Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

TüKetici Tercihleri

6,457 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Sex in your area is here: ❶❶❶ http://bit.ly/39mQKz3 ❶❶❶
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating for everyone is here: ♥♥♥ http://bit.ly/39mQKz3 ♥♥♥
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

TüKetici Tercihleri

  1. 1. 2. BÖLÜM <ul><ul><li>TÜKETİCİ TERCİHLERİ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Consumer Preferences ) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Amaçlarımız <ul><li>Tüketici tercihini açıklamak </li></ul><ul><li>Fayda Kavramanı açıklamak </li></ul><ul><li>Fiyat ve gelirin önemi </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal davranış </li></ul><ul><li>Tüketici dengesi </li></ul><ul><li>Anahtar kavramlar: Homo-economicus, fayda fonksiyonu, farksızlık eğrileri, marjinal ikame oranı, bütçe Kısıtı, tüketici dengesi, gelir ikame etkisi, bireysel talep fonksiyonu </li></ul>
  3. 3. İhtiyaç ve Tüketici Tercihleri /Kavramlar <ul><li>İhtitaç: Karşılandığında insanlara haz, karşılanmadığında ise elem, ve doyumsuzluk veren duygudur (açlık ve susuzluk gibi) </li></ul><ul><li>Mal: İnsan ihtiyaçlarını karşılayan her türlü fiziki varlık ve hizmetlerdir. </li></ul><ul><li>Tüketici: Mal tüketerek ihtiyaçlarını karşılayan kimsedir. </li></ul><ul><li>Fayda: Malların ihtiyaçları giderme özelliğidir. </li></ul>
  4. 4. İktisadi Akılcılık ve Homo-Economicus <ul><li>Tam bilgiye sahip olma, </li></ul><ul><li>Seçici olma, </li></ul><ul><li>Çoğu aza tercih etme, </li></ul><ul><li>Tercihler arasında tutarlı olma. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fayda Kavramı <ul><li>Malların ihtiyaçlarını giderme özelliğidir. </li></ul><ul><li>Kardinal ve ordinal yaklaşım </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fayda ölçülebilir [Jevons (1854) ve Walras (1874)] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fayda ölçülemez [Edgeworth (1881), Antonelli (1886), İrving Fisher (1892)] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Değer paradoksu? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fayda Kavramı/TU and MU
  7. 7. Fayda Fonksiyonu <ul><li>There are three steps involved in the study of consumer behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe how and why people prefer one good to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have limited incomes </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves: A n Example ) 40 10 H 20 10 G 40 30 E 20 40 D 50 10 B 30 20 A Units of Clothing Units of Food Market Basket
  9. 9. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves: A n Example ) The consumer prefers A to all combinations in the yellow box, while all those in the pink box are preferred to A. Food 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 Clothing 50 G A E H B D
  10. 10. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves: A n Example ) <ul><li>Indifferent between points B, A, & D </li></ul><ul><li>E is preferred to points on U 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Points on U 1 are preferred to H & G </li></ul>Food 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 Clothing 50 U 1 G D A E H B
  11. 11. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves ) <ul><ul><li>Farksızlık eğrisi üzerindeki her nokta, eşit toplam fayda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mal düzleminin her noktasında farksızlık eğrisi geçer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farksızlık eğrisi negatiftir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orjine dışbükeydir </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves ) Market basket A is preferred to B. Market basket B is preferred to D. U 2 U 3 Food Clothing U 1 A B D
  13. 13. Farksızlık Eğrileri ( Indifference Curves ) <ul><li>B is preferred to D </li></ul><ul><li>A is indifferent to B & D </li></ul><ul><li>B must be indifferent to D but that can’t be if B is preferred to D </li></ul>Food Clothing U 1 U 1 U 2 U 2 A B D
  14. 14. Marjinal İkame Oranı ( Marginal Rate of Substitution ) Observation: The amount of clothing given up for 1 unit of food decreases from 6 to 1 A B D E G -1 -6 1 1 -4 -2 1 1 Food Clothing 2 3 4 5 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
  15. 15. Marjinal İkame Oranı ( Marginal Rate of Substitution ) MRS = 6 MRS = 2 Food 2 3 4 5 1 Clothing 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 A B D E G -6 1 1 1 1 -4 -2 -1
  16. 16. Azalan Marjinal İkame Oranı ( Marginal Rate of Substitution ) <ul><li>MRS, kayıtsızlık eğrisi aşağı gittikçe azalır </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along an indifference curve there is a diminishing marginal rate of substitution (Azalan marjinal İkame eğrisi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The MRS went from 6 to 4 to 1 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Marjinal Fayda ve Tüketici Tercihi Marginal Utility and Consumer Choice <ul><li>Formally: </li></ul>No change in total utility along an indifference curve. Trade off of one good to the other leaves the consumer just as well off.
  18. 18. Marginal Utility and Consumer Choice <ul><li>Rearranging: </li></ul>
  19. 19. Marginal Utility and Consumer Choice <ul><li>When consumers maximize satisfaction: </li></ul>Since the MRS is also equal to the ratio of the marginal utility of consuming F and C
  20. 20. Marginal Utility and Consumer Choice <ul><li>Rearranging, gives the equation for utility maximization: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Marjinal İkame Oranı ( Marginal Rate of Substitution ) <ul><li>Two polar cases are of interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect substitutes (MRS sabit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect complements (MRS=0) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Tüketici Tercihi/Kayıtsızlık Eğrisi Mükemmel İkame ( Perfect Substitutes ) Orange Juice (glasses) Apple Juice (glasses) 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 0
  23. 23. Tüketici Tercihi/Kayıtsızlık Eğrisi Mükemmel Tamamlayıcı ( Perfect Complements ) Right Shoes Left Shoes 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 0
  24. 24. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Preferences ) These consumers place a greater value on performance than styling Styling Performance
  25. 25. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Preferences These consumers place a greater value on styling than performance Styling Performance
  26. 26. Fayda ( Utility ) <ul><li>Utility function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula that assigns a level of utility to individual market baskets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the utility function is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U(F,C) = F + 2C </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A market basket with 8 units of food and 3 units of clothing gives a utility of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>14 = 8 + 2(3) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Utility - Example Consumer is indifferent between A & B and prefers both to C 4 + 2(4) = 12 4 4 C 6 + 2(4) = 14 4 6 B 8 + 2(3) = 14 3 8 A Utility Clothing Food Market Basket
  28. 28. Utility - Example <ul><li>Baskets for each level of utility can be plotted to get an indifference curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To find the indifference curve for a utility of 14, we can change the combinations of food and clothing that give us a utility of 14 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Utility - Example Basket U = FC C 25 = 2.5(10) A 25 = 5(5) B 25 = 10(2.5) Food 10 15 5 5 10 15 0 Clothing U 1 = 25 U 2 = 50 U 3 = 100 A B C
  30. 30. Bütçe Doğrusu ( The Budget Line ) <ul><li>The budget line then can be written: </li></ul>All income is allocated to food (F) and/or clothing (C)
  31. 31. Bütçe Doğrusu ( The Budget Line ) <ul><li>Different choices of food and clothing can be calculated that use all income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These choices can be graphed as the budget line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume income of $80/week, P F = $1 and P C = $2 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Bütçe Kısıtı( Budget Constraints ) $80 0 80 G $80 10 60 E $80 20 40 D $80 30 20 B $80 40 0 A Income I = P F F + P C C Clothing P C = $2 Food P F = $1 Market Basket
  33. 33. Bütçe Doğrusu ( The Budget Line ) 10 20 A B D E G ( I/P C ) = 40 Food 40 60 80 = ( I/P F ) 20 10 20 30 0 Clothing
  34. 34. Bütçe Doğrusu ( The Budget Line )
  35. 35. Bütçe Doğrusu Değişimi ( The Budget Line – Changes ) An increase in income shifts the budget line outward A decrease in income shifts the budget line inward Food (units per week) Clothing (units per week) 80 120 160 40 20 40 60 80 0 ( I = $160) L 2 ( I = $80) L 1 L 3 ( I = $40)
  36. 36. Fiyat Değişiminin Etkisi ( The Effects of Changes in Prices ) <ul><li>The Effects of Changes in Prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the price of one good decreases, the budget line shifts outward, pivoting from the other good’s intercept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the price of food decreases and you buy only food (x-intercept), then you can buy more food. The x-intercept shifts out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you buy only clothing (y-intercept), you can buy the same amount. No change in y-intercept. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Fiyat Değişiminin Etkisi ( The Effects of Changes in Prices ) An increase in the price of food to $2.00 changes the slope of the budget line and rotates it inward. A decrease in the price of food to $.50 changes the slope of the budget line and rotates it outward. ( P F = 1) L 1 L 3 ( P F = 2) ( P F = 1/2) L 2 40 Food (units per week) Clothing (units per week) 80 120 160 40
  38. 38. Fiyat Değişiminin Etkisi /Talep fonk
  39. 39. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Given preferences and budget constraints, how do consumers choose what to buy? </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers choose a combination of goods that will maximize their satisfaction, given the limited budget available to them </li></ul>
  40. 40. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>The maximizing market basket must satisfy two conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>It must be located on the budget line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They spend all their income – more is better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It must give the consumer the most preferred combination of goods and services </li></ul>
  41. 41. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Graphically, we can see different indifference curves of a consumer choosing between clothing and food </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that U 3 > U 2 > U 1 for our indifference curves </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer wants to choose highest utility within their budget </li></ul>
  42. 42. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>A, B, C on budget line </li></ul><ul><li>D highest utility but not affordable </li></ul><ul><li>C highest affordable utility </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer chooses C </li></ul>U 3 D U 2 C Food (units per week) 40 80 20 Clothing (units per week) 20 30 40 0 U 1 A B
  43. 43. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Consumer will choose highest indifference curve on budget line </li></ul><ul><li>In previous graph, point C is where the indifference curve is just tangent to the budget line </li></ul><ul><li>Slope of the budget line equals the slope of the indifference curve at this point </li></ul>
  44. 44. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Recall, the slope of an indifference curve is: </li></ul>Further, the slope of the budget line is:
  45. 45. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Therefore, it can be said at consumer’s optimal consumption point, </li></ul>
  46. 46. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>It can be said that satisfaction is maximized when marginal rate of substitution (of F and C) is equal to the ratio of the prices (of F and C) </li></ul><ul><li>Note this is ONLY true at the optimal consumption point </li></ul>
  47. 47. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>Optimal consumption point is where marginal benefits equal marginal costs </li></ul><ul><li>MB = MRS = benefit associated with consumption of 1 more unit of food </li></ul><ul><li>MC = cost of additional unit of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 unit food = ½ unit clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P F /P C </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) <ul><li>If MRS ≠ P F /P C then individuals can reallocate basket to increase utility </li></ul><ul><li>If MRS > P F /P C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will increase food and decrease clothing until MRS = P F /P C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If MRS < P F /P C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will increase clothing and decrease food until MRS = P F /P C </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Tüketici Tercihi ( Consumer Choice ) Point B does not maximize satisfaction because the MRS = -10/10 = 1 is greater than the price ratio = 1/2 Food (units per week) Clothing (units per week) 40 80 20 20 30 40 0 +10 F U 1 -10 C B
  50. 50. Consumer Choice: An Application Revisited <ul><li>Consider two groups of consumers, each wishing to spend $10,000 on the styling and performance of a car </li></ul><ul><li>Each group has different preferences </li></ul>
  51. 51. Consumer Choice: An Application Revisited These consumers want performance worth $7000 and styling worth $3000 Styling Performance $10,000 $10,000 $3,000 $7,000
  52. 52. Consumer Choice: An Application Revisited These consumers want styling worth $7000 and performance worth $3000 $3,000 $7,000 Styling $10,000 $10,000 Performance
  53. 53. Gelir tüketim eğrisi/Engel Eğrisi
  54. 54. Gelir İkame (Hicks Yaklaşımı)
  55. 55. Figure 4-6: The Total Effect of a Price Increase
  56. 56. Figure 4-7: The Substitution and Income Effects of a Price Change

×