Unconventional Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing

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This presentation was made by Hydrogeologist Gilles Wendling at Keepers of the Water VI in Fort Nelson, BC. This event was hosted by Fort Nelson First Nation.

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Unconventional Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing

  1. 1. UNCONVENTIONAL GAS AND HYDRAULIC FRACTURING Photo: Gilles Wendling
  2. 2. WHAT IS HYDRAULICFRACTURING (FRACKING)?
  3. 3. Unconventional Conventional Drilling Drilling Illustration: DPS Penn
  4. 4. Source: USGS
  5. 5. Frac-Water: From Cradle to Grave Stream water Surface storage at Water tanker trucks gas-well site Add: sand, biocides, scale inhibitors, acids, surfactants Flowback treatment “flowback”   water brine (metals)Deep-wellInjection (Modified from Jim Saiers (Yale), Resources for the Future conference on Managing the Risks of Shale Gas, Nov 2011)
  6. 6. WHY DO WE HAVE SHALE GAS?
  7. 7. 500 million years in 5 secondsSource: Wendy Carter for Dr Anthony Kemp (University of Western Australia - A Centre for Exploration Targeting, School of Earth and Environment), June 2012
  8. 8. 400 Million years agoYou are here Source: Ron Blakey, Northern Arizona University
  9. 9. High Productivity of Phytoplankton (Algae) and Zooplankton Low input of siliciclastic mud (Radiolaria and Foraminifera) during Transgression and early HighstandGreater than 200 metres Nutrient-rich Water Upwelling Water Depth Pre-Existing Argillaceous Mudstone Bank (Lowstand Fill) or Carbonate Bank (Early Highstand Growth) Source: Presentation given by Ken Potma at the 6th BC Unconventional Gas Technical Forum http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/OG/oilandgas/petroleumgeology/UnconventionalGas/Pages/default.aspx
  10. 10. (Source: l’ABC du gaz de schistes au Canada, Office national de l’énergie, 2009)
  11. 11. BEDROCK IS FRACTURED
  12. 12. Net uplift between Late Jurassic (150 Ma) and present time (after Thompson, 1981) Regional tectonic map (after Price, 1986) source: http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/wcsb_atlas/a_ch02/ch_02_f.html
  13. 13. 100,000 years ago 5 glaciations in last 500,000 years Photo: Dr. Gilles Wendling
  14. 14. AS A RESULT.....BEDROCK IS FRACTURED!!!
  15. 15. WHERE ARE THE PLAYS... AND WHERE IS GROUNDWATER?
  16. 16. Study Areas of OGC and Geoscience BCMontney Water Project Ft St John ace River Pe Hudson’s Hope Dawson Creek Source: Geoscience BC Montney Water Project
  17. 17. Ft Nelson Ft St JohnHudson’s Hope Dawson Creek
  18. 18. Geological X-section (DD’) Source: Geoscience BC Montney Water Project
  19. 19. D D’
  20. 20. gas-bearing plays water-bearing plays gas and water-bearing plays m-asl 1000 0 0 1000 0-1000 -1000 0 0 Peace River (g+w) Bluesky (g+w) Spirit River (g+w) Cadomin (g+w) Gething (g+w) -1000-2000 Nikanassin (g+w) -2000 -1000 -1000 Baldonnel (w) Doig (g) Halfway (g+w) -2000 ? Montney (g) -2000 -2000 0 km 5 km 10 km 15 km 20 km
  21. 21. HOW IS GROUNDWATER MOVING?
  22. 22. Piezometric levels Deep Well Poor quality seal or Good seal absence of seal Spring Aquifer 1 Wetland Aquifer 2 River Aquifer 3 Groundwater flow Target Zone Not to scale
  23. 23. aquitardaquifer 1 aquitardaquifer 2 aquitardaquifer 3
  24. 24. water table of aquifer 3 water table of aqu ifer 1aquifer 1 aquitardaquifer 2 aquitardaquifer 3
  25. 25. WHERE IS GROUNDWATER IN THE PLAYS?
  26. 26. formation pressure m hydraulic head gas-bearing plays 193 m-agl highest recorded water-bearing plays lowest recorded gas and water-bearing plays 65 MPa 6500 m (w) Halfway (g+w) 190 m-agl m-asl Baldonnel (w) Cadotte (g+w) 1000 490 m-bgl Head in Half way 0 Head in Bald 0 1000 onnel Head in Cado 0 tte-1000 -1000 0 0 -1000-2000 -2000 -1000 -1000 Baldonnel (w) Doig (g) Halfway (g+w) -2000 ? Montney (g) -2000 -2000 0 km 5 km 10 km 15 km 20 km
  27. 27. Hydraulic Head in Nikanassin Nikanassin: ~ 200 m thick ~ 1 km deep LNG source 420 Ft St John 620 800 750 440 660 640 680 4001000 950 900 850 700 680 540 780 680 460 480520 1420 740 500 Hudson’s Hope 700 940 700 (modified from source: Geoscience BC Montney Water Project)
  28. 28. Artesian Conditions - Nikanassin Formation
  29. 29. SO, WHAT ARE THE RISKS ?
  30. 30. Sump Source Water Well Well Shaft Well Head and Activity Abandoned Active Cancelled Gas Testing Completed Suspended Cased Well Authority Granted2km
  31. 31. gas-bearing plays Active Abandoned water-bearing plays Completed Suspended gas and water-bearing plays Cased Source Water Well - depths Projection of unknown well near the cross-section m-asl 1000 0 0 1000 0-1000 -1000 0 0 -1000-2000 -2000 -1000 -1000 -2000-3000 -3000 -2000 -2000 -3000-4000 -4000 -3000 -3000 0 km 5 km 10 km 15 km 20 km
  32. 32. In 5 or 10 years... m-asl 1000 0 0 1000 0-1000 -1000 0 0 -1000-2000 -2000 -1000 -1000 -2000-3000 -3000 -2000 -2000 -3000-4000 -4000 -3000 -3000 0 km 5 km 10 km 15 km (Note: location of future O&G wells is20 km for illustration purposes)
  33. 33. 2030... 2050 Cadotte (g+w) 500 m-bgl
  34. 34. Low river levelAquifers provide flow and temperature control!
  35. 35. In 20, 30, ... , 50 years Montney
  36. 36. ARE THE RISKS.... REAL?
  37. 37. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in PennsylvaniaNathaniel R. Warnera, Robert B. Jacksona,b, Thomas H.Darraha, Stephen G. Osbornc, Adrian Downb, KaiguangZhaob, Alissa Whitea, and Avner Vengosha,1Duke University, Durham, NCCalifornia State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CAProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) - July 2012 - Edited by Karl K.Turekian, Yale University, North Haven, CT, and approved May 10, 2012 (received for reviewJanuary 5, 2012)
  38. 38. 426 shallow groundwater samples and 83 northern Appalachian brine samplesThe average depth of drinking water wells in the study area is between 60 and 90 m (Source: Warnera et al.)
  39. 39. (bromine) Dilution and mixing with meteoric fresh water (including Marcellus) Fig. 3. Bromide vs. chloride concentrations groundwater in NE PA and Appalachian brines fr (18, 19). The linear relationship (type D: r 2 ¼ 0.99 A–C: r 2 ¼ 0.14) between the conservative eleme that the majority of the higher salinity samples dilution of Appalachian brines that originated Even with a large dilution of the original brine, of type-D waters are still discernable in shallow gr salinity (Cl > 20 mg∕L) groundwater with low B water likely originated from shallow sources suc deicing. Seawater evaporation line is from (25). tinguishable (Table S3) concentrations o ions (Fig. 4 A and B); however, bromide c available in the historical data set. Non (Source: Warnera et al.)
  40. 40. THE POSITION OF THE INDUSTRY
  41. 41. Shallow Aquifers “ Don’t worry ....Everything is under control” Gas Plays
  42. 42. Source: OGC Fact Sheet - Hydraulic Fracturing and Disposal of Fluids - Sept 2011
  43. 43. OGC’ S APPROACH FOR WATER DEMAND
  44. 44. 15 Annual Runoff (m3): Variable: • Beatton – 1.3 billion m3 • Halfway – 2.6 billion m3 • Sikanni – 1.8 billion m3 • Kiskatinaw – 378 MM m3 • Pine – 5.9 billion m3 Total Annual Runoff for Montney Trend = 16.6 billion m3(Source: Presentation given by Allan Chapman at the 6th BC Unconventional Gas Technical Forumhttp://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/OG/oilandgas/petroleumgeology/UnconventionalGas/Pages/default.aspx)
  45. 45. Calibration to WSC Gauges 8 Calibrated to about 45 Water Survey of Canada streamflow Horn River Basin well pad gauges Synthetic hydrographs have very good fit with measured data. ----------- observed flow ----------- modelled flow Source: Presentation given by Allan Chapman at the 6th BCUnconventional Gas Technical Forum http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/OG/ oilandgas/petroleumgeology/UnconventionalGas/Pages/default.aspx
  46. 46. Summary 18Average Annual Runoff in Montney = 16.6 Billion m3• Projected Maximum Future Water Requirement for Hydraulic Fracturing in Montney Play is 3 per year• Of this, sources (rivers, lakes, dugouts) 9 million m3• This is 0.06 percent of average annual runoff• There is abundant water, but it needs careful management (Source: Presentation given by Allan Chapman at the 6th BC Unconventional Gas Technical Forum http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/OG/oilandgas/petroleumgeology/UnconventionalGas/Pages/default.aspx)
  47. 47. X
  48. 48. DISPOSAL WELLS
  49. 49. Disposal Injection WellMajor Fault Line W Z Y Ft St John Y’ Z’ Hudson’s Hope W’
  50. 50. Peace River Moberly River W’W Hudson’s Hope Bennet Dam
  51. 51. gas-bearing plays W-W’ water-bearing plays Beryl Prairie public water supply gas and water-bearing plays Peace River Moberly River 16077 Hudson’s Hope Gas Ltd. Disposal Well - Suspended W’ 22031 Water to BlueskyW at Depth 860 m Hudson’s Hope Gas Ltd. Disposal Well - Suspended Ground Elev 693 m asl Water to Baldonnel1000 at Depth 1610 m Ground Elev 691 m asl Approximate Paleovalley (?) (?) Peace River (g+w) Harmon (g+w) 0 Spirit River (g+w) m asl 0 Bluesky (g+w) 0 m aslm asl 0 Lower Cretaceous (g) m asl Gething (g+w) Nikanassin (g+w) -1000 -1000-1000 Baldonnel (w) -1000 Halfway (g+w) -2000 Doig (g) Note: depths and thicknesses of Montney (g)-2000 formations are approximate, extrapolated from the GeoScience BC Report 2011-11 -2000 Stoddart (g) 0 25 50 75 km
  52. 52. Fort St John Z’ Pine RiverZ Peace River Moberly River
  53. 53. gas-bearing plays Z-Z’ ~ 256 OSP of liquid waste disposed off water-bearing plays (181: 111 OSP and 3010: 145 OSP) 00181 gas and water-bearing plays Penn West Petroleum Ltd. Disposal Well - 03010 Suspended (2004) Z’Orefyn Energy Advisors Corp. Water to Halfway Disposal Well - Active at Depth 1495 m Water to Halfway at Depth 1510 m Ground Elev 670 m asl Pine River Ground Elev 683 m asl 500 500Z Peace River 500 Moberly River 500 0 m asl drilled in 1956!! 500 Approximate Paleovalley (?) Peace River (g+w) Harmon (g+w) 0 m asl Spirit River (g+w) 0m asl drilled in 1971 0 m asl Lower Cretaceous (g) Gething (g+w) -500 -500 0 Cadomin (g+w) m asl Nikanassin (g+w) -500 -500 Baldonnel (w) -1000 -500 -1000 Halfway (g+w)-1000 -1000 Doig (g) Montney (g) -1500 -1000 -1500 (?) Note: depths and thicknesses of formations are approximate, extrapolated 0 from the GeoScience BC Report 2011-11 10 20 -1500 30 km
  54. 54. FINAL COMMENTS
  55. 55. EFFECTS COULD TAKE TIME TO BE OBSERVED: YEARS, DECADES
  56. 56. CUMULATIVE EFFECT
  57. 57. NE BC over 31 000 O&G Wells (source: National Energy Board)map with all wells Text Fort  St  John Dawson  Creek
  58. 58. O&G WELLS IN WESTERN CANADA Over 0.5 million wells!!! 385 000 in Alberta 113 000 in Saskatchewan 31 000 in BC 8 000 in Manitoba
  59. 59. VERY SENSITIVE ENVIRONMENT
  60. 60. Peace River Near Tumbler Ridge
  61. 61. dry river - dry bridge
  62. 62. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Photo: Gilles Wendling
  63. 63. Photo: Gilles Wendling THANK YOUGW SOLUTIONS, DR. GILLES WENDLING, FT NELSON, BC, SEPTEMBER 2012

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