnesium oxide 2.90% Sodium oxide 5.79% Potassium oxide 1.56% Sulphur trioxide 2.55% Phosphorous pentoxide 1.43% RDF Production: RDF Fluff / day 225 TPD RDF Fluff / year 74,250 TPY (330 days/year-18 hrs/day
  39. 39. 39    RDF FLOW DIAGRAM Two (2) 325 TPD streamlines of the RDF facility
  40. 40. 40    Particulars/Description Quantity Plant & Machinery for each Stream MSW Receiving Pits (1300 cum) 2 Feeding Hopper with Vibro Feeder (3m x 3m) 4 E.O.T Crane with Grab Bucket (2 cum) 1 tonne lifting 3 capacity MSW feeding conveyor to an elevated manual 1 segregation station (horizontal & inclined) Conveyor with manual sorting station for manual 1 removal of gross items Magnetic Separator 1 Primary Shredder (all – 100 discharge) 1 Shredded Material Discharge conveyor 1 Trommel (Rotary Screen) 1 Belt conveyor below Trommel (for – 15 mm material) 1 Bin for collection & dispatch (- 15 mm material) 4 Trommel Discharge conveyor (+15 mm material fraction 1 discharge – from Trommel to Dryer) Rotary Dryer with suction Blower, Cyclone, Chimney etc 1 Hot Air Generator (HAG) with PA/SA Fans & System 1 Dryer Discharge conveyor 1 Fine Rotary Screen (10 mm size) 1 Screw conveyor for dust (- 10 mm) 1 Fines Transfer conveyor 1 Rotary Screen Conveyor (large size materials) 1 Ballistic Separator (fines discharge) 1 Heavies Discharge conveyor 1 RDF Feeding conveyor to storage for Boiler 1 Particulars/Description Quantity Components for Pelletizing Unit RDF Feeding conveyor for RDF storage 1 Secondary Shredder with Pneumatic discharge 1 Cyclone for collection of Raw Material 1 Pellet Mill with Pellet cooler 1 Bucket Elevator 1 Pellet Storage Bunker (1000 cum) 1 Common Equipment needed for both streams Cutter Chipper for gross HAG fuel 1 Belt Conveyor to carry fuel to HAG 1
  41. 41. 41    MAJOR EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION OF THE RDF APPARATUS EOT CRANE WITH GRAB BUCKET  It will be an electrically operated, overhead traveling crane. The long travel and cross travel will be electrically operated. Grab will be controlled hydraulically. The cranes will be controlled from the 'control pulpit' in the control room.  Span: 12 m  Lift Height: 10 m  Grab Bucket Volume: 2 cum  Minimal Operations per hour: --------  Normal Operating Time: -------- DRIVE MOTOR Crane is to be designed to operate round the clock. Adequate focusing lights will be provided besides the general lighting of the crane area.  Long Travel: 2 x 2 km with Normal Speed Control  Cross Travel: 1 x 2 km with Normal Speed Control  Hoist Motor: 1 x 3 kW  Hydraulic Panel: 1 x2 HP TROMMEL Incoming mixed municipal solid waste is to be separated out in different sizes for further processing. This is done in Trommel. It consists of a rotary frame supported on pedestals for smooth rotation. The hole size of the screen is 50 mm. Feed passing through the holes mostly consists of small pieces of inert and biomas3. The fraction of + 50 mm consists of paper, cloth, cardboard boxes, twigs, and leather, amongst other things.
  42. 42. 42    - Input Material Mixed MSW with following characteristics: - Moisture average 25%, Maximum 45%, Bulk density 400 - 600 kg/in3. - Feeding Mechanism Slat conveyor or belt conveyor of adequate capacity to feed the material into the screen separator. - Discharge Mechanism (-) 50 mm fraction is rejected and collected by the conveyor. + 50 mm fraction is rejected at the end of the Trommel and transported by a conveyor for feeding to the Rotary Dryer. - Technical Details The Trommel is a Rotary cylinder built up with steel section having supporting rollers at both the ends. Drive to screen separator is provided by motor and gearbox through girth gear and pinion. Support rollers are of hard rubber construction to give it a smooth drive. The screening sections are covered with steel sheet. Material discharge from the Trommel is connected at the outlets. The Trommel has wide entry gate at discharge end for inside inspection of screen. Cleaning of any choking can also be carried out through the gate. Material inlet to the Trommel is properly sealed to avoid dust coming out of the system. - Broad Specifications  Capacity: 40 T/hr  Type of Construction: Fabricated  Length: 10.5 m  Diameter: 2.8 m  Speed: 6-10 rpm  Drive Motor: 15 HP
  43. 43. 43    ROTARY DRYER WITH HOT AIR GENERATOR - Broad Specifications  Length: 30 m  Diameter: 3m  Input: 30 T/hr, minimum at 45% Moisture (max)  Output: 28 T/hr, minimum at 45% Moisture ROTARY CASCADE DRYER SYSTEM This is a rotating cylindrical shell provided with a set of lifting flights. The cylindrical shell will be in MSW and the lines will be in MSW. During rotation of the cylindrical shell the wet material is lifted and made to shower across the cross section of the cylinder. The hot air, which is introduced co-currently to the material flow, intimately contacts the wet solids undergoing showering action, resulting in drying. The material travels along the length of the dryer in a cascade manner by virtue of Jie lifting flights and the inclination of the rotating shell. The material is dried by the time it reaches discharge end. The material is discharged from the dryer via discharge port. Fixed end chambers are provided on both the ends of the rotating cylinder. The rotating cylinder is provided with two nos. tyre rings, externally fitted. These tyre rings rest on support rollers. The rollers & tyres will be provided with lubrication chamber, so that layer of oil is always covering the tyre/roller surfaces.  Flow Type: Co-current  Drive Unit: Motor Reduction Gear Box with Girth  Supports: Gear & Pinion Arrangement  Manhole: Final rpm of the Dryer will be 2-3 rpm Tyres supported on rollers. Thrust Rollers are provided for preventing axial displacement. Suitable manholes are provided at both end covers.

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