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Chemical Pollution- prevention and awareness


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Prevention of chemical pollution through health promotion and awareness targeted at faith based gatherings in Lagos Nigeria

Chemical Pollution- prevention and awareness

  1. 1. Exercising Dominion Over the Earth Chemical Pollution (Source, Effect & Control) By Dr. (Lady) Chinwe Mogo All saints Anglican Church 41 Road, Festac Town, Lagos Contact me: LinkedIn: Felicia Chinwe Mogo At The First Mother’s Facilitators Workshop City of God, Majiyagbe Layout, Ipaja. February 28, 2009
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION MEANING OF POLLUTION: Pollution is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide array of assaults on the environment. Broadly defined, it is best understood as the introduction of substances into the natural environment that cannot readily be assimilated or rendered harmless by normal biological processes(Crump 1991,Rodda,1991)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Cont’d The planetory ecosystem is maintained by large scale circulatory processes, such as the hydrological cycle, air circulation system and ocean currents, pollution released in one place is seldom contained, typically ,pollutants are circulated over areas(even globally).
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION cont’d People usually associate pollution with only large- scale contamination and environmental disasters , yet the products and activities that form the backdrop to our everyday lives - electronics, cleaners, beauty products, food packaging - are a significant source of daily personal chemical exposure that accumulates over time. Pollution Comes Home and Gets Personal in most cases as proven with Women's Experience of Household Chemical Exposure.
  5. 5. 1. Natural processes : for example volcanic eruption and erosion, soil, sediments , plant etc. 2. Chemical Processes(ANTHROPOGENIC): Since industrial revolution, human activities have produced pollution dramatically in increasing rate and persistence. Chemical pollution occurs when human use, produce, or dispose of chemicals that cause harm to human and other living organisms( that is toxic, or hazardous chemicals). A chemical may cause harm immediately(acute poison) after a longer period of exposure( chronic poison), or even in the next generation( a trans-generational poison). CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS BASED ON BIOTIC/ABIOTIC ORIGIN
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STATE/FORM 1. AIR POLLUTION( emissions from factories, automobile, household from cooking, sweeping etc:  Gas  Particulate Emissions 2. WATER POLLUTION:  Runoff and dumping(leachetes )  Industrial(effluents)  Sewage effluent. 3. LAND POLLUTION:  Dumping and disposal of waste of all kinds.
  7. 7. SOURCES OFCHEMICAL POLLUTION IN OUR ENVIRONMENT 1.GLOBAL SOURCES: Human made substances of extreme toxicity such as pesticides, plastics, synthetic chemicals products, and Radioactive wastes Dumps. Over the globe, oceans and waterways have become dumping grounds, wastelands of extreme and chronic toxicity dot global landscape account for more and more of the pollutants. .
  8. 8. MAJOR GLOBAL CHEMICAL POLLUTION INCIDENTS  Minamata,Japan : human methyl mercury poisoning through eating contaminated fish  Casco Bay incident in U.K: chemicals from abandoned battery plant was releasing into the water bodies after 100 years.  Love carnal incident in U.S.A: chemical waste buried over many years led to birth of deformed and premature babies.  Toxic waste dump in Koko Nigeria with the alleged date of Mr. Nana from respiratory disease.....and many more
  9. 9. ADDITIONAL SOURCES IN OUR IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT TODAY 2.LOCAL SOURCES OF POLLUTANT: Process food & Additives e.g. monosodium glutamate Cosmetics Automobile Preservatives Indoor pollution from generating sets, Kerosene lanterns and stoves, gas cookers etc
  10. 10. EXPOSURE ROUTE FOR POLLUTANT The Skin The Lungs Gastrointestinal Tract
  11. 11. MODE OF HARM OF CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS Chemical pollutants undermine the integrity and health of animals, human and the ecosystem. Different chemicals harm different systems of the body in different ways(for example by damaging the immune systems or causing an imbalance in sex hormones.Because people differ in their genetic makeup and history of exposure to toxic chemicals, certain people are particularly susceptible to harm from particular toxic chemicals. Exposure to combination of chemicals may cause more harm than single toxicants.
  12. 12. MODE OF CHEMICAL POLLUTION con’d Harm may be caused by extraordinary small amounts of certain chemicals, such as dioxins and furan part of the dirty dozen which is about the most toxic chemical known. Harm may be temporary, permanent or fatal. Men and women respond differently due to economic, biology and gender roles. They are susceptible to different health effects from exposure to toxins and other pollutants)
  13. 13. Divergence effect of chemical toxins by gender Women everywhere have primary responsibility for meeting the daily needs of their families. This means women are in the front line of indoor exposure to toxins in the environment.
  14. 14. DETERMINANTS OF FATE OF WOMEN 1.BIOLOGICAL FACTOR: Bioaccumulation in fatty tissues.e.g in the breast. women generally have a higher body fat percentage than men for example e.g. DDT(. , Dichloro- Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) ,dioxins , and other chlorinated , heavy metals etc.chemicals causing breast cancer and endometriosis because of their feminine biology. High metabolic rate of some toxicants : research identified differences in internal exposure of men and women to benzene due to physiological and biochemical gender differences. Women were found to have metabolism for benzene than men. Hence the conclusion that physicochemical gender differences result in women metabolizing 23–26% more benzene than men when subject to the same exposure scenario even though benzene blood concentration levels are generally higher in men. These results suggest that women may be at significantly higher risk for certain effects of benzene exposure. 2. OCCUPATIONAL FACTOR: Women in low income group occupation are often exposed to toxic chemicals for example working in agricultural fields & factories where pesticides /herbicides & solvents are used.
  15. 15. DETERMINATS OF FATE OF WOMEN Cont’d 3. DOMESTIC FACTOR: Females die prematurely every year by inhaling poisonous fumes as they cook or heat their homes with these organic fuels. 4. SOCIAL FACTOR: Social location which also often has a real locational correlation, women are much more likely than man to have early and prolonged exposure to water borne pollutants. Pollution in the foodchain, and household pollutants including indoor air pollution.
  16. 16. SOME KNOWN EFFECTS ON WOMEN  Out right death.  Respiratory tract diseases  Cancer(breast etc)  The study tracks women from pregnancy to childbirth, and monitors the babies' consumption of breast milk and observed a relationship between nervous disorder and methyl mercury consumption through fish.  Miscarriage and birth to abnormal babies.  Infertility: from development of endometriosis: a common medical condition in women in which endometrial cells are deposited in areas outside the Uterine cavity.  Respiratory track diseases from smoke in enclosed spaces.  diabetes
  17. 17. SOME KNOWN RISKS TO WOMEN cont’d DDT, PCBs, concentrate in mammals, and in human breast milk. Males typically have far higher levels, as females reduce their concentration by transfer to their offspring through breast feeding. While individual studies have come to conflicting conclusions, the most recent review of all the evidence concludes that exposure to DDT before puberty increases the risk of breast cancer later in life. Until recently, almost all studies measured DDT or DDE blood levels at the time of breast cancer diagnosis or after.
  18. 18. CHILD EXPOSURE THROUGH MOTHER 1. Foetus receive certain amount of chemicals such as alcohol and polychlorinated biphynols or PCBs,benzene from the mother via placenta and umbilical cord. 2. Some toxic chemicals are passed to the infants through breast feeding. Foetus can be highly sensitive to particular periods during a particular periods during their development, and the harm may not be discovered until adulthood. 3. Methyl mercury easily crosses the placenta, and the mercury concentration rises to 30 percent higher in foetal red blood cells than in those of the mother. 4. Female children of women who took the synthetics estrogen called DES(diethylstbesterol) to prevent miscarriage, for example experienced cancer of the virgina at increased rates when they reached adulthood.
  19. 19. CONCERN FOR NIGERIAN WOMEN  Indiscriminate use of Cosmetics i.e. Skin bleaching/ medicated creams& soaps e.t.c  Food Intake i.e. Processed foods, exposure through plants grown with organic fertilizers, contaminated soils, e.t.c.  Indiscriminate use of pesticides (mosquito coils)and herbicides , e.t.c.
  20. 20. Concern to women cont’d  Cigarette smoking  Improper waste management:  Unhygienic management Foods/Left- over- food  Co-dumping of household waste  Burning of waste
  21. 21. CONTROL OF CHEMICAL POLLUTION & CONCERN FOR WOMEN Governmental Actions Public Awareness through community based action (churches & mosques) e.g. Training, Symposium, e.t.c Individual Action i.e. need for moderation on all human activities i.e. More of organic food/spices e.g. Iru/ogiri, less of cosmetics, more of shear butter :what you cant put in your mouth don’t rub on your body e.t.c.
  22. 22. CONCLUSION  Eat right  Exercise  Cut off unhealthy habits  Insist on using safety wears if working in chemical based industries.  Routine medical check up is essential
  23. 23. CONCLUSION cont’d waste minimization through proper planning of quantity of food,  waste recycling( waste to wealth i.e. manure),  waste segregation(Lagos state stand)  Avail yourself to training, improve your media awareness, be sensitive and kind to your environment ie hygienic  Don’t waste the waste.  Be practical to this teaching so that you can ripe the fruit of your labour and teach others.
  24. 24. FINAL CONCLUSION  Remember the Bible says: with long life will I satisfy you.Non of these diseases will come near you and my council towards you is to prosper as your soul prospers.  GODBLESS YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!