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Soil Health, the Missing Link in Sustainable Pulse Production in India

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Oral Presentation 10 by Ashok K Patra at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

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Soil Health, the Missing Link in Sustainable Pulse Production in India

  1. 1. Ashok K. Patra Indian Institute of Soil Science Bhopal Soil Health, the Missing Link in Sustainable Pulse Production in India
  2. 2. healthy soils for a healthy life
  3. 3. Period Response ratio (kg grains per kg NPK) 5th Plan (1974-79) 15.0 8th Plan (1992-97) 7.5 9th Plan (1997-02) 7.0 10th Plan (2002-07) 6.5 11th Plan (2007-12) 6.0
  4. 4. Imbalanced nutrient application (2013-14 NPK: 9.7 :2.7 :1) Decline in organic carbon content Negative nutrient balance: 8-10 Mt/ year Emerging multinutrient deficiencies Development of acidity/salinity/alkalinity Declining and disproportionate 4
  5. 5. Not only crop response ratio is low, the recovery efficiency of nitrogen (per cent of applied N recovered by the crop) in India is only 30-50%, it can be as low as 20-30% in rice. This calls for the use of more efficient nitrogen fertilizers such as nitrification inhibitor blended or slow release fertilizers. Customized fertilizers may provide a solution.
  6. 6. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2025 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Foodgrainproduction Elements deficient Foodgrain production (Mt) N Fe N K P Zn Fe N Mn S K P Zn Fe N B Mn S K P Zn Fe N B Mn S K P Zn Fe N Mo B Mn S K P Zn Fe N ? Mo B Mn S K P Zn Fe N As food grain production increased with time the number of elements becoming deficient in soils and crops also increased due to imbalanced fertilization use.
  7. 7. 0 3 6 9 12 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year N,PandK(Mt) 0 50 100 150 200 250 Foodgrain(Mt) N P K Food grain Food grain production and fertilizer use Fertilizers – An important input contributing 50% towards improvement in crop productivity
  8. 8. Crop Total uptake (kg/tonne of main produce) N P2O5 K2O S Ca Mg Chickpea 60.7 9.2 39.2 8.7 18.7 7.3 Pigeon pea 70.8 15.3 16.0 7.5 19.2 12.5 Lentil 57.0 14.9 21.6 3.0 7.5 2.0 Soybean 70.7 30.9 57.7 6.7 14.0 7.6 Green gram 106.0 48.1 73.2 12.0 71.0 43.0 Black gram 78.9 14.4 65.6 5.6 Rice 20 11 30 3 7 3 Wheat 25 9 33 4.7 5.3 4.7 Total (Grain+Straw) Nutrient uptake (expressed in kg/tonne of main produce) by some pulse crops Source: FAI statistics (2012-13)
  9. 9. Crop Yield (t/ha) Total uptake (kg/ha) GRD (kg/ha) N P2O5 K2O Total N P2O5 K2O Total Soybean 2.0 140 62 115 317 20 70 50 140 Chickpea 2.0 121 18 78 218 20 50 40 110 Pigeonpea 1.5 106 22 24 152 20 80 40 140 Lentil 1.0 57 15 21 93 20 40 20 80 Mung 0.8 85 39 59 183 25 50 10 85 Rice 5.0 100 55 150 305 120 60 50 230 Wheat 5.0 125 45 165 335 120 60 40 220 FAI Fert. Stat 2012-2013 Nutrient uptake and applied
  10. 10. Available nutrient Soils of % of districts Low Medium High Nitrogen 30 60 10 Phosphorus 31 58 11 Potassium 15 33 52 10
  11. 11. 41 49 33 13 12 5 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 S Zn B Mo Fe Mn Cu %deficientsamples 3 Deficiencies of S, Zn and B has become critical
  12. 12. SOIL QUALITY? SOIL HEALTH? SOIL QUALITY? SOIL QUALITY?SOIL HEALTH? SOIL HEALTH? Functions: 1. To sustain biological productivity 2. To maintain environmental quality 3. To promote plant & animal health etc……. SOIL HEALTH? SOILHEALTH SOIL QUALITY? SOILHEALTH SOILQUALITYSOILQUALITYSOILQUALITY SOIL HEALTH = Continuing capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system
  13. 13. SOIL Health
  14. 14. Pulses promote soil health 1 g soil may contain 104 species of bacteria
  15. 15. Mixed Consortium Biofertilizers : Mixed biofertilizers (BIOMIX) containing a consortium of N fixers, P solubilizers and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizhobacteria (PGPR) were developed through the Network Project on Soil Biodiversity and Biofertilizers. Field trials showed the saving of 25% of N and P fertilizers. Field trials of BIOMIX in various states showed an yield increase of 9% - 14%. Enhancement of Biofertilizer Efficacy: Bioinoculants (Azospirillum, Azotobacter, PSB) mixed with well decomposed FYM/Vermicompost in 1:25 ratio and incubated at 30% moisture for a week improved the microbial population 2-15 fold. Demonstrations revealed an yield increase of 8-12% in above ground vegetables and 25-30% in below ground vegetables with the use of this formulation. Liquid Biofertilizer Formulations: Four to five ml of liquid inoculum (population of 3x109 cells/ml) is enough to coat 1 kg seed. Biofertilizers
  16. 16. Mini-lab (Mridaparikshak) • A digital mobile quantitative to provide soil testing service at farmers’ doorsteps. • Determines soil pH, EC, organic C, available N, P, K and micronutrients like Zn, Fe,& B. • Provides crop and soil specific fertilizer recommendations directly to farmer’s mobile through SMS. Soil Health Assessment
  17. 17. Impact of fertilization on yields (q/ha) of some pulse crops in Bhopal & Raisen Treatments Soybean Chickpea Lentil T1 10.46 8.69 4.82 T2 11.71 (11.9) 9.92 (14.1) 5.67 (17.6) T3 12.20 (16.6) 10.27 (18.2) 5.77 (19.7) T4 12.99 (24.2) 10.70 (23.1) 5.79 (20.1) T5 13.24 (26.6) 10.40 (19.7) 6.10 (26.6) CD (P=0.05) 0.75 1.10 0.45 T1: Farmers’ practice; T2: Recommended NPKSZn; T3: 75% Recommended NPK + FYM (@2.5 t/ha); T4: 75% Recommended NPK + Crop residue (@2.5 t/ha) + PSB as soil application (@ 3 kg/ha); T5: 75% Recommended NPK + FYM (@2.5 t/ha) + Crop residue (@2.5 t/ha) + PSB as soil application (@ 3 kg/ha). Final results of NATP project on pulses Best nutrient recommendations are available for (1) soybean-chickpea, (2) soybean- lentil, (3) paddy-chickpea (4) urdbean-chickpea, and (5) sorghum-chickpea.
  18. 18. Soil test crop response based fertilizer nutrient recommendations in pulses
  19. 19. An example: Andhra Pradesh (Pigeonpea) Name of the Centre Tandur Soil phosphorus range 3 - 36 kg ha-1 Soil Vertisol Soil potassium range 180 -510 kg ha-1 0.75 :0.60 : 1.2 Crop and Variety Pigeon pea – LRG- 30 Season developed Kharif, 2007 Target range 15 – 20 q ha-1 Soil nitrogen range 190 – 410 kg ha-1 Fertilizer adjustment equations FN= 4.71 T– 0.21 SN, FP2O5 = 5.83 T – 2.93 SP, FK2O = 6.96 T – 0.31 SK
  20. 20. Andhra Pradesh (Pigeonpea) Soil available nutrient (kg ha-1) Fertilizer nutrient required (kg ha-1) for yield target KMnO4 N Olsens’ P Amm.Ac-K 15 (q/ha) 20 (q/ha) N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O 190 3 180 31 79 49 54 108 83 210 6 210 27 70 39 50 99 74 230 9 240 22 61 30 46 90 65 250 12 270 18 52 21 42 81 56 Applicability Jadcherla and Mahabubnagar district Soil type Vertisol Crop Pigeonpea (Redgram) – LRG-30 Season developed Kharif Yield target Upto 15 to 20 q ha-1
  21. 21. • Soil test crop response based equations have been developed for important pulse crops • These recommendations are embedded in Govt. Soil health cards • These recommendations are for all the essential nutrients depending upon the soil test values • The recommendations are for targeted yields which are expected to be achieved if good agronomic practices are followed in raising the crops STCR based equations in soil health cards
  22. 22. healthy soils for a healthy life Thank you

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