ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Digital Soil Mapping: soil fertility status and
fertilizer recommendation for Eth...
2
Outline
• Introduction
• Objective
• Mapping procedure overview: approaches for soil
nutrient prediction
• Results found...
Background
Plants require many nutrients
(at least 12 types of nutrients)
S, Fe, Zn, and B
deficiencies can
limit the resp...
Background …
Countries with blending or
compound fertilizer plants in Africa
Fertilizer blending is a special type
of fertilizer mixing...
EthioSIS workflow, products & services overview
Field
obser.
data
(CU)
NSTC
NATIONAL DATA CENTER BACKUP (PMO)
MAIN ETHIOSI...
• Historical soil information collection in Ethiopia has not been coordinated and
didn’t answer the question of status and...
Total by July 2015 = 501
woredas
Introduction
Objective
Specific objectives:
• map fertility status of macro and micronutrients for agricultural
areas,
• Identify defic...
Methodology; data type & sources
Data types:
• Field data (geographic locations)
• Wet chemistry and spectral soil data
• ...
Explanatory Variables (covariates)
used for soil nutrient prediction
• Climatic factors: Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) a...
MODIS & Landsat reflectance &
vegetation products
MODIS energy balance (e.g, LST,
fPAR, albedo)
WorldClim & TRMM climatolo...
Methodology ---modeling approach
• Both Linear and non-linear models were
developed: kriging / RK with simulation model
• ...
Methodology --- Critical level concept
The critical level is the soil test level, below which a crop response to a nutrien...
Some results
16
First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 54.7% coverage of NPSBZn & 30.3 % of NPSB
First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 51.11% coverage of NPSBZn & 40.95 % of
NPKSBZn
First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 68.59% coverage of NPSB & 9.40 % of NPS
Fertilizer recommendation map by woreda and
Fertilizer formulae
• Combined deficit areas of each nutrients
• Identify area...
Fertilizer recommendation Types
Standard
Formula
No.
Fertilizer Type
Percent
coverage
for Tigray
Remarks
Standard
Formula ...
Suggested Formulae for blends
1. Formula 1 NPS: 19 N – 38 P2O5 +7S
2. Formula 2*NPSB: 18 N – 36 P2O5 + 7S + 0.71B  (95k...
PROPOSED FERTILIZERS: Diga Woreda - Oromia
Formula 2: 18.1 N – 36.1 P2O5 – 0.0
K2O + 6.7S + 0.00Zn+ 0.71B  NPSB
(95kg/100...
The Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS) team will establish a web mapping portal similar to the one seen
below. T...
Demonstration (site trials) of new fertilizers
Initial observations from 2013 demonstrations: the
blended fertilizers are giving significant crop yield
increase as shown...
Blended fertilizer demonstration on farmer’s plot in East
Wollega, Guto Gida woreda, Demeksa kebele---October 8, 2013
The ...
Sample pages of Tigray Soil Fertility Atlas
Sample pages of Tigray Soil Fertility
Sample pages of Woreda Level Soil Fertility
Further works
• Using agricultural land as a base of prediction
• Refining the grid size 250 or 500m instead of 1k
• Groun...
Fertilizer blending plants
• Five fertilizer blends are to establish locally at four
major regions;
• Cooperative unions w...
The Fertilizer Blending initiative will make it possible for
Ethiopia to locally produce up to 400k tons of blends
396
367...
One of the Blending Plant- Becho Woliso
by farmers’ cooperative unions
Innovations to help our country grow
Digital Soil Mapping: soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation for Ethiopian agricultural land
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Digital Soil Mapping: soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation for Ethiopian agricultural land

  1. 1. ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE Digital Soil Mapping: soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation for Ethiopian agricultural land Hailu Shiferaw IFPRI-ESSP Ethiopian Economic Association Conference July 16, 2014 Addis Ababa 1
  2. 2. 2 Outline • Introduction • Objective • Mapping procedure overview: approaches for soil nutrient prediction • Results found: – Soil fertility status by nutrients, and – Types of recommended fertilizers • Further works
  3. 3. Background Plants require many nutrients (at least 12 types of nutrients) S, Fe, Zn, and B deficiencies can limit the response to NP(K) Deficiencies must be addressed together Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Zinc Magnesium Calcium Manganese Yield Boron
  4. 4. Background …
  5. 5. Countries with blending or compound fertilizer plants in Africa Fertilizer blending is a special type of fertilizer mixing, where blends are prepared by the mechanical mixing of two or more granular materials of fairly uniform size and density in defined proportions. It originated in the USA and now dominates the fertilizer market in many areas. Often, a farmer has a bulk blend prepared according to the soil test report of the particular farm – a tailor- made, ready-to-use mixture. The main advantages to the farmers are: • Nutrients are supplied in ratios to suit the needs of particular soils and crops • The cost per unit of plant nutrient is generally low • The cost of transportation and spreading is low because of the high analysis of bulk blends. Whatisit?Whatareitsadvantages? Mauritius Legend: Existing blending plants and use complex fertilizers Guinea Bissau Niger Chad Sudan Tunisia Algeria Mali Libya Egypt Mauritania Morocco Western Sahara Nigeria Benin Togo Burkina Ghana Ivory Coast Guinea Senegal Liberia Sierra Leone Gambia Ethiopia Djibouti Eritrea Uganda Somalia Kenya Cameroon C.A.Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Democratic Rep. of Congo Tanzania Zambia Angola Mozambique MadagascarZimbabwe Botswana Namibia Swaziland Lesotho South Africa Malawi Burundi Rwanda São Tomé e Principe S.Sudan Comoros No blending plants, but consume compound fertilizers Seychelles Many African countries have already developed fertilizer blending plants; most use Compound fertilizers
  6. 6. EthioSIS workflow, products & services overview Field obser. data (CU) NSTC NATIONAL DATA CENTER BACKUP (PMO) MAIN ETHIOSIS DATABASE (MOA) Field observ. data Ethio.pts Spect data Ethio.grids Ethio.outputs Lab data (Labs across Ethiopia) WMS/portal Africa Grids (AfSIS) Raw Imagery (NASA) WC data Lab Data Tablets in Field Endusers’ computers 1 2 1 3 3 4 5 1 2 3 7 6 9 10 4 5 Legacy Data Legacy Data 8 Today’s talk Data flow Processing activity Processing intensity
  7. 7. • Historical soil information collection in Ethiopia has not been coordinated and didn’t answer the question of status and lack of nutrients at the national level. • Recommendation of specific fertilizers to increase yield to Ethiopian farmers was not adequately based on knowledge about nutrient status of the agricultural soils • EthioSIS was launched to provide information on the status of soil fertility of the agricultural lands Introduction • So far, EthioSIS has accomplished soil fertility survey in 240 woredas in the country. • Of these, 35 are woredas in Tigray, thus making Tigray the first region where mapping has been completed. • By next year this time, the number of woredas for which soil fertility survey has been completed will reach >500. • By next year this time, Amhara and SNNPRS will also graduate while we only be left with 90 woredas in Oromia, and a few from the emerging Regions. • So far 12 types of blended fertilizers are found to be deficient
  8. 8. Total by July 2015 = 501 woredas Introduction
  9. 9. Objective Specific objectives: • map fertility status of macro and micronutrients for agricultural areas, • Identify deficient areas of each soil nutrient (macro & micro) by administrative level. • Produced soil fertility status of Ethiopia that enables the country to revise its fertilizer advisory services • Develop soil test based-fertilizer recommendations General Objective: develop digital soil mapping using geo-statistical approach
  10. 10. Methodology; data type & sources Data types: • Field data (geographic locations) • Wet chemistry and spectral soil data • Covariates (satellite images and other legacy data) • Land use data (agricultural land) • Admin boundaries
  11. 11. Explanatory Variables (covariates) used for soil nutrient prediction • Climatic factors: Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) and Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAT), Land surface temperature of the day and night (LSTd and LSTn); • Reflectance: Blue, Red, NIR, MIR, BSAn, BSAs, BSAv, WSAn, WSAs, WSAv; • Topographic: Compound Topographic Index (CTI), elevation, slope and relief; and • Vegetation indices: EVI, fPAR, LAI, NDVI, NPP.
  12. 12. MODIS & Landsat reflectance & vegetation products MODIS energy balance (e.g, LST, fPAR, albedo) WorldClim & TRMM climatologies (e.g, MAP Fournier Index & PET) SRTM & ASTER terrain models (e.g, elevation, CTI, slope, relief) Examples of useful remote sensing covariates for digital soil mapping & monitoring available at: ftp://africagrids.net
  13. 13. Methodology ---modeling approach • Both Linear and non-linear models were developed: kriging / RK with simulation model • Using critical values for each soil nutrient • 95% confidence interval • Map resolutions of 1km grid size: we tested 250m for Tigray • Predicted soil nutrients <- as a function of soil nutrient results from lab and other relevant covariates
  14. 14. Methodology --- Critical level concept The critical level is the soil test level, below which a crop response to a nutrient application may be expected given that no other nutrient is limiting
  15. 15. Some results
  16. 16. 16 First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 54.7% coverage of NPSBZn & 30.3 % of NPSB
  17. 17. First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 51.11% coverage of NPSBZn & 40.95 % of NPKSBZn
  18. 18. First draft fertilizer recommendation suggests 68.59% coverage of NPSB & 9.40 % of NPS
  19. 19. Fertilizer recommendation map by woreda and Fertilizer formulae • Combined deficit areas of each nutrients • Identify areas of proportions of each blend (combined deficit nutrients)  Fertilizer types are combined from deficit of macro and micronutrients • Fertilizer formulas developed by soil experts • 12 types of blend fertilizers recommended for Ethiopian soil (so far 6 types are unique for Tigray Region) • These replace DAP, but Urea will be used as additional top dressing fertilizer.
  20. 20. Fertilizer recommendation Types Standard Formula No. Fertilizer Type Percent coverage for Tigray Remarks Standard Formula Modified Blends for Tigray soil Percent coverage No. for Tigray 1 NPS Not recommended for Tigray but for other regions 2 NPSB 7.3 Also recommend ed for other Regions 2 NPSB* 7.3 3 NPKSB 10.2 3 NPKSB* 10.2 4 NPSZnB 6.8 4 & 5 5 NPSZnB & NPKSZnB NPKSZnB * 35.4 5 NPKSZnB 28.6 6, 7 & 127 NPSZn, NPKS & NPKSZn NPKSZn* 3.7 6 NPSZn 1.5 8 & 10 10 NPSFeZn & NPKSFeZn NPKSFeZn* 9.9 7 NPKSZn 1.5 So far, recommend ed for Tigray Region 9 NPSFeZnB* 3 8 NPSFeZn 8 11 NPKSFeZnB* 28.4 9 NPSFeZnB 3 * these are selected blend types discussed and agreed with regional representatives for implementations on Tigray soil. 10 NPKSFeZn 1.9 11 NPKSFeZnB 28.4 12 NPKS 0.7
  21. 21. Suggested Formulae for blends 1. Formula 1 NPS: 19 N – 38 P2O5 +7S 2. Formula 2*NPSB: 18 N – 36 P2O5 + 7S + 0.71B  (95kg NPS + 4.9 kg Borax) 3. Formula 3*NPKSB: 13.7 N – 27.4 P2O5 – 14.4 K2O + 5.1S + 0.54B  (72.2Kg NPS + 24.1kg KCl + 3.7kg Borax) 4. Formula 4 NPSZnB: 17 N – 34 P2O5 + 7S + 2.2Zn + 0.67B (89.9 kg NPS + 5.5 kg ZnSO4 + 4.6 Kg Borax) 5. Formula 5*NPKSZnB: 13.0 N – 26.1 P2O5 – 13.7 K2O + 5.6S+ 1.72Zn + 0.51B (68.7kg NPS+22.9 kg KCl + 4.9 kg ZnSO4+3.5 kg Borax) 6. Formula 6 NPSZn: 17.7 N – 35.3 P2O5 + 6.5S + 2.5 Zn  (92.86kg NPS + 7.14 kg ZnSO4) 7. Formula 7*NPKSZn: 15 N – 31 P2O5 – 8 K2O + 7 S+ 2.2 Zn  (81 Kg NPS + 13.5 Kg KCl + 5.5 Kg ZnSO4) 8. Formula 8 NPSFeZn: 17 N – 35 P2O5 +8 S+ 0.3 Fe+ 2.2Zn  (91.2 Kg NPS + 3.3 Kg Fe-chelate +5.5 Kg ZnSO4) 9. Formula 9*NPSZnFeB: 17 N – 33 P2O5 + 7 S+ 2.2 Zn+ 0.3 Fe+ 0.5 B  (87.7 kg /100 kg NPS + 5.5kg/ha ZnSO4 + 3.3 Fe-chelate +3.5 kg Borax) 10. Formula 10*NPKSFeZn: 15 N – 30 P2O5 – 8 K2O +7.0 S+ 0.3 Fe-chelate+ 2.2Zn  (77.7 Kg NPS + 13.5 Kg KCl + 3.3 Fe-chelate +5.5 Kg ZnSO4) 11. Formula 11*NPKSFeZnB: 17 N – 20 P2O5 – 8 K2O + 11 S+ 2.2 Zn+ 0.3 Fe + 0.5 B  (44.2 Kg DAP + 20 Kg Urea+ 13.5 Kg KCl +10 Kg Elemental S + 5.5 Kg ZnSO4 + 3.3 Fe-Chelate + 3.5 kg Borax) 12. Formula 12NPKS: 15 N – 29 P2O5 – 8 K2O + 10S  (56.5 Kg MAP + 20 Kg Urea+ 13.5 Kg KCl+ 10 Kg) * These formulae are discussed and agreed with Tigray Region’s partners to be used for Tigray’s soil.
  22. 22. PROPOSED FERTILIZERS: Diga Woreda - Oromia Formula 2: 18.1 N – 36.1 P2O5 – 0.0 K2O + 6.7S + 0.00Zn+ 0.71B  NPSB (95kg/100kg NPS + 4.9 kg Borax) Formula 4: 16.9 N – 33.8 P2O5 – 0.0 K2O + 7.3S + 2.23Zn+ 0.67B  NPSBZn (86 kg/100kg NPS + 6.4 kg/100kg ZnSO4 + 4.6 Kg/100kg Borax) Formula 5: 13.0 N – 26.1 P2O5 – 13.7 K2O +5.6S+ 1.72Zn + 0.51B  NPKSBZn (68.7kg/100kgNPS+22.9kg/haKCl+4.9kg/ haZnSO4+3.56Borax)
  23. 23. The Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS) team will establish a web mapping portal similar to the one seen below. The portal will allow stakeholders to view and download map data on a large range of soil properties Data/Map Layers Land Features – Above surface vegetation – Topography – Land Use – Erosion risk (wind and water) Soil Physical properties – Infiltration Capacity – Texture – Bulk Density Soil Chemical Properties – pH, EC, exchange acidity – CaCO3 content (for high pH soils) – Soil Organic Carbon – Total nitrogen – Available sulphur, phosphorus – Exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) – CEC – micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B) - Blend fertilizer maps and recommendations Eventual EthioSIS output This list represents the current EthioSIS aspirations; it can grow this list to address a even wider range of land information for the specific sites of choice Final web services
  24. 24. Demonstration (site trials) of new fertilizers
  25. 25. Initial observations from 2013 demonstrations: the blended fertilizers are giving significant crop yield increase as shown in the pictures below Plot with DAP + Urea only. Planting date 08/05/2013 Maize plot fertilized with blended fertilizer (14 N-21 P2O5-15 K2O + 6.5 S+ 1.2 Zn + 0.5 B.) Planting date 22/05/2013 • Location: SNNPR, Region Soddo TVET College • Crop: Maize (Shone variety) • Fertilizer: Blended fertilizer vs. DAP+Urea • Planting: Blend plot planted two weeks later Blended fertilizer demonstration Maize on plot with blend grew faster , greener, wider leaves and thicker stems than the one with DAP + Urea, planted 2 weeks earlier Source: Team analysis This site is already visited by more than 5,000 people
  26. 26. Blended fertilizer demonstration on farmer’s plot in East Wollega, Guto Gida woreda, Demeksa kebele---October 8, 2013 The same tef variety Kuncho planted 15 days earlier as broadcast and with DAP and Urea didn’t perform well compared to the other adjacent plot Teff variety Kuncho row-planted 15 days later than the adjacent plot and that received blended fertilizer 2 (NPSZn) showed good crop stand with green color
  27. 27. Sample pages of Tigray Soil Fertility Atlas
  28. 28. Sample pages of Tigray Soil Fertility
  29. 29. Sample pages of Woreda Level Soil Fertility
  30. 30. Further works • Using agricultural land as a base of prediction • Refining the grid size 250 or 500m instead of 1k • Ground level validation works by the research group are necessary and should be continuous. • About 500 woredas in all regions will be covered by the end of 2015 so that the result will be refined as more samples are included • Local productions of blend fertilizers
  31. 31. Fertilizer blending plants • Five fertilizer blends are to establish locally at four major regions; • Cooperative unions will operate these plants as a business plant; • One of the plant has been operated since 1 June 14 • 74,000 tons will be produced in 2014, and • By 2017, Ethiopia will produce about 500,000 metric tons of blend fertilizer.
  32. 32. The Fertilizer Blending initiative will make it possible for Ethiopia to locally produce up to 400k tons of blends 396 367 172 500 0 300 600 2016 2018201720152014 20 Production (kton) Tigray, Amhara, Oromia & SNNP Production should start between June 2014 Construction and equipment are currently being procured When Where Status The Fertilizer Blending initiative Capacity 100kton per plant (500k tons total) Expected production of local plants (ktons) Already for the first year, a production of 74kton of blended fertilizer is expected
  33. 33. One of the Blending Plant- Becho Woliso by farmers’ cooperative unions
  34. 34. Innovations to help our country grow

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