MSW to energy conversion Technology

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this presentaion is on Municiple solid waste to energy conversion related technology which is used in world wide

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MSW to energy conversion Technology

  1. 1. Technology<br />Used for MSW to Energy conversion<br />
  2. 2. Type of thermal process Technology<br />Mass burn (incineration)<br />Pyrolysis<br />Conventional Gasification<br />Plasma Arc Gasification.<br />Plasma process Using coal<br />RDF Technology.<br />
  3. 3. Mass burn system<br />The mass burn system generally burns unprocessed or minimally processed commingle solid waste & recovers energy.<br />Operating mass burn facility capacity generally ranges from about 200 to 3000 tons per day.<br />Operating temperatures between 850°C to 1250°C. <br />Operations:<br />>waste storage & feed preparation <br /> >combustion in afurnace,producing hot gases & bottom ash residue for disposal.<br />>Gas temperature reduction, frequently involving heat recovery via steam generation.<br />>Treatment of the cooled gas to remove air pollutants, and disposal of residuals from this treatment process<br />>dispersion of treated gas to the atmosphere through an induced-draft fan &stack.<br />
  4. 4. Mass burn System<br />Emissions<br />stack<br />Heat Recovery <br />Waste <br />Storage<br />Feed Preparation <br />Combustion <br />Air pollution<br />control<br />Gas <br />Temperature<br />Reduction <br />Fan<br />Scrubber<br />Water or Ash<br />handling<br />Ash <br />Handling <br />
  5. 5. The thermal decomposition of organic fraction of solid waste at elevated temperatures.<br />The range is about 400-900 °C.<br />Pyrolysis:<br />Operation:<br />>The preprocessed MSW material is fed into pyrolysis reactor.<br />>Produced Raw synthesis(CO &H2 mixture) overhead & bottom ash.<br />>Syngas clean up is deigned to remove carry over particulate matter from the reactor.<br />>Syngas is used in the power <br /> generation plant to produced energy.(steam and electricity)<br />> Ash ,Carbon char& metals have used as recycables in industry.<br />
  6. 6. Pyrolysis process<br />Syngas<br />cleanup<br />Air<br />emission<br />Syngas<br />By products<br />Such as Sulfar & acid gases<br />Pyrolysis<br />reactor<br />preprocessing<br />Power generation<br />*Electrical energy<br />*steam<br />Feedstock<br />MSW<br />Recyclables<br />Electricity <br />To Grid<br />Ash carbon<br />&metals<br />
  7. 7. A thermal process, which converts carbonaceous materials such as MSW into Syngas using a limited quantity of air or oxygen.<br />Temperature is 1450 to 3000°F<br />Some basic chemical reaction in gasification process are:<br /> C+O2=CO2<br /> C+H2O=CO+H2<br /> C+2H2=CH4<br /> C+CO2=2CO<br /> CO+H2O=CO2+H2<br /> C (n)+n H2O=n CO+(n+1/2m)H2<br />Conventional Gasification<br />
  8. 8. Conventional Gasification<br />Syngas<br />cleanup<br />Air<br />emission<br />Syngas<br />By products<br />Such as Sulfar & acid gases<br />Air/O2<br />Pyrolysis<br />reactor<br />preprocessing<br />Power generation<br />*Electrical energy<br />*steam<br />Feedstock<br />MSW<br />Recyclables<br />Electricity <br />To Grid<br />Ash carbon<br />&<br />metals<br />
  9. 9. Plasma process Using coal<br />
  10. 10. Typical coal Fired power<br />plant<br />
  11. 11. Plasma MSW Processing System Schematic<br />
  12. 12. Concept<br />• Collocate MSW plasma processing plants (in modules of 1,000 TPD) with<br />existing operational coal-fired power plants.<br />• The amount of coal supplied to a plant will be reduced, proportionate to the thermal output of the MSW plant.<br />• The hot gaseous emissions from the plasma plant afterburner system will be fed directly into the coal plant combustion chamber to supplement the combusted coal gases.<br />• The combined plasma and coal gaseous emissions would produce steam and power equal to the normal coal plant generating capacity.<br />• MSW would replace large volumes of coal for power generation in a very<br />efficient, cost-effective and environmentally cleaner operation<br />
  13. 13. PLASMA PROCESSINOF MSW AT COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS<br />
  14. 14. MSW Processing Advantages<br />• Plant capital costs reduced by over 50%.<br />– Utilize power plant boiler, generation and emission control systems<br />• More than 50% more electrical energy from MSW gases.<br />– Large coal-fired generation systems are more efficient (~35%) than smaller.<br />generation systems for MSW alone (~20%)<br />• Significantly lower operating costs<br />– Use of power plant systems reduces number of MSW-associated systems<br />• Salable solid residue<br />– Gravel, sand, aggregate for concrete, asphalt and concrete pavers<br />• Cost-competitive with landfill tipping fees throughout most of U.S.<br />• Need for landfills is eliminated<br />
  15. 15. RDF Technology <br />*Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel is a fuel produced by shredding and dehydrating solid waste(MSW) with a Waste converter technology. RDF consists largely of combustible components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste. <br />What is RDF ?<br />
  16. 16. REFUSE DERIVED FUEL - PELLETS<br />
  17. 17. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) Characteristics<br /> > Calorific Value: 2500 – 3000 Kcal/Kg<br /><ul><li> High Volatile Matter ( 60% )</li></ul> >Emission characteristics of RDF are superior<br /> compared to coal with less NOX, SOX, CO &<br /> CO2.<br />> Bio fertilizer and the Fly ash are the useful by<br /> products.<br />
  18. 18. MSW<br />source<br />Receiving storage handling<br />Primary Process size Reduction<br />Combustion <br />System<br />Air pollution control system<br />RDF storage Melting & feed<br />Secondary Process:<br />Densification<br />Landfill<br />Recovered Material<br />Materials Recovery potential steam<br />Source <br />Separation RDF -1 <br /> Dry process <br />Direct Reject Process Ash Particu- <br />Disposal Waste Residue late/ <br /> Residue <br />RDF technology:<br />
  19. 19. Advantages of RDF<br />It has higher calorific value than mixed solid waste.<br />It has low ash content<br />Its uniform size and more homogenous nature as waste is shredded.<br />The smaller size of combustion system.<br />
  20. 20. Thank you to all<br />
  21. 21. PREPARED BY <br />ApuBanik<br />Ahasanullah University of Science &Technology.<br />Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering <br />

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