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African Soil Information System

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Prof. Tekalign Mamo

COP22 Session - November 13th, Marrakech

African Soil Management: Adaptation of African Agriculture – Sustainable and Resilient Soil Management

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African Soil Information System

  1. 1. Some Notes About African Soil Information System Prof. Tekalign Mamo, Senior Director and Program Leader, Agricultural Commercialization Clusters (ACC) and Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS) Agricultural Transformation Agency Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Presentation made at COP 22 Nov. 2016 , Marrakech
  2. 2. Outline Major Types of Existing African Soil Information Examples from different (regional, national) stakeholder initiatives Conclusion
  3. 3. Major types of Existing Soil Information • Soil profile Physico-chemical database • Soil classification maps (global, regional, country levels) • Soil fertility data (Wet chemistry and Spectral)
  4. 4. Recent Efforts and Actors • Individual country initiatives such as SA, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Ghana, etc. • International efforts to produce Africa soil maps and data (FAO, ISRIC, etc.). • Africa–focused initiative in soil resource mapping by AfSIS (not suited for fertilizer recommendation). • Stakeholder-assisted efforts such as what is being attempted by OCP in several African countries. • Efforts being made by private soil testing companies (CNLS, Soil Cares, etc).
  5. 5. Africa Soil Profiles Database (http://africasoils.net ; http://www.isric.org)  @18,532 unique Soil profile records (93% are geo-referenced) for 40 countries.  Standardized and cleaned.  Soil analytical data are available for 15,564 profiles (of which 91% are geo-referenced).  Some individual countries also own fragmented soil profile information for targeted locations.
  6. 6. Leenaars J.G.B., A.J.M. van Oostrum and M. Ruiperez Gonzalez, 2014. Africa Soil Profiles Database, version 1.2. A compilation of geo-referenced and standardised legacy soil profile data for Sub-Saharan Africa (with dataset). ISRIC report 2014/01. Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project. ISRIC – World Soil Information, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
  7. 7. Soil Spectral Lab Network in Africa (Source: ICRAF, 2016 • Ethiopia (ATA and 6 soil labs) • ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya • IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria • IITA, Yaounde, Cameroon • IAR, Zaria, Nigeria • Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Nigeria • KARI, Nairobi, Kenya • CNRA, Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire • IAMM, Mozambique • AfSIS, Sotuba, Mali • AfSIS, Salien, Tanzania • AfSIS, Chitedze, Malawi • CNLS, Nairobi, Kenya • Eggerton University, Kenya • MoA, Liberia • IER, Arusha Tanzania • FMARD, Nigeria • NIFOR, Nigeria • Soil Cares, Kenya (Mobile labs)
  8. 8. Soil Classification Maps: FAO Africa Soil Atlas
  9. 9. FAO/UNESCO Soil Map if the World (1:5000,000)
  10. 10. FAO/UNESCO Soil map of Ethiopia ---------------------- 1:2000,000 scale Not updated since then Soil analysis data doesn’t exist .
  11. 11. A few examples from AfSIS initiatives
  12. 12. 2016 Africa soil property predictions pH Sand CEC SOC
  13. 13. 2015 Africa cropland probabilities Probability Croplands currently occur within ~6.7/30 million km2 of the African continent
  14. 14. Africa grids (2000-2016) downloads @: ftp://africagrids.net NPP LST RUE SRTM MODIS, Landsat, Sentinel 2 reflectance and vegetation products (fPAR, EVI, NPP …) MODIS, land energy balance (LST, albedo …). TRMM, CHIRPS and other RFE products (MAP, Fournier index …). SRTM & ASTER terrain models (elevation, slope, relief, CTI …).
  15. 15. Examples from Individual African country initiatives: Ethiopian digital Soil Fertility Mapping (EthioSIS) Project
  16. 16. Source: EthioSIS 2016
  17. 17. pH < 5.2 = ~1.1 Mha (3%) of cropland area Lime requirement by Woreda Source: EthioSIS 2016
  18. 18. Mehlich-3 P < 30 ppm = ~33 Mha (98%) of cropland area Source: EthioSIS 2016
  19. 19. Mehlich-3 K < 200 ppm = ~26.3 Mha (~77%) of cropland area Source: EthioSIS 2016
  20. 20. Mehlich-3 S < 20 ppm = ~34 Mha (99%) of cropland area Source: EthioSIS 2016
  21. 21. Source: EthioSIS 2016
  22. 22. Source: EthioSIS 2016
  23. 23. Examples from OCP’s initiatives: West African countries
  24. 24. GUINEA CONAKRY 25 Crops selected Cotton Maize Rice Horticulture Phase 7 • Kindia • Boké • Kankan • Siguiri kouroussa • Dabola • Mandiana Towns Initiatives Training Soil fertility map Laboratory 40 Guinean are formed, of which 18 managerial staff are trained in Morocco (SIG, Horticulture, Awareness of small producers) Pilot area of 100 000 ha in Faranah Equipment of 3 soil analysis laboratories (SENASOL, IRAG & Mobile laboratory) Key stakeholders Farmers 1500 1750 Ministry of Agriculture and fisheries Morocco Ministry of Agriculture Guinea Research institute IRAG, SENASOL Guinea Conakry 2015 2 steps 2016 5 steps May
  25. 25. MALI 26 Crops selected MALI May 1200 beneficiary farmers Cotton Rice HorticultureMaize 2014 4 steps
  26. 26. IVORY COAST 27 Crops selected Cocoa 13 cocoa regions covered October 1141 beneficiary farmers 2015 5 steps
  27. 27. 11 Agricultural caravans in Morocco 28 Soil Fertility Map • 14 operational regions • 26, 000 sample analysis are already conducted • 237 days of training and extension of the rational use of fertilizers for the benefit of 14 544 farmers and retailers • 100 agricultural demonstration tests • 72 trials demonstrating new NPK formulas adapted to soils and crops • 3 OCP caravans • 272 days of training and extension of the rational and reasoned fertilizer • 84 agricultural demonstration tests • 129 trials demonstrating new NPK formulas adapted to soils and crops • 3 OCP caravans 2014 2015 Key stakeholders
  28. 28. 29 Next steps Launch soil fertility map for 5 other African countries • Togo • Benin • Madagascar • Rwanda • Tanzania Done Next
  29. 29. CONCLUSION • Africa does not have a consolidated and up-to-date regional soil information database; this is also a problem at country level. • If countries have such information, it is fragmented and not holistic, thus making it difficult to feed into African soil database or even use as legacy data. • While frequent efforts are there to generate soil information by stakeholders, they are not coordinated to enhance meaningful output (such as guiding the fertilizer advisory package at national level) and cost effectiveness. • Lack of apex institutions at both regional and country levels greatly contributes to the problem.
  30. 30. • The policy body lacks up-to-date knowledge or information about soil being a non-renewable resource that is facing danger of extinction (E,g. Ethiopia wouldn’t have thought about launching EthioSIS without the establishment of the Ethiopian Agricultural transformation Agency, ATA). • Africa cannot afford to ignore its soils since 95% of the food we eat grows on soils and we need to leave healthy soil for the future generation. • Professionals have the responsibility to continuously knock on the door of the policy body to get heard. ‘’The Soil should no more be a hidden and unattended resource’’ CONCLUSION Ctd.
  31. 31. Thank you!

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