Het in opdracht van Brainport/SRE ontwikkelde bu-model


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Het in opdracht van Brainport/SRE ontwikkelde bu-model

  1. 1. Guided Choices towards a Circular Business model
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction 3 How to use this document? 4 Mindmap 5 STEP 1: Circular Economy awareness 6 1.1 The Circular Economy what do I have to know? 7 1.2 The Circular Economy, trend or reality? 9 1.3 What skills do I need to have? 11 STEP 2: Company and partners review 13 2.1 Is my company ready? 14 2.2 Who are my stakeholders and how do i involve them? 15 2.3 What is the benchmark in my industry? 16 STEP 3: Product (re-)design 20 3.1 Are my products ready for the Circular Economy? 3.2 What influences the lifecycle of my product? Guided Choices Towards a Circular Business Model 26 3.4 When should I consider redesign of products for refurbishment? Title 24 3.3 How do I manage the deprecation of my products? Colophon 21 27 3.5 Why should I (re-)design my product for remanufacturing? 28 STEP 4: Service (re-)design 30 4.1 How do I move from a product to a service? 31 4.2 Ways to market, how do my products reach the end-user? 33 4.3 Which customers do I go to first? 34 4.4 How do I calculate my service rate? 35 Date November 2013 Production In assignment of SRE Project C2CBizz Helma Smolders Samenwerkingsverband Regio Eindhoven 4.5 How do I avoid unprofitable customers? 36 Authors Douwe Jan Joustra One Planet Architecture institute (OPAi) 4.6 How do I manage the return of the products? 37 Egbert de Jong De Lage Landen Frits Engelaer De Lage Landen Text editing Theo Rennenberg De Lage Landen Design Mark Copal Third Floor Design STEP 6: Cross check on ambitions 48 Graphics Jeffrey Hekman Third Floor Design C2CBizz and authors Funding North-West Europe INTERREG IV B. STEP 5: Business model calculation 40 5.1 How do I manage the development costs? 41 5.2 Return on investment, is there anything to earn? 43 5.3 Partnerships or do it yourself? 44 5.4 How do I finance all of this? 45 49 Acknowledgments 50
  3. 3. Introduction Publication: source of inspiration and support A new economy is dawning. An economy that creates new values. An economy that produces products today, which will become the resources of the future. An economy based on renewable sources of energy. An economy that connects responsibilities for people, planet and economy. An economy that is profitable. This publication is meant to be a source of inspiration and support for small- and medium enterprises (SME’s) to enter the Circular Economy. The title is also a promise; it provides Guided Choices Towards a circular Business Model. The Circular Economy C2C BIZZ the initiator The Circular Economy is an economy that enables producers to show the value and quality of the performance of their products to the customer. Products are designed for performance and also for re-use of all materials in different phases of sharing parts up to recycling of (almost pristine) resources. The Circular Economy is the logical descendant of the linear economy that dominated since the start of the industrial revolution. In a sense, it seems as if we are about to enter a revolution, but in practicality it is evolving from existing business models. The project C2C BIZZ wants to give companies and entrepreneurs specific guidance on the Circular Economy topic to show how the Cradle to Cradle philosophy can lead to profits. They have initiated this publication. The content was made based on questions; the questions that were asked during interviews and roundtable discussions with various businesses. We are using these questions to cover several subjects related to the Circular Economy. Your choices The introduction of the Circular Economy provided a new vision on the treatment of resources, energy and primarily for new ways of value creation and entrepreneurship. It is based on the principles and ideas of Cradle to Cradle, introduced by William McDonough and Michael Braungart. The Circular Economy is the trending topic in business and policies. But how can you benefit? Do not expect to be provided all the answers. That is quite impossible. The ultimate direction you and your company will traverse is your decision. Our goal is to provide some guidance for the subjects critical to consider when developing a circular business model. Guided Choices are to be made which will affect your existing business, new product - service combinations, product design, customer relations and all financial aspects of your organization. 3 This document has been made for the entrepreneur who is looking for chances to participate in the Circular Economy. It will help to define opportunities with an open eye for the pitfalls that may appear along the road. A common pitfall facing companies at the initial stages of engaging circular economic business models is the thought that one has to respond to every aspect of the project at the same time. You don’t. First of all your regular day to day business needs your continued attention. Secondly, you need to give your customers time to respond to changes in your offerings. Thirdly your product-service model needs some reshaping and being in a hurry is a guarantee for failure or at least no guarantee for success. The focus The focus is on the choices that you need to make in your search for a circular Business model. Note that there will be multiple solutions for the same problem; you are free to create the solution that suits you best. Enjoy the journey, and be prepared to re-visit some of these choices in the near future as the innovations related to a Circular Economy have just begun.
  4. 4. How to use this document? i The section names refer to the questions asked by your colleague entrepreneurs. There are many books and reports around the Circular Economy, remanufacturing and service based product development. How is this document different? This document can be read as a workbook: start at the beginning and read on to the end. But, the purpose of this document is to inspire you and funnel your thoughts through the 5 step approach you see below. Each section contains a number of questions presented as puzzle pieces. By the end of each section you have completed part of the puzzle. Legend: ? Questions you should ask (and answer) yourself are formatted in a green box such as this one. This document is designed for use on your smart device i i Tooltips, links and quotes are formatted in a blue box such as this one. They contain links or quotes with background information. If you are reading the PDF version from your smart device, you will notice that references to other materials contain hyperlinks for easy online access. The Mindmap that you will find after each section reminds you were you are in the process. After the last section you have completed the puzzle. ! READ about the Circular Economy LEARN about your company and partners awareness TALK about product redesign 4 TRY to come to a service model redesign TEST how you can make this a profitable business model.
  5. 5. SECTION START How do I finance all of this? INDEX What skills do I need to have? The Circular Economy what do I have to know? How do I manage the development costs? Partnerships or do it yourself? The Circular Economy, trend or reality? REA D T ES What is the benchmark in my industry? Is my company ready? LE A R N Which customers do I go to first? T Return on Investment, is there anything to earn? TR Who are my stakeholders and how do I involve them? Ways to market, how do my products reach the end-user? Y How do I move from a product to a service? T LK A When should I consider redesign of products for refurbishment? How do I avoid unprofitable customers? What influences the lifecycle of my product? How do I manage the deprecation of my products? How do I calculate my service rate? How do I manage the return of the products? Why should I redesign my product for remanufacturing? Are my products ready for the Circular Economy? 5
  6. 6. SECTION START READ 1. about the Circular Economy ! This section is about the basics of the Circular Economy. When you are finished working through this section you will understand the theory behind the Circular Economy. It provides you insight in the differences in the economics of the Linear and Circular Economy. You will know where to find key literature, movies and discussions and you will be up to date with most of the concepts and show cases. 6 INDEX
  7. 7. 1.1 The Circular Economy what do I have to know? The Circular Economy is an answer to the problems that vex the current linear economy. The Circular Economy has continuous loops of (raw) materials, and also sheds light on how new business models will change the current models. In contrast, the current linear economy provides one way tickets for precious resources. These one-way tickets are responsible for a scarcity of resources, waste and pollution which cause enormous costs in the public domain such as: the restoration of ecosystems and measurements systems needed to create an adaptive society that is able to handle the consequences of this oneway-system. The Circular Economy promotes a systemic change that creates continues loops of materials: resources are only temporary part of a product and at the end of life or end of use (of the product), the resources will be available again for re-use in new products.. This model of the Circular Economy is based on the Cradle to Cradle philosophy. Cradle to cradle distinguishes two circles: the biological nutrients and the technological nutrients. Both kinds of nutrients can be used in production. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation1, in cooperation with McKinsey, created a focussed analysis of the economics of a Circular Economy. In the illustration on the right you find the basics of the Circular Economy. 1) Towards a Circular Economy’ part 1 & 2, Ellen MacArthur’s Foundation, 2012 & 2013 interactive system diagram 7 SECTION START
  8. 8. SECTION START Get up to speed with the following accessible video’s and websites on this subject: Youtube uu The story of stuff uu The story of solutions i uu Re-thinking progress uu From Customer to user uu Cradle to Cradle by Reggs Websites ’’ Ellen MacArthur Foundation ’’ Wikipedia Circular Economy ’’ Cradle to Cradle / EPEA TED talks uu TED Talks on Circular Economy The biological nutrients are used in cascades in order to gain as much value as possible from them. In the end these materials can add value to the soil after composting or digestion. Quality of the soil is the key factor in this circle, because we need fertile soils for future food and feedstock. Technical ingredients can also be in closed loops. After the first phase of production, products can be maintained, reused, remanufactured or recycled. Through the process of recycling, the Circular Economy re-emphasizes the quality of all resources; it is up-cycling as opposed to current strategies which are in effect down-cycling. Although the waste processing sector sees potential positive uses for down cycled materials, it is a non-sustainable leakage that can and should be minimized and ultimately eliminated. Throughout this new approach of material loops there is a new economic model that helps on a systems level to facilitate these changes. It was developed by prof. dr. Walter Stahel2. He introduced the concept of ‘performance based contracting’ in which there is no ownership for the user of a product, the producers keep ownership and the user pays a fee for the performance of a product. This is fundamental in the new economic arrangements of the Circular Economy. It implies better possibilities for producers to have control over their resources; it will bring focus on maintenance, reuse, refurbishment, remanufacturing and mining for existing minerals in their own products. 2) “The Product-Life Factor”, prof. dr. Walter Stahel, Product Life Institute, Geneva, 1982 8 From a systems perspective the change in ownership, from customer to producer, brings some major changes: 1. The producer is responsible for the performance; 2. The customer becomes user of this performance; 3. There is a feedback-loop for the producer. Ultimately, the producer receives incentives, for refurbishment or mining of raw materials and components in the end-of-life products.
  9. 9. 1.2 The Circular Economy, trend or reality? SECTION START The Circular Economy is a ‘new’ perspective on the economic system, but does it have a fundamental basis in reality? The Circular Economy is an answer to the current linear economic system that can best be characterized as “takemake-dispose” and often referred to as a “Cradle to Grave”. The circular approach is: “take-make-use-reuse-remakereuse-…”. It is based on continuity in the use of materials and business models that support a new system of value creation. A Circular Economy is an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and design. It replaces the ‘end-of-life’ or cradle to grave concepts with restoration, incorporates and promotes the use of renewable energy, eliminates the use of toxic chemicals (which impair re-use), and aims toward the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, products, systems, and business models. This is based on the conceptual work of “Cradle to Cradle”3 and the most elementary aspect of which is product innovation. A Circular Economy focuses on the combination of products and services incorporated into a business model that facilitates a company’s ambition to gain value and manage resources in the short and long term thereby adding value to living ecological and societal systems. In theory the Circular Economy is based on ecology, thermodynamics and biology. It is about ecology because there are all kinds of loops in which different forms of life are interdependent. This interdependency is essential in ecology and in a Circular Economic model. It is also about the basics of thermo-dynamics. The second Law of thermodynamics is commonly attributed to Rudolf Clausius who stated “ The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium, will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.” In other words the quality of all materials used in the production of products is often compromised by entropy. This means that it will require extra energy to retain the quality of materials; real energy, labor or both. In biology solutions have developed through evolution; a sharks skin helps the swimming speed of the shark. These solutions can be the basis of new product development. In ‘Bio mimicry’ technicians look for natural solutions in order to mimic them for better products. Circular Economy is about closing the loops, using energy and creation of smart, good, products. Such a Circular Economy is based on a few principles: 1. Design for reuse Energy from renewable sources Circular businesses will need energy. The recovery and remanufacturing of materials all depend on the availability of energy in two forms; physical energy and labor. The Sun provides 9000 times the amount of energy the whole human system requires every second of every day: it will be the primary purpose of the next few decades to harness that power and utilize it for all of our energy needs. 2. Build resilience through diversity 3. Rely on energy from renewable sources 4. Think in systems 5. Share values Design for reuse Every product has a second life. Whether it is performing in a secondary market or through the recycling of its’ essential parts or materials. The first step is to ‘design out waste’. Recovery of materials is the least of all possibilities for reuse of the products, parts or elements. From an economical perspective, the embedded value of a product needs to be carefully accounted for.3 Resilience through diversity The capability of ecosystems to be restorative and resilient to change is based on (bio) diversity, and for business systems this resilience is based on different kinds of diversity: connections, customer relations, supplier relations, resources, and innovations. 3) Cradle to Cradle, Remaking the way we make things, Micheal Braungart and William McDonough, North Point Press, 2002 9 Think in systems The Circular Economy is aimed at continious loops. This is a systems approach. These are loops of materials and nutrients, but also they are loops of responsibility. This implies ‘feedback loops’; providing the producers information on the quality of re-use or recycling of high quality products and resources. The loops of responsibility provides the producer with a higher level of responsibility for the care of not only the products, but also for parts and materials required for this care. Share values Economy is about business, creating products and making profits. In living systems this is known as ‘Symbiosis’. In the Circular Economy it is about creating values through performance and cooperative entrepreneurship. Creating shared values for all participants helps a long term business perspective become a reality.
  10. 10. SECTION START These are real concepts for an entrepreneur to consider. One can see what it implies for the existing business model: a company is linear when it produces a product based on technical or biological resources and after production sells it to a customer (a person or organization) with limited guarantees and the customer is owner and responsible for its maintenance and end - of - life treatment. Service and maintenance may or may not be included in this process. The new business models are based on production and the delivery of product performance to the end user. The manufacturer provides not only the product but the maintenance and service required to achieve optimum performance of the product to the end user. The actual system is becoming more and more of a hybrid solution: utilizing the advantages of both, or focus on diminishing the disadvantages of either system. One could say it is like the transition in propulsion systems in seagoing ships: steam vessels with sails (new) replaced those with sails only (old) in the late 19th and early 20th century. The hybrid car is an other example of using new technology (electric) with the security of the old (combustion engine). This hybrid evolution appears again and again throughout history. Consider examples in the form of power distribution; in the early 20th century local energy providers created low voltage DC power through multiple generators which were only able to provide power over short distances. Weaknesses in that system spurred innovation such as the switch to high voltage AC which allowed a centralized power grid to transport energy over long distances. Now this is happening again through the prevalence of efficient sustainable local energy solutions such as windmills, geothermal, and solar to name a few. The hybrid situation is part of the transition: we use the good elements of the old system to compensate the first failures of the new system. It is all about reliability. So now that the change from linear to Circular Economy is beginning, we will tend to create hybrid solutions first. Perhaps this might take the form of a product based on Cradle to Cradle principals, but still within a sales based business model. This is not bad, but is not a fundamental change. In the long term it will need to evolve and adapt to the new circular system. The most difficult part of such a transition, from linear to circular, is how we will find new ways of effectively conducting business. What’s new? We have seen initiatives that are bridging the gap, taking the form of hybrid models: pay per use and pay for performance agreements, collective ownership and sharing of resources, growing focus and attention to services etc. We will continue to find more and more fundamental solutions in the new circular system: new business models, value creation, system solutions and methods of implementation in businesses, organizations and institutes. For the moment we see a lot of hybrid solutions. Don’t worry, that’s a good thing: because the existing solutions still have relevance and value. But to be sustainable in the long term, new values need to be introduced. Such a transition need not be a revolution; the evolutionary hybrid road is the best way to begin this journey. Working in a hybrid model coordinates the qualities of the new and the old together, but is is ultimately not the desired end state. The heightened focus and speed of innovation, development 10 of new business models, economic values, contracts and other aspects of these initial hybrid models will all contribute to the evolution of a Circular Economy. Few existing corporations producing products today can afford to follow the alternative to a hybrid; a revolutionary change in the business model. Those that can afford to do so, start a new business or business line separate from the existing business in order to fully develop and dedicate the resources needed for success. Innovations in technical specifications and service delivery can then be introduced quickly to these separate divisions without interference to existing operations. When the success of the separate business line is proven, then hybrid models can be introduced to the existing business segments within the organization. 4 4) Illustration Ellen MacArthur Foundation (after W.McDonough and M. Braungart)
  11. 11. 1.3 What skills do I need to have? SECTION START Knowing that I have been educated in a linear way of thinking, which skills do I need to develop in order to be effective in the Circular Economy? When Herman Miller, the innovative office furniture company utilized Cradle to Cradle methodologies to re-design their famous “Think” chair, they noticed their efforts in design for disassembly brought significant advantages in the actual assembly of the chair. Production went faster, cheaper and was easier for assemblers. This case teaches us that when you start solving linear problems in your supply chain, you might find yourself solving other problems. Circular products, services and business models can be quite complex puzzles. But who cares? It is nice to work on a jigsaw puzzle, so why not see your endeavors as a ‘game of change’? The following 8 skills5 or competences6 have been identified as elementary for any Circular Economy project team: 1 Entrepreneurial and developing Celebrate diversity Is your team able to create business models with a focus on the future and Circular thinking? Does your team see the value of diversity in social, economic and ecological contexts, and do they know what it means for the stability, resilience and quality of the organization? By providing ‘room to move’ for the team, you will easily assess whether one of the group has a tendency to protect the status quo and business as usual. Innovators will step in when they feel there is space for change. 2 Address insecurities 6 Craftsmanship aimed at product/services Does the team have an eye for the wishes of the end user or is he/she oriented on technical issues? Recognition of the needs of the customer and responses to these needs leads to initiatives aimed to realize the needed performance. 3 5 Design circular systems, products and services 7 Systems thinking and capable of identifying causal loops Do the members of the team acknowledge relations and have an open attitude to feedback? The ability to translate feedback into improved service propositions shows their ability to identify causal feedback loops. 4 Future oriented and out-of-the-box Is your team future oriented and do they focus on the solutions of tomorrow? 5) The Aldersgate Group published in 2012 the report ‘Skills for a new economy’ www.aldersgategroup.org.uk 6) In Dutch: ‘Ecologie voor economie’, Douwe Jan Joustra, OPAi, 2013 11 Is your staff and management team able to challenge or address insecurities: insecurities, ignorance, denial and create positive action? Designing directly or guiding the designers with a focus on the quality of Circular thinking and taking care of innovations is an ability your company can enhance through internal discussion and connections with stakeholders. Creative, innovative and connected 8 Creating a sense of openness for new solutions and looking for other network arrangements transforms your professionals into cooperative thinkers. That is what you need for management, sales and product/service development. Investing in these skills will help you to gain new insights into the possibilities of the Circular Economy for your business. These new insights will be translated to your own company immediately. There is a growing number of specific trainings, master classes and business school programs in Europe. Consult a specialist or try Google. On Linkedin you will find discussion-groups on ‘Circular Economy’.
  12. 12. SECTION START How do I finance all of this? YOU’VE READ How do I manage the development costs? Partnerships or do it yourself? What is the benchmark in my industry? REA D T ES Is my company ready? LE A R N T Return on Investment, is there anything to earn? Which customers do I go to first? Who are my stakeholders and how do I involve them? TR Ways to market, how do my products reach the end-user? Y How do I move from a product to a service? L TA K What influences the lifecycle of my product? How do I manage the deprecation of my products? How do I calculate my service rate? When should I consider redesign of products for refurbishment? How do I avoid unprofitable customers? INDEX How do I manage the return of the products? Why should I redesign my product for remanufacturing? Are my products ready for the Circular Economy? 12
  13. 13. SECTION START LEARN 2. about your company and partners awareness This section is about the readiness of your company, partners and stakeholders in your supply chain for the Circular Economy. When you are finished working through this section you will be able to evaluate existing and new partners and build an effective team of people to start working on a circular product, service, or business model. 13 INDEX
  14. 14. 2.1 Is my company ready? SECTION START What should be my drivers for the Circular Economy? What are the guiding questions one should critically review and answer? How do I assess my company? The general question is of course ‘Why should I participate in the Circular Economy?’. The need for analysis of existing products and product service models in support of the Circular Economy is growing. There are two basic reasons for a transition to a (more) circular business. The first is connected to the long term profile of the company: do you want to be part of the ‘solution’ or part of the ongoing problem: linear economy. Of course this is not a very open question, but it is the fundamental societal motivation for change. The second reason has a more practical character: there is a need for change. This need can be that the current business is declining or that there are problems in the continuity of production. Ask yourself the question “which combination of product and service performance is needed”. The self-reflecting questions any entrepreneur should ask him or herself before embarking on the Circular Economy adventure are: When we focus on the more practical considerations we see two underlying directions to address in an assessment: 1. the shift from a product oriented business to a product-service based operation and Rethink your actual business: ? ? One of the key questions is what do users of my product really need and how can I provide this in a circular way? ’’ Identify opportunities in the existing day-today businesses for pilots to apply circular principles; ? ’’ What is our real core business? Is it the delivery of a product or process? But what do you really provide? Think as Phillips did: are we selling lamps or do we provide our customers with light? So what are you really selling: the lamp or the light? ’’ Rediscovering your business is rediscovering your real quality and that might be the start of a whole new organization. Redesign products and services : ’’ Define your context in terms of dependencies with other companies Organisational Ambitions: ? ’’ Glory might be on the horizon, but take a moment for yourself and think: what do you really want? An evolution over the next five years, or a revolution, in just a few years? ’’ What do you want to innovate? ’’ Who are the people to trust and give space? ’’ How can I combine the most creative people in the organization with the most experienced? Or do I give them separate positions? 14 ’’ See where the resources go: analyse their use and effectiveness. What seems to be waste could become the basis for new products/ services or a resource for adjacent companies; ’’ Find out what your real quality is and rediscover its potential for business: new production techniques could offer some new perspectives on old methodologies. ’’ First, complete an analysis of the consequences that a transition to a performance based model has for your company. 2. the volatility in availability of natural resources. In our present economic system some circular business models can be recognized. When you are in the need of a copier, suppliers offer contracts for a number of pages or copies. They bring in the machine and provide you the performance of the copier. The supplier owns the machines and the supplier is responsible for the performance. When the supplier has a newer or better performing machine, he is free to replace it. The supplier uses parts of the old machines in the new ones, but that is not a burden for the customer anymore. The customer pays per copy. A worry free solution. This illustrates the shift from machine-orientation (product) to a product-service combination. Rediscover your business: ? ’’ Explore the ways you can combine product and services to enhance real performance. Redesign the products if needed for high performance, reuse and mining of materials. design your service around your relationship with customers. ’’ Redesign your products for reuse with a focus on the ease of disassembly; ’’ Understand and redesign (if necessary) the process and products needed for the reliable performance of service to your customers.
  15. 15. 2.2 Who are my Stakeholders and how do I involve them? SECTION START Preparing a new or changing an existing business model requires the participation of several stakeholders. Remember you cannot change a business overnight so these stakeholders are important. Do you know all of these people and do you have ‘buy in’ from all of them? Ask yourself the following questions: ? ’’ Is circular business an ambition of individuals (you) or is it largely supported by the company? ’’ Are you and other individuals still in the phase of informing the group on what the subject is all about and searching for the benefits or is that clear to all stakeholders? Stakeholders: In my company (direct influence): • Management • Owner/Shareholder/HQ • Sustainability, Facilities, Marketing, Sales, Production, Research and development, Finance, Service, IT, HR. Around my company (some influence): Take a number of steps to decide who your stakeholders are. What is their role in the process? How powerful can they be in making the final concept work? Circular business models do require the involvement of many parties in your company. If your products are designed for the re-use of components, but your sales reps are not offering to trade-in any used product, you will never have any components returned for re-use. If you create a pay-per-use model for your customers but your financial director sees issues in recognizing the sale of the complete product from an accounting perspective, you will not get his support. • Suppliers, design companies, customers, service providers, consultants, banks, leasing companies, branch organizations, C2C/CE experts In the economy (no / very limited influence): • Government, European and local regulations, tax, accounting rules. ? Complete the table below for your stakeholders: Decide how you will be communicating with them to get their commitment. Key stakeholders & resources required Name Function Impact / relation to implementation 15 Circular Economy awareness
  16. 16. 2.3 What is the benchmark in my industry? SECTION START What models are already in place and how can I learn from them? Before deciding on your approach for a circular business model, you want to know what is going on in the world around you. Are there any minimum standards or regulations you need to comply with? At this moment in time, most industries and markets are still developing their circular business models, so few if any have reached maturity. This immature phase creates opportunities for you to set the standards and start creating the benchmark. However before you make any decisions, take some time to investigate what is currently going on in your industry. Look at following sources of information: Competitors Customers Suppliers What are your competitors doing? Look at their websites to see what they are saying on their sustainability and Circular Economy pages. Since this is a hot topic, many are not shy to publish press releases. There is a lot of exaggeration going on; what is presented, as a real solution is often just an ambition. Check the information that national or or European branch organizations have available. A word of advice: make time for some network conversations with key-stakeholders or trend watchers in your line of business. In an informal setting you will hear a lot, literally or in between the lines. Are your customers aware of asking for circular business solutions? They might use terms such as sustainability, corporate social responsibility or have questions on product recycling and environmental disposals. Realize that customers are mostly not sure what to expect from you as a supplier. In the B2B market you will continue to find a more formalized approach and find sections included in their tender or request for proposal documents covering these subjects. Ask selected customers what their ideas are on circular business models. Are your suppliers of raw materials, parts, components or completed products working on designs for re-use? What developments will help with your ambitions? If you have a crucial role to play in the go to market approach of your supplier(s), they might expect you to follow their initiatives. But it also works the other way around; it is very likely that you are going to ask your suppliers to do things differently in order to support your ambitions. For example ask your suppliers to deliver more details on the materials content of their supplies or where they are sourcing the materials. ? Organize a customer panel discussion. Involve customers at different stages; not only in this investigation phase, but also later to test your newly designed circular business model or offering. 16 i Advice: question your suppliers on their circular ambitions. A supplier that might have an idea on these developments is your waste-contractor. Since many of them participate in discussions on resource management and their own role “from waste to resources”, they could have valuable information for you.
  17. 17. SECTION START Channel partners Government and other legislations The specialists These are all the partners between your business and the end-user. Investigate what they are doing and what you can learn from them. Legislation and regulation are the operational hygiene products that need to be considered in the delivery of your new circular business. Are there any requirements that need to be followed in terms of product liability, product disposal, parts recycling, and materials usage? How will these affect your business now or in the near future? The new IFRS and US GAAP accounting rules are forcing customers to look differently at how to book their capital products on their balance sheet. Also, manufacturers that move from producer to a rental or pay-per-use model can have issues with their sales recognition. Make sure you understand what the impact will be of these changes for your business. Consider hiring a specialist to help sourcing more information. But be critical on the costs and benefits. Visit a few of the many seminars organized around the subject. Ask a specialist to to do a high level seminar at your organization with members of the board of directors, innovators and sales department. This is a small investment but will give you and your organization insights into actual developments and possibilities. Service providers Countries, regions The others There are a number of providers that deliver services to your customer. These companies are involved in the advisory of purchases, finance or leasing, installation, training, planned maintenance, repairs, logistics, de-installation, refurbishment, remanufacturing, fleet management, etc. Some of these services are delivered or controlled by your company, others hired by the channel partners or end-users directly. Sometimes the services provided play a key role in how the customers perceive the benefits of your products. Advice: make an inventory of the services that providers offer in the delivery and usage of your product and how they can positively or negatively influence your ambitions. Also think beyond the obvious and consider the the new entrants, or new parties that are trying to get into your market from a different angle. If you are selling and/or sourcing your products in different countries in Europe or around the globe, you will find different perceptions on the Circular Economy. In Europe this garners a lot more attention than other regions. Also, do not underestimate the ambitious policies on circular economic targets that the Chinese government has employed. Look for information from other companies in your specific market throughout the globe. How will your customers in other regions in Europe look at your new circular business models that are enthusiastically received in countries like the Netherlands and Germany? France and Brittain are working actively on Circular Economic models. In Belgium the work of ‘Plan C’ is acknowledged as a strong attribution to the Circular Economy. The government of Scotland and the Wallonian Region of Belgium joined the Circular Economy 1007 of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation recently. Brand new ideas do not come from the usual players. Watch the (small) and new players in and around your industry. A rich source of information can be Internet sites that give innovators a podium for crowd sourcing or crowd funding8 These small or new players might be the niche players with the power of innovation driving their companies from the ground up. Watch them and learn. Finding some way of cooperation with them might be a valuable initiative. i When someone else sells your product and/or service you have to invest in properly explaining and training them on the features and benefits of your products. 7) Circular Economy 100 http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/ business/ce100 17 8) for instance: http://www.kickstarter.com
  18. 18. SECTION START What do I do with the information collected? ? Document the information you gathered in a chart that lists possible opportunities and threats for your business. This will prove effective later on in the process and preparation of your business model. What is happening in my industry on Circular Economy Opportunities Threats Competitors Customers Suppliers Channel partners Service providers Government / legislation Countries, regions Specialists Other 18
  19. 19. SECTION START How do I finance all of this? INDEX YOU’VE READ How do I manage the development costs? Partnerships or do it yourself? YOU’VE REA D T ES LE A R N Which customers do I go to first? T Return on Investment, is there anything to earn? LEARNED TR Ways to market, how do my products reach the end-user? Y How do I move from a product to a service? L TA K When should I consider redesign of products for refurbishment? How do I avoid unprofitable customers? What influences the lifecycle of my product? How do I manage the deprecation of my products? How do I calculate my service rate? How do I manage the return of the products? 19 Why should I redesign my product for remanufacturing? Are my products ready for the Circular Economy?
  20. 20. SECTION START TALK 3. about product redesign This section is about design and redesign. When you are finished working through this section you will be able to have a circular view of the physical products you bring to the market and evaluate different re-design opportunities that might bring this product into a more circular business model. 20 INDEX
  21. 21. 3.1 Are my products ready for the Circular Economy? SECTION START What is the impact of Circular Economy on our products? How can we (re-)design for re-use? The current focus for many companies already engaged in building circular economic models is around how to increase the performance and reliability of their products. But the basic circular economic building blocks for many industries can be found in the products themselves in terms of their price and quality. Inner circles: Maintenance is in the “usage” phase of the product life cycle and is a critical activity to prolong the functional life of the product. Maintenance can be seen as the most efficient way to keep products and materials operating at their peak performance. Creation of a proper delivery model for maintenance can be very profitable. as the provision of after sales service, including spare parts, technical support and other services that enhance the performance of your products generate much higher revenues for your company than the original value of the product at the time of sale. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey identified both inner, and outer circles in manufacturing that held different value chains. Ultimately, all circles9 are interconnected and influence the first and next life of products. i Outer circle: Recycling is the recuperation of materials from end of life products. Classically this is the waste system in which valuables are taken out of the waste: iron, wood, glass, paper, textiles and to some extend electronics. These are potential resources for new phases of production. The recycling quality is growing fast. The traditional down-cycling in which resources loose their purity and quality is being replaced by up-cycling. Upcycling means that resources of high quality are being generated sometimes for different purposes. After collection of materials with higher values, the rest is shredded and sorted into common types of resources. In this approach waste becomes the new material for the production process. Design for recycling will help to recycle valuable resources and ultimately lower the cost of production for the next generation of product. Reuse/redistribution, more and more companies see the value of the 2nd market. Reuse and redistribution can extend a product’s lifetime extensively. Nowadays this can be seen in the proliferations of the second hand market facilitated by shops and on-line services such as Ebay. But the first signs of a major change in this market can be noticed: producers following these companies that service the 2nd life market will understand how the offer a cheaper solution for users, and sometimes the ‘vintage’ quality of the product is a unique selling point. These are often new or different user/Customer groups for companies and therefore a new market. Refurbishment/Remanufacture as illustrated in the example of the copier, companies use the take back system of machines for reuse of parts in the production of new machines. Many parts have an extended life and usage time and can be part of next generation machinery. These parts can be used in future generations of new machines, partial restorations, or simply an improvement to the aesthetics of the product. This approach will affect the design of future generations of products also as they will become a “design for re-use” product. 9) See the online Circular Economy Toolkit (Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge): www.Circulareconomytoolkit.org 21 i
  22. 22. SECTION START Product and service design Maintenance and repair: Reuse and redistribution: For each of the circles some design challenges can be formulated. In the Circular Economy design is a key issue. First, there are some general choices that need to be approached when building a circular business model. Then directions will be given on each ‘circle of business’ which address the specific design of products and services. In regards to service maintenance can be simplified and improved through careful choices and considerations during the product design phase. Certain product designs inherently lend themselves to circular economic models due to the simplicity of their design. Others need to be re-designed with ease of maintenance and serviceability in mind. During a research project at the Polytechnic University of Delft, a student found that it took 45 minutes in order to access the essential parts of a coffee machine. This makes regular service events costly and difficult to justify from an economic perspective. Essential elements of design for maintenance and repair are10: easy access, mounting, handling and interchangeability of parts, simple fault diagnostics, technician safety, quick access to diagnostic and lubrication points, reduction in total number of electrical connections, and simplicity of final adjustments. This can initially be difficult from a design perspective. First there must be a demand or a secondary market for products. Ultimately, the customer must see value in the quality and price of second life or refurbished products. Part of this is a cultural issue; quality products in some markets are commonly viewed as “Vintage” which still have value and are actively sought after. Part of this is a technical issue:is the product still performing properly? Many companies understand the differences in the first, second and third markets and derive a benefit from each (from a business perspective). Some producers view their involvement in these extra equipment lifecycles as compromising their new product sales, but someone is currently benefitting from these lifecycles when the one who could benefit most is the original manufacturer when they are actively engaged in the re-harvesting of components for the performance enhancement of their products in the 2nd and 3rd lifecycles of equipment. These markets are becoming more commonplace so why not become a part of them? For example: the producer of ergonomic office chairs, BMA Ergonomics NL, takes the old chairs back for a reasonable price when new chairs are installed. The old chairs will be ‘up-cycled’ with new parts and BMA found a vintage market for them in Finland: a good business case was born. So, from a design perspective it is important to be able to up-cycle the product without huge costs in labour and materials. Specific choices in design As shown before, there are different circles of performance in the Circular Economy. Some indications will be given below to connect the circles to the design challenges which are partly based on questions that entrepreneurs have on this issue and partly as the specific characteristics connected to the circles of performance. 10) Maintainability Engineering by Alex Hammond Babb, David J. Smith (Hardback, 1973) 22
  23. 23. SECTION START Refurbishment and remanufacturing: Recycling On refurbishment and remanufacturing11 some general connotations need to be considered: Products that will be part of waste and recycling processes should be free of toxic elements, have the ability to be disassembled in as pure as possible materials, have minimal volume of non-recycleable parts and maximise the use of recyclable materials. 1. Technology must be available to extract components without damage; 2. The product should be made up (at least partly) of standardized and interchangeable parts; 3. Cost of up-cycling is relative low compared to reuse; 4. Product technology of parts and their performance is stable over more than one product life cycle; 5. Positive cost-revenue balance regarding refurbishment or remanufacturing opposite to disposal options or environmental impact of legislation. i Philips describes their process as follows Resources for new electronic products as well as the treatment of electronic waste become increasingly critical as we create, design and manufacture increasing volumes of electronic products globally. However, recyclability of electronics is limited and a significant percentage of electronics does not even end up in the appropriate waste stream. In the framework of the ENIAC project GreenElec, Philips cooperates with other manufacturers and recyclers to accomplish alignment between design of products and end-of-life treatment. Philips designed one of its LED-lamps in a way that in the shredder the different materials will fall apart easily, since this kind of product will not be returned for reuse or refurbishment. Follow the lead principles and knowledge of Cradle to Cradle is the best advice for the product designer. The project aims for i uu Philips movie ’’ Suitable combinations of materials for recycling ’’ Abstract recycling i “If product design permits, and there is an adequate process for return of used products (reverse logistics chain), there can be a strong business model in product remanufacturing.” ’’ Design rules for electronics and electronic products taking into account recycling processes ’’ Identification of recyclable/recoverable electronic devices and components ’’ Methods and technology for sorting of devices and components into well-defined waste streams Nabil Nasr and Michael Thurston, 2006)12 Through performance based contracting the product design12 can be adapted to refurbishment and an adequate return logistics support network will need to be available. To improve remanufacturing and refurbishment, consider the following during the design phase: ease of disassembly, number of connections, tools required for disassembly, ease of reassembly, potential to upgrade and part modularity. ’’ Optimum waste stream separation for maximal recovery ’’ Business models and policy support that give an incentive to the recycling/reuse of electronics ’’ This highlights the Philips effort regarding the development and implementation of design guidelines. This is illustrated by the redesign of a LED lamp. 11) Roadmap to Remanufacturing, Mare Advies, October 2013. 12) Nabil Nasr and Michael Thurston’s 2006 paper “Remanufacturing: A Key. Enabler to Sustainable Product Systems”, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY - USA 23
  24. 24. 3.2 What influences the lifecycle of my product? SECTION START Can you think of products in your industry that are considered worthless and disposed of while their technical state is intact, i.e. they still have intrinsic value? Making things that last an eternity is not a Circular Economy objective by itself. But if products can be reused this does lower the carbon footprint and the energy required to re-create this product from raw materials. However even perfectly sound products are disposed of for several reasons that have nothing to do with their technical state. A PlayStation 2 is useless and its resale value is close to €0,- because it cannot play the latest games. Clothes older than 5 years of age are generally out of fashion because of changing trends and a ’92 Truck has no useful purpose in most European cities because its CO2 emissions are too high. When redesigning a product for a Circular Economy it is critical to know what determines its economical and useful life. In the coming chapters three influences are identified to get you started to think in lifecycles: fashion, politics and innovation. These influences seem pretty obvious, however product designers often fail to match these trends. This is understandable because they are often faced with design challenges that aim to maximize profits around a single design parameter. The most successful products in a Circular Economy are those that are designed to be easily refurbished or upgraded when faced with technical decay or challenges as a result of known lifecycles. How does fashion influence my design? H&M is generally accused of making “low quality” clothes. One could argue that this is the case when only looking from a technical lifecycle perspective. Generally their products are cheaper than competitive products and indeed do not last as long as other more expensive clothes. However from a Circular Economy perspective the technical lifetime is quite nicely aligned with the time the products are “expected to be in fashion”. The next season the customer is expected to buy different colors and designs so why should the T-shirt or skirt last 3 or 4 years? Most other “high quality clothes” are disposed of when they are technically still okay. This same theory also applies to industrial products. The look and feel of an airplane, train, forklift or even treadmill in a gym might not be your first thought when you think of design for fashion. However, these products also can appear obsolete when they are in fact still performing optimally. Modular design of “covers” around industrial products be an effective tool to keep its look and feel appealing to the users. For example, take a look at the Technogym website to see how they extend the lifecylce of their fitness equipment. Not only wear and tear parts are refurbished, also covers can be replaced to fit design changes.13 For all examples the Circular Economy stresses the use of pure, healthy and recoverable resources. 13) Image and ™ courtesy of Technogym.com 24 ? Looking at your product or service, does it fit the latest design trends? Ask a panel of current customers how they feel about your product. Does it create added value for them when your product is more or less fashionable?
  25. 25. SECTION START How do politics influence my design? How do I design for innovation? Subsidies, rules, regulations and incentives are used all over the globe to influence the decision making process of users of products. Electric cars in the Netherlands are in more demand than other European countries because of taxation advantages for lease drivers. In the second hand market these incentives are less and these vehicles do not command a premium price. The result is that electric cars depreciate quite fast compared to similar diesel and gas cars. In such a market it would be beneficial if original battery packs could be recycled and replaced with new, thereby enhancing the vehicle’s value and longevity in the second life market. Designing with future innovation in mind is probably one of the most difficult things to do. Predicting the next technological breakthrough is virtually impossible. However certain production habits of manufacturers could be changed for the better. Modular design enables the upgrade of certain key parts when technologically advanced components are available. The electric motor could even be refurbished and reused in a new leased car allowing the provider and end user to take maximum advantage of appropriate tax incentives. Another example is from Schmitz Cargobull, a German trailer manufacturer who sees many of its second hand trailers being used by Russian transporters. In Russia different rules and regulations apply which create a need for modifications to the trailer design. Schmitz therefore created a post market upgrade kit, which modifies their standard trailers that readily accommodates cross border transportation14 and sale of their trailers in the secondary market. ? 14) How is your product or service lifecycle influenced by politics? Could you mitigate this risk? This is especially true relative to products that contain multiple innovations. A milk robot might have a technical life of 20 years. However if the latest software is not compatible with specific components like laser sensors, the machine might become obsolete in 6 years. An initiative that began in the Netherlands is an adaptation to change this short lifecycle trend in technology: the Phonebloks15 and it was based on the simple assembly techniques “Lego” blocks utilize. Whether or not is is possible to make this lifetime device now, the crowd sourcing model has gained a lot of attention these days; the ‘Phonebloks’ YouTube video garnered over 18 million views. Motorola and others are now very interested in this idea that went viral on the internet in late 2013. This whole idea was driven by the desire to extend product lifecycles and decrease the effect these devices have on the environment. When Apple launched the IPad 1 they knew already that there would be a need for a camera and processor upgrade in less than 2 years. The design of the IPad made it impossible for end users to upgrade their devices, which brought many to buy an IPad II in less than two years. The fact that more and more of today’s products contain computers, hard disks and software also makes traditionally long lasting products become economically obsolete in shorter lifecycles. ? Is your product or service lifecycle influenced by innovation? Can you redesign for upgrades? http://www.cargobull.com/en/ 15) 25 Phonebloks
  26. 26. 3.3 How do I manage the DEPRECATION of my prODUCTS? SECTION START Products depreciate in several ways. Some products are worth nothing after you bought them (for example a tailored suit). Other Fill in the numbers for your products in the visual products consistently keep their value for a long time. There are even products that increase in value over time; think of an olive tree, bricks, good wine or classic cars. In order to manage the lifecycle of your products you have to understand their entire 1. Investment price. economic lifecycle. In chapter 3.2 “What influences the lifecycle of my product?” you learned how politics, fashion and innovation influence the economic lifecycle of products independent from the technical lifecycle. You can slow down the depreciation of your products by creating longer lifecycles and more profitable service based business models. ? 2. Second hand value at the point in time most users sell it. 3. Third life value (the lowest value where you find people trading your product for. How does depreciation over lifecycles work and can I influence the deprecation of my products? 4. Scrap value. ? How can I influence the second life value of my products? By redesigning my products could I increase the vintage effect or value of my products at the end of the lifecycle? ? How can I increase the scrap value of materials in my products? PRICE EQUIPMENT 1st Life 2nd Life 1. High end user 2. Price / Quality € 3rd life € 3. Low price user € € 4. Scrap value AGE OF EQUIPMENT € € 26
  27. 27. 3.4 When should I consider Redesign of products for refurbishment? There are multiple assessment methodologies on how to determine the attractiveness of refurbishment and remanufacturing of a certain product or component. Most of them identify 3 indicators which are schematically shown in the following figure: The three basic indicators are: 1. Product or component use time per life cycle? 2. How many parts are fit for reuse: can be reused? 3. Technical effort and complexity of the remanufacturing process? Though this is not an easy graph to use (it does not give concrete information on the next step) it will help you to determine the route for gaining higher values. We will give some more details on each of the indicators. ? Plot your current product (or the circular product you want to develop) in the graph below and determine its attractiveness for refurbishment or remanufacturing. What does component use time during a lifecycle mean? Products have a general use period. Check how long your customer is generally using a product or component. A nice example is a shoe. Functional shoes are generally thrown away because the sole is worn out, while the rest of the shoe is only at 30% of its useful life. One could redesign the sole components of the shoe so they are easily replaced. In this case the sole component can be replaced 2 times in the total lifecycle of a shoe, which makes redesigning it attractive. However if the shoe is really a “fashion item” it might only be used for a 6 month period. In this case the sole is not worn during its useful life and the attractiveness to redesign this component is low. ? Do certain “wear and tear” components in your products last significantly longer or shorter than the general useful life or your products? If yes, could you upgrade or downgrade this component in order to better match the overall product lifecycle? SECTION START How do I assess how much (# or %) of a product or component can be reused? Products typically consist of several parts and components. For example a car consists of several components which, theoretically, could all be replaced. All of these have their own technical, fashion / esthetic, innovative, and political lifecycles. The overall value of the car is the sum of the lifecycle value of all these parts. When the product components are for example “backward compatible” this means that parts of earlier versions of a product can be used in new versions of a product. Components with a slow innovation cycle (like batteries, engine parts, shock absorbers, turbos etc) could be reused in new cars. These functional items are not part of the “fashion” lifecycle of the car and the end customer would therefore be less bothered if these kinds of components are reused. ? Potential for refurbishment ? If you have various versions of your products or services, review the components that your product was made of in its previous model. How many components could you theoretically have reused in your latest product? If this number is low you might ask whether this is a known fact for your designers and as such a deliberate choice, or is this an unknown result of design changes? How much technical effort and complexity is expected? In the above refurbishment example of a car there are several components that are easily replaced. Tyres, lightbulbs, and the battery can be exchanged by basic mechanics in less than half an hour. However when one wants to change the gearbox, interior or rear window, more knowledge and time is needed. By designing less advanced or modular products, components can be replaced easier. ? 27 Could you make certain parts of your product simpler or from the same materials in order to reduce complexity in service and maintenance?
  28. 28. 3.5 Why should I Redesign my product for Remanufacturing? Most products today are (deliberately) not made for repair, upgrading and reuse. This is the result of decades of production optimization where manufacturers were incentivized by the market to produce cheaper products. This model relies on the sale of new products. On top of this, the focus of revenue creation is at the time the new product is sold. Therefore emphasis has been put on cheap and fast assembly and producing a new version of the same product. As such, repair and reuse have been neglected in most design parameters. Redesign of products is of added value for those particular companies who want to: 1. Provide the customer with ‘guilt free’ products 2. Create the most appealing total cost of usage / ownership offering 3. Optimize repair and maintenance costs over a product lifecycle 4. Provide customers with modular sales and repair options 5. Enable economically viable spare parts and raw material harvesting at a product end of life 16 i 16) For a clear example why and how a mobile phone could be redesigned: uu Watch the Phonebloks movie Image copyright Phonebloks 28 SECTION START
  29. 29. SECTION START How do I finance all of this? INDEX YOU’VE READ How do I manage the development costs? Partnerships or do it yourself? YOU’VE REA D T ES LEARNED LE A R N Which customers do I go to first? T Return on Investment, is there anything to earn? TR Ways to market, how do my products reach the end-user? How do I avoid unprofitable customers? Y How do I move from a product to a service? L TA How do I calculate my service rate? K YOU’VE TALKED How do I manage the return of the products? 29
  30. 30. SECTION START TRY 4. to come to a service model redesign This section is about understanding the service that you could potentially deliver. Moving from lamps to light, cars to kilometers and copier machines to prints. A service rather than a product is something that sounds easy. But how do you make it happen? When you finish working through this section you will have a better understanding of how to cluster usage of products, maintenance and end of life treatment into one single rate. You will also understand the pitfalls in providing services to the wrong customers, as well as how your service will reach your customers. 30 INDEX
  31. 31. 4.1 How do I move from a product to a service? SECTION START In order to determine the performance standard and its corresponding product service combination one should start with assessing the user requirements. Service based business models are especially attractive when your products are becoming commodities in the marketplace. For example all cell phones are able to provide a connectivity and all café’s provide excellent coffee. So what makes a customer choose one for another? It is the overall service. One of the cornerstones of the Circular Economy is performance based contracting. Where the product / service provider takes the responsibility for the performance of the product provided. 5 Choices towards performance based contracting: 17 1. Product-services should be experienced through the users perspective. The users needs and the ability of a service provider to meet them, leads their decision to utilize one company over another for performance based contracts. Database information alone cannot be used to identify these needs. In service design the following example is often used; first imagine two customers. Both were born in 1948 in Great Britain, married, successful and wealthy. Also they both love dogs, enjoy the Alps, have at least two children and are happily married. Suddenly a picture immerges, but does this give you an idea about the habits of these potential customers? It could be prince Charles or Ozzy Osbourne. So data is important but better understanding of the customer comes through analysis of habits, culture, social context and motivation. Gaining authentic customer insights is hard work; you need to incorporate some of your actual and unforeseen customers in the process. ? Find the real motives of your customers for their choices. Go out to them to see what they do, what they are looking for and what they really do. Discuss their needs with the customers. 17) Partly based on: ‘This is service design thinking.’ BIS Publishers, Amsterdam, 2011 31 2. Use the creative power of people Involve different groups of professionals in your company and invite customers to take part in your service design process. Marketeers, engineers, managers, front-line staff and customers brought together will create an atmosphere of recognition, interaction and creativity. Although not every person is by definition a creative thinker, the interactions will bring many ideas forward. Service designers will facilitate this process in a way that individual flows of thought will flourish and the interactions will lead to even better ideas. For service design there are many tools and methods for gaining genuine insights from different user perspectives. Look for designers who have the ability to create a service design process.18 i When working on service design, find professionals who can accommodate your innovations21. In the field of service design, the use of business canvasses is an effective method that will support your ambitions. Find a service design company or professional that has access to a ‘circular business canvas’. ’’ Business model generation 18) for example: http://www.designthinkingnetwork.com
  32. 32. SECTION START 3. Adapt to the rhythm of the user. 4. Make services tangible. 5. Be an eagle. Services are not a one-time-action, such as the moment that a sale occurs. It is crucial to consider the service requirements and subsequent changes in the user’s needs in relation to the performance that you have contracted to deliver. Every service that is coupled to performance will follow a three step development cycle: The Circular Economy is about performance: it is not about the mechanics of the car, it is about the kilometres it will travel. Customers tend to appreciate the performance more and more when the kilometers or miles driven are trouble free. Car sharing systems, light services, comfortable flooring, seating that improves the health of personnel; these are the product-service combinations that have value, now and in the future. Services are the invisible part of the performance. If the Customer is only made aware of their completion by seeing them identified on the monthly bill, opportunities are missed and something is out of balance. The planning table in the public toilet that is signed by the cleaners is an example of how the user will recognize the efforts of those providing the service in the interests of health and hygiene. The eagle has a bird’s view of the whole situation and has a sharp eye for small details. The customer does see, hear, smell, touch and taste the provided services and performance. You, as the provider, should see, feel, hear, smell, touch and taste even more and earlier. This creates the need for you and your company to become eagles; not to catch your prey, but to perform your services at the right time with an intense eagle like understanding of all that is required of your products and services. The pre-service period (connecting to the user and his/her needed performance), the actual service period (customers experience the performance) and the subsequent post-service period (where the after use responsibility counts). Just like any good stage play or movie, the performance should keep a sense of expectation without strain for the user. The service events need to be executed with an eye on the expectations of the customer. First of all you will need satisfied current customers as well as references for future business. ? Invest in professionals that know the ‘feeling’ and the ‘insecurity’ of the customers. Pay close attention to the value of customer behavior changes: the customer is always right or at least has the right to make his/her own choices. Be adaptive! Another example is the mechanic who, after completing the required maintenance, shakes hands with the end user at the Customer’s location. As Phillips did when they began offering contracts based on light performance: by showing the customer how much energy was conserved. It is all about generation of appreciation and and active engagement. Don’t over do it: people do not like junk mail as an example of evidencing. Small indicators are often enough. Think of the folded end of toilet paper representing the attention of housekeeping in hotels. ? Find the indicators of your own services or performances for the customer. Can you add more? 32 ? Be an eagle in your work: see, hear and live your concepts!
  33. 33. 4.2 Ways to Market, how do my products reach the end-user? SECTION START This section describes the importance of understanding how products reach the end-user. The ways to market have an impact on what and how you can influence with a (new) circular business model. What is your commercial way to market? Why does it matter how I go to market? Should I consider doing more myself? Products and services reach their end-users via direct or indirect channels from producers to end-users. The decision to go direct (straight from producer to end-user) or indirect (with wholesalers and retailers/dealers) is taken based on various criteria such as: volume, value of offer, standardized versus tailored product, proximity of markets, additional services, choice of customers, etc. Along the way all channel partners play a role and add value to both the upstream suppliers and downstream customers. In every step in the channel, there are changes in ownership, risk and financial considerations, etc. (see figure). The success of your new circular business idea is very dependent on how it is being delivered to channel and enduser. Most companies have a mix of direct sales to (large) endusers and indirect sales via distributors and dealers, for example to customers in international markets. This allows you to test concepts in various channels. You might indeed consider further vertical integration in two directions: 1. In a direct model, you have immediate control over how your products and services are offered to customers, and how they are advised on their benefits. New circular business models will have an impact on the roles of the channel partners. It involves the transformation from the one way (linear) delivery stream from producer to enduser, to a continuous management of the products as well as the reverse logistics required at the end of the first life of the product so the second life can begin. Producers Physical Possession Wholesalers 2. In an indirect model you need to first convince your channel partner/reseller about your new ideas/ products and then to provide them with the tools needed to present this to the end-users. If your channel partners don’t like the idea, they won’t sell it and may even (directly or indirectly) hamper your efforts. On the other hand, if you can convince them, you will have a powerful channel to help your program succeed. Physical Possession Retailers Physical Possession Ownership Ownership Ownership Promotion Promotion Promotion Negotiation Negotiation Negotiation Financing Financing Financing Risking Risking Risking Ordering Ordering Ordering Payment Payment Payment 33 Forward integration gets you more involved in the activities towards the sale of the product to the end-user. For example by providing a financing concept to the end-user with an end of term agreement covering manner and conditions required for the return of the products, you will have control over the upstream flow of products for refurbishment and redeployment. Backward integration gives you more control over the supply activities for the procurement of materials and parts. By sourcing materials closer to the location they are created, you have more comfort that the materials are sourced and produced in a way that meets your corporate social responsibility ambitions. Consumers Industrial and Household ? Plot your current way to market in the channels in the graph on the left. Consider how the various flows would change in your possible service based business model
  34. 34. 4.3 Which customers do I go to first? SECTION START Who are your current customers? And who are your customers in your new circular business model? You will most likely have different responses to these questions. This of course depends on how you run your business today. But most likely, many of your customers are purchasing new products from you. And after the economical or technical life of your product has been attained, you will try to retain them and sell another new product. This won’t stop. But in the new model you will expand your market to reach new customer groups that are using your products effectively in their 2nd, 3rd or longer lifecycles. And you will have models to close the loop and stay in control (or at least strongly involved) on what is happing with your products after they leave your production. ? Who are going to be your pilot customers? Choose the ones that are committed to partnering with you. The ones where it is OK to experiment and collaborate; the customers who see the benefits in working with you to create Circular business models (the win-win situation). How are you going to avoid channel conflicts for the new and 2nd life products. If your sales teams and dealers are focused to sell only new products they will see the 2nd life products as competing and will hamper your ambitions in this direction.. ? Can you differentiate your customer based on the requirements they have? Who are the customers for your new product and service offering? And who is utilizing 2nd or longer life products? You will notice that this is an opportunity to expand your market share. i Academic hospitals and clinics are interested in the latest technology and have budgets to upgrade their products regularly. They are buying the newest technology first and willing to pay a premium especially if this supports their research and garners them recognition in the global world of healthcare. Regional hospitals have many patients that require standard diagnostic and operating procedures. Their targets are to reduce costs and waiting lists. It is their priority to purchase reliable products that do the work without useless extra features. They are open to acquire a 6-year-old refurbished imaging product that comes at 75% of the new price. But the supplier needs to guarantee its performance. ? Segment your customers and identify the Innovators and Early Adopters. Decide where you are pitching your new products and services. The sale of 2nd life or refurbished products might also bring you to new customers in emerging international markets. The re-use of components or raw materials can trigger customers in a completely different area. i Check the following striking example: ’’ Freitags bags Are you talking with the right people at your customer’s organization? When talking about your ambitions with a customer, you will find that you might have to go to other decision making units. Most of your contact might be with purchasing or production management. To discuss your circular plans you might have to convince the finance manager, the sustainability manager or even the general manager. 2,5% Innovators 13,5% Early Adopters 34 34% Early Majority 34% Late Majority 16% Laggards
  35. 35. 4.4 How do I calculate my service rate? SECTION START Performance based contracts have many different delivery models. It depends on the level of service a customer wants to outsource and the level of risk you can manage as a company. In this section three commonly used terms are identified around performance based contracting and explain at a high level which elements are covered in this service level. How do I calculate total costs of ownership? How do I calculate total costs of usage? How do I calculate total costs of service? Generally this calculation is presented as a price per month, quarter or year. For the product you want to evaluate, the following information is needed for this calculation: Generally this calculation is presented in a price per hour, kilometer, mile, print or scan. For the product you want to evaluate find the following additional information: Generally this calculation is presented as a subscription, license or service. 1. Determine the usage period in which you want to depreciate your product: 5. A usage indicator that reflects the usage for this product in the defined period 2. The investment price: 6. The residual value (second life prices of your product at the end of the defined period) 3. The interest rate you pay your bank 4. The total number of scheduled services (parts and labor) that will be required by the product based on the usage period for a particular application. In excel there is a (PMT) function that allows you to calculate a payment per month utilizing this information. In this model the customer does not take into account their own management time, maintenance, unexpected breakdown and operational costs as taxes, insurance and inspections. All the risks on the functioning of the products are left to the knowledge of operator and the owner. ? Experiment with these values and see how extending the use period of a product affects your price per month. 7. Taxes, periodic fees (including insurances) related to the usage of the product 8. The service and maintenance costs for your product during the defined usage period 9. Software licenses needed to monitor / manage the product Recalculate the payment per month including the 2nd life residual value. Sum all the costs during the period of usage and divide these costs by the number of months that the customer plans to use the product. Add the two costs per month and divide them by the expected usage of the product per month. In this model you take all kind of risks that normally are with the customer for your own account. For what price can I resell the product? Do prices of labor increase during the period? Is ‘wear and tear’ properly calculated, and is my product as good as I expected? ? Experiment with these values and see how extending the use period of a product affects your uncertainty. 35 ? For the product you want to evaluate find the following additional information and add it to the data collected for the total cost of usage calculation. 10. Your products consumption of energy to operate 11. Advice, consultancy, inspection, upgrades, helpdesks Recalculate the payment per month including the 2nd life residual value. Sum all the costs during the period of usage including the elements above and divide these costs by the number of months that the customer plans to use the product. On top of that provision for upgrades. ? Calculate the % difference between the total costs of service and the total costs of ownership of your products. If this is a low % than your product is less risky to sell per use than products with a high % of usage costs. When you are at the end of your calculations, summarize your findings. Be aware that calculating services is an extensive exercise. In addition to that, building the right contract and selling the calculated service is difficult and requires diligence. Generally speaking, customers are often not adept at calculating the total cost of ownership of your products, so you will have to help educate them on the different aspects required for this calculation such as scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, down-time, usage tracking and management.
  36. 36. 4.5 How do I avoid unprofitable customers? SECTION START Do you have users of your current products that you identify as “bad customers”? When you are busy finding customers that you want to sell your “circular service” to, it is easily forgotten that there are also customers you don’t want. Especially when you want to supply services. It is a behavioral rule that customers who don’t “own” products are less careful than “owners” of products. Think of how some people treat rental cars in comparison to their own. So how can you overcome these issues? When you rent a washing machine, tractor e.g. there might be an incentive for “careful” companies and people to hire your products because these customers value “the outsourcing of repair and maintenance and insurance” as they have had high costs in their current operations. • Include rules on what additional charges will be the customer’s responsibility if the product is being used longer than expected, gets damaged or lost. You will have to price your service in order to compete with the “good” customers on total costs of service. However if you don’t set the right contractual conditions and convince the “good customers” with this proposition you might end up with “bad customers” who pay the price of good customers. The feeling of ownership could be vital to influencing some customers behavior and not important at all to others. Think of the difference between a hotel room and a bed&breakfast room. • Adjust your offering when you experience things you did not think of in advance. You are developing a new product so you don’t know everything in advance. Definition of ‘Lemons Problem’ • Segment your customers and decide where you want to offer your new service offering (and to whom you do not). • Have clear agreements, which include an agreement on how the product is being used and maintained. • Monitor the product during the usage. Inspect the product regularly. • Offer incentives for ‘good husbandry’ during usage. Consider using technology to monitor your products during usage. Several GPS based devices are available to track the location of any product that is mobile. With remote meter reading technology you can monitor the usage (hours, kilometers). More advanced technology provides full remote diagnostics with up to 20 parameters measured on the product. QR labels and RFID tags can be used to verify that the product is still at the location where you expect it to be. 36 i The issue of information asymmetry between the buyer and seller of an investment or product was in a 1970 research paper by economist George Akerlof popularized as the ‘Lemons problem’. The term is derived from Akerlof’s demonstration of the concept of asymmetric information through the example of defective used cars, which are known as lemons in marketplace. Information asymmetry arises when the parties to a transaction do not have the same degree of information necessary to make an informed decision. For example, in the market for used cars, the buyer generally cannot ascertain the value of a vehicle accurately and may therefore only be willing to pay an average price for it, somewhere between a bargain price and a premium price. However, this tilts the scales in favor of a lemon seller, since even an average price for this lemon would be higher than the price it would command if the buyer knew beforehand that it was indeed a lemon. This phenomenon also puts the seller of a good used car at a disadvantage, since the best price such a seller can expect is an average price, and not the premium price the car should command.
  37. 37. 4.6 How do I manage the return of the products? SECTION START How do I retain ownership? The technical part of the Circular Economy is based on the concept that products are collected from the first customer and prepared for re-use in its 2nd or further life. How many of the products you sell are currently returned? And if they are, what do you do with them? The chances are high that, like many companies, you don’t see any used products being returned to you. Or, if you sell high value products, you might have some trade-in products that you sell after some cosmetic cleaning and quick fixes. This chapter takes you through the process of how you as a manufacturer can be involved in a closed loop supply chain for your product. So what can you do to make sure the products do come back after x years of use? In other words, how can you retain ownership on the products? Here are a few ways of doing this: • Trade-ins, when selling a new product, the customer is offered a trade-in price for his redundant product. The trade-in price is often given as a discount on the new product sale. Trade-ins can be offered for your own as well as other brands. This is a very common practice with cars, forklifts, agricultural, medical and other products that have a substantial value after the initial period of use. • Guaranteed repurchase price, at the moment of selling the new product, provide the customer with a guaranteed price at which you will repurchase the product. Terms usually include the condition and usage (hours, kilometers) of the product, price, location of return and time. This method can have an impact how your initial sale is treated from an accounting perspective. • Leasing, instead of selling the product, lease the product to the customer. This would be a viable option for products above € 15,000 that are being used by businesses. The customer benefits from a payment spread over a defined term and low monthly costs. The lease agreement would be for a given time (usually 3 to 5 years) after which the product is returned by the customer. You can agree with the lease company that the returned products flow into your 2nd life processes. The simplest forms are Operating Leases in which the customer doesn’t have the risk of owning the products for their entire life cycle and ultimate disposal; just the rights to use it for a specific portion of it. Full Service leases would also allow you to include maintenance and other services in the contract. This gives you an additional advantage of having information on how the products is being used and that it is properly maintained. Many manufacturers offer leasing under their brandname as a sales financing program or have a referral program with a leasing company. • Rental, the customer is given the right to use the product for a limited time, ranging from a day to one year. The customer never becomes the owner of the product 37 but will use it and then return it at their convenience. Rentals normally include all maintenance and additional services such as insurance. Rentals are very common in automotive, trucks/trailers, forklift trucks, tooling, etc. As a manufacturer you can either have a rental-fleet yourself or work with a third party rental company. Since rental fleets have a relatively short period of initial usage, it provides you the opportunity to move new products through their first usage phases quickly and control the value of used products. Through rental you have a good control on which products you put out for rental and when is the best time to move them out of the rental fleet and into another application. Car manufacturers put new models in rental fleets, so that these models flow in the used car markets after 6 months. This gives new buyers more comfort on the value of their used car. • Pay per use, the customer is paying for the performance of the product. This provides him flexibility that he is not paying when not using the product. Typically the usage is estimated beforehand (for example 1200 hours/year or 30.000 km/year, or 7.000 copies/month). The customer commits to a minimum usage and a minimum period of usage (usually some years). The final cost per month is flexible and dependent of usage. These models have become more popular and meet the flexibility customers require. Most important is that the customer has the product that performs according to his requirements. What the exact brand, type or age is, is not that important. • Disposal / Scrapping, for products that do not have a high residual value, you could set up a disposal or scrapping service for the customer. Some customers would be willing to pay to dispose their redundant products. Provide them with a certificate that the product is being disposed of in an environmental friendly way. This releases the customers from their obligations.
  38. 38. SECTION START What do I do with the products that are returned to me? You can do several things with the products returned to you: So if you have set up some forms of retaining ownership on the products, what do you do with them? ’’ Sell/Redeploy* them “as is” to another end user or market segment; First of all, check if your logistical processes are capable of handling the reverse logistics of the used products (return authorization, transport, inspection, storage, administration). If you have al of that under control, then you have made great steps towards your closed loop supply chain. ’’ Refurbish the product and then sell to another end user or market segment; i ’’ Take the product through a remanufacturing process and then sell to another end user or market segment; ’’ Parts harvesting. Use the parts to meet your future part obligations; ’’ Raw materials harvesting to use in your own production process or sell to somebody else. ? Do you know what the value of the components are in the products when they are used for x years? * Selling means, making sure the product is being used in its next lifecycle. This can also be trough one of the service models described in the previous section. 38
  39. 39. SECTION START How do I finance all of this? INDEX YOU’VE READ How do I manage the development costs? Partnerships or do it yourself? T Return on Investment, is there anything to earn? YOU’VE T ES LEARNED L TA K YOU’VE TRIED YOU’VE TALKED 39
  40. 40. SECTION START INDEX TEST 5. how you can make this a profitable business By now we expect you to have a clear view of good ideas and intentions end up in the if there is inherent value to all participants; on the product and or service your company waste bin. Therefore presenting a business customer, suppliers, channel partners and is going to supply in the Circular Economy. case where a customer will pay a premium the environment. This chapter is about calculating a business for your product over a competitive product case for it. because it is “a circular product” is the worst business model. The Circular Economy Furthermore one could claim that a lot will not become a reality simply because of sustainable ideas are financially quite the products and services in this economy unsustainable in today’s world. At the are circular. The Circular Economy and chamber of commerce you can find statistics its marketing potential might initially bring on new companies started versus companies you some educated customers in the first discontinued. Looking for 5 minutes at years of operations. But over time your these numbers makes you aware that a lot proposition will become a market practice 40 Whatever product or service you bring into the Circular Economy, make sure it is paid for by the people that value it. By reading this chapter well, you won’t fall in the same pitfalls as some of your predecessors did.
  41. 41. 5.1 How do I manage the development costs? The visual underneath shows the product lifecycle of your product or service. It makes it clear that your development costs are to be compensated by revenues over time. This section of Guided Choices towards a circular business model will help you garner insight about future profits and investments necessary to create a profitable circular proposition. ? Looking at the product life cycle where are your current products? Please plot them in the graph below. SECTION START Are most of your current products concentrated in the middle or the right side of the graph? Are you currently making enough money? Can you honestly say that your business model, if unchanged, will be sustainable in 5 years? 10 Years? If all of your propositions are on the left side of the graph, then do you have enough potential to develop your business over time? Does the time it will take to complete development, introduction and achieve growth pose funding risks for these products? Looking at the product life cycle, can you estimate how much time is there for you to “harvest” on your investments? Know that markets are tough and competitors copying your proposition are a serious risk. Do we run a business or a project? It is remarkable how many business models start “from scratch”. Brainstorming sessions generally have the tendency to create totally new and “crazy” concepts. Making people enthusiastic for such an idea is generally easier than gradually changing an existing proposition in the market. In marketing terms one calls this “do you want a revolution or an evolution”. However having a team of experts taking deliberate small steps in the right direction alongside their normal business is more likely to succeed than investing heavily into the “unknown”. Some companies make the choice of running the ‘revolutionary road’ and creating a new division or company, next to the existing business. That diminishes the risks in the existing proposition and give the innovators the chance to explore and develop the totally new. REVENUE ? development Introduction Growth Maturity Decline 41 TIME Do I need to develop my business proposition over the course of a month or can I take a year? Do you want to start a revolution or an evolution? Starting a revolution without the funds and time is a waste of energy. So when you plan for a revolution make sure you get the necessary budget and decide if the creation of a new company or division separate from the existing business is the best course for developing your circular product.
  42. 42. SECTION START How do I fail cheap? Sunk Costs Big retailers like Proctor and Gamble and Unilever have marketing and innovation departments that design numerous new products every week. Product development is not a “once in a lifetime” experience for them. As such they also test various new product / market combinations in the supermarkets. They know that only a certain percentage will be successful. Knowing this, they pre determine strict “go / no go” criteria and they set clear goals and expectations. If you know you will fail in rolling out a profitable product, the best thing you can do is “fail cheap!” The concept of Sunk Costs has been around for a while. Its mantra is: “We invested so much time and money already, it is a waste of money if we stop now”. ? What budget can you make available for your new business proposition without harming your day-to-day business? Pre funding your sales When you hear these signals it’s time to wake up and review your activities carefully because this can be a signal warning you for possible losses if corrective action is not taken. This concept is well explained in the following soccer match example: You have a ticket to a soccer game that was paid for some time ago, but you realize now that you don’t want to go or like the game to begin with so you have two choices: 1. Even though you have paid the price of the ticket, you decide against attending and use the time to do something fun. 2. Since you have paid the price of admission, you decide to attend and suffer due to your favoring sports other than soccer. In either case, you have paid the price of the ticket so that part of the decision no longer affects the future. If you regret buying the ticket, the current decision should be based on whether you want to see the game at all, regardless of the price, just as if you would go to a free match. Rationally speaking you would think that all people would take the first choice. But in reality a lot of decisions are made based on irrational motivations as people do not like to be associated with losses or failed projects. i Be aware that this reasoning gets companies into bankruptcy. Be smart, take a step back and re-evaluate if you don’t see success in the estimated time frame. 42 When your proposition is successful you find yourself supplying more and more products or services. Since it is a common practice in the service business to provide such services before being paid for it, how are you going to pay for these outlays as your circular models grows in popularity? This becomes a big issue when companies move from a product towards product and service based model. A solution to this issue is the pre-funding of the service and maintenance portion of these products. ? What would be the capital requirement for your business if you want to change 25% of your annual turnover from pure product sales into a service? Who is going to supply this money? If tomorrow all of your customers want to get your products in a service, how do you manage that?