Task based language teaching & Computer-aided language learning


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An essay examining the compatibility of Task-based language teaching and computer-aided language learning.

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Task based language teaching & Computer-aided language learning

  1. 1. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010 Task-based Teaching and Computer Aided Language Learning:How are they compatible for simulating real-world tasksand what are the implications for learning and research?ContentsINTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 3TBLT: CONCEPTUAL UNEASE ............................................................................... 4DEFINITION OF TASK AND ‘REAL-WORLD’ .......................................................... 5TBLT AND CALL TASKS ......................................................................................... 6REAL-WORLD TASKS IN A DIGITAL AGE ............................................................10IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH ..............................................15CONCLUSION ..........................................................................................................18BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................18APPENDIX ...............................................................................................................22Richard Page 1Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  2. 2. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Richard Page 2Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  3. 3. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010IntroductionComputers have a huge influence on the way we do things in the real-world. InformationCommunication Technology (ICT) is one of the driving forces behind the current wave ofglobalisation (Hajela, 2005 : 6-7) and in some ways this has an effect on the way wecommunicate in the real-world (Murray, 2001; Chapelle 2001: 1).Because of the larger part technology and computers play in society, the field of computer aidedlanguage learning (CALL) has enjoyed a growing profile within the second language acquisition(SLA) community (Levy and Stockwell, 2006: xi). In this essay I will examine how task-basedlanguage teaching (TBLT) is compatible with CALL. Of particular concern is the idea of real-worldtasks and how they can be defined for the digital age. I will look at how computers can be usedto simulate real-world tasks and discuss the implications for teaching and researching TBLT.First I will look briefly at the history of TBLT and review some of the important developmentsfrom the literature relating to the use of computers and computer-based tasks. As withcommunicative language teaching, TBLT has been expanded by the literature andconceptualised in many different ways (Nunan 2004, Van den Branden et al 2009) therefore anydiscussion of TBLT requires a clear definition. For this reason I will attempt to clarify thedefinition of tasks that I will use in this essay in a way that allows also for computer-based tasks.With this definition in place I will then look at some of the research that has been done intousing CALL tasks, particularly focusing on authenticity or connection to the real-world. Finally Iwill explain how TBLT and CALL are compatible and the way this relationship could be used toRichard Page 3Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  4. 4. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010simulate real-world tasks. I will then briefly examine some of the possible implications forteaching and research.My conclusion is that because real-world tasks have been influenced by computers, CALL andTBLT are highly compatible in some areas and thanks to advances in technology, computer-based tasks can be utilised to engage in socially involving and collaborative real-world tasks aspart of task-based language teaching, learning and research.TBLT: conceptual uneaseWithin SLA research, TBLT is widely acknowledged and adopted around the globe as a “verypowerful language pedagogy” (Van den Branden et al, 2009: 1) for second languagedevelopment. Although there are criticisms of a task-based approach (see for example Swan,2005) the growing research into the processes learners engage in when accomplishing a taskand how this relates to second language acquisition provides some vital insights into howpeople learn a second language and the way these processes can relate to actual practice. In thisway “TBLT addresses questions which are at the center of attention in second languageacquisition research.” (Eckerth, 2008: 13)TBLT has a significant body of research and literature devoted to understanding how best toutilise tasks for successful language learning and acquisition (Nunan 2004: 76). However, thedecades of literature and research have also led to what Littlewood (2007, cited in Samuda andBygate 2008: 195) refers to as ‘conceptual unease’ about what task-based teaching actually is.Richard Page 4Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  5. 5. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Doughty and Long state that “TBLT is an example of learning by doing” (2003: 58). I think thishelps summarise the underlying principle of TBLT. In the literature there have been manydefinitions and interpretations, and the approach has been examined through a number ofparadigms, most notably cognitive and sociocultural (see Ellis, 2003: 213-215 and Nunn, 2001).Doughty and Long (2003: 51) observe that “TBLT is rooted in cognitive and interactionist SLAtheory and research findings,” however there have been many studies that approach TBLT,particularly relating to CALL tasks, through a sociocultural dimension (see for exampleSiekmann, 2008; Lamy and Hampel, 2007; Hampel, 2006)It seems to me that the robustness of a task-based approach is demonstrated by the way itlends itself well to many different frameworks, as Nunan points out, “it is probably good thatthe concept has the power to speak to different people in different ways” (2004: 14). For thisreason a definition of tasks is essential if I am to define how compatible CALL and TBLT are inrelation to real-world tasks.Definition of task and ‘real-world’Perhaps one of the clearest and most widely cited examples from my own reading is the onesummarised by Skehan: A task is an activity in which:  meaning is primary;  there is some communication problem to solve;  there is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities;Richard Page 5Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  6. 6. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010  task completion has some priority;  the assessment of the task is in terms of outcome. (Skehan, 1998: 95)1Of particular interest here is the mention of ‘real-world’ activities. The idea of ‘real-wordness’ orauthenticity seems on the surface quite clear, but in fact this is a notion heavily dependent onthe context of the learners and teachers. If, for example, we talk about real-world tasks in CALLbeing telecollaboration between university students working together towards a set ofoutcomes, this will not reflect the real-world for learners in contexts where even chalk forwriting on boards is scarce.For this essay I will define real-worldness or authenticity as relating to communication that takesplace beyond the physical walls of the individual classroom setting. Under this definition,communication that happens between learners or speakers who are members of differentinstitutions would count as being real-world.In summary then, for the purposes of this essay, I will focus on the idea of tasks as having thefollowing features; meaning being a primary concern, a relationship to the real-world and thetask having an outcome based sense of completion through which task performance is assessed.TBLT and CALL tasks1 An earlier version of this definition was published in Skehan (1996:38). In the 1998 versionSkehan states that he is following the work of Candlin (1987) Nunan (1989), Long (1989) andothersRichard Page 6Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  7. 7. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010There is no shortage of relevant literature into CALL tasks, much of which has appeared over thelast decade in particular. I will look at the research literature in more detail in the followingsection, but notable theoretical contributions must also be discussed. Chapelle (1998, 2001) iswell known for connecting CALL with SLA theories and created a set of criteria for the Evaluationof CALL tasks (2001). Figure one shows a summary of the framework she put forward forevaluating CALL task appropriateness:Richard Page 7Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  8. 8. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Figure 1: Chapelle (2001: 55)As the table shows, authenticity and meaning focus, present in Skehan’s (1998) definition arealso represented here as features to evaluate the task. Chapelle also puts forward a similar setof six criteria for the empirical evaluation of CALL tasks.Figure 2: Chapelle (2001: 68)Richard Page 8Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  9. 9. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Notice that the idea of a focus on form is present on both learning potential and learner fit.Also worthy of note is Skehans’ (2003b) article which discusses the idea of a focus on form(FonF) within tasks and how this can relate to technology. He explains that one of the lessonsfrom TBLT literature that should be applied to CALL tasks is that “there needs to be care inensuring that learners do not simply transact tasks at the expense of their sustainedinterlanguage development” (2003b: 409). I agree that many learners wish to improve theirgrammatical and lexical accuracy. Skehan states that now, FonF “generalisation is widelyaccepted by almost all researchers working on task-based research” (2003a: 2).Richard Page 9Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  10. 10. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010It is my feeling that computers can help with this as they are a good medium for form-focusedactivities and provide instant feedback or transcripts in many cases. Pellettieri (2000) arguesthat because synchronous networked communication (chatting online for example) allows for“negotiation of meaning and form-focused interaction…*it+ can play a significant role in thedevelopment of grammatical competence” (Pellettieri, 2000:83). Another example that supportsthis is Barson et al’s (1993) experiments in communication and collaboration between studentsfrom different universities. Students collaborated and communicated through email exchangeson the task of creating a student newspaper. It was noted that: When language learning is configured and implemented in this way, attention to grammar and linguistic form per se occurs in the context of actual, authentic communication as opposed to contrived, pseudocommunication typical of more traditional approaches. Barson et al 1993: 566I believe this makes clear that a focus on form can be incorporated into CALL tasks without beingat the expense of authentic collaborative communication.Real-world tasks in a digital ageWithin Skehan’s (1998, 1996) widely cited definition of tasks, one of the conditions is that “thereis some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities” (ibid 1998: 95, italics added).This reference to authenticity or the real-world is also present is Ellis’s (2003: 16) definition, asRichard Page 10Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  11. 11. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010well as Richards, Platt and Weber (1986 : 289, cited in both Nunan 2004: 4 and Ellis 2003 : 4)who describe tasks as providing a “purpose for classroom activity that goes beyond practice oflanguage for its own sake.” Thus, a defining feature of real-world tasks is that they areconceptualised as having a greater social and interactive dimensions. I believe this shows that‘real-worldness’ or authenticity is a key concept in task-based approaches. ‘Real-worldness’ isreferred to by Ellis as ‘situational authenticity’ (2003: 6) and Chapelle (2001: 56) listsauthenticity as a heading under her seminal work on principles for CALL task evaluation, statingthat this condition “should help to engage learners’ interest.” I would go further than thisbecause to me it seems rather unnecessary to learn to do something if you are never likely to doit in the real-world. Although some tasks may involve a certain degree of creativity (for example,the stranded on a desert island task (Duff, 1986)), and one would hope this situation may neverarise in reality, the actual language being used and meanings being communicated are relevantto many real-world tasks; negotiating with a group so as to agree on an order or rank ofpriorities whilst giving reasons. As Ellis (2003: 6) explains, the emphasis is on the fact that “thekind of language behaviour they elicit corresponds to the kind of communicative behaviour thatarises from performing real-world tasks.”However, in the real-world many tasks are changing or being influenced by the technologicaltools we use to accomplish them. Murray (2001) provides a very useful example of this. Anelderly lady calls an airline company to book a flight. Her intention is to get the cheapest fare tovisit her daughter in New York. For her the most important information is the cost of the flightand the date is flexible. However, because of the computer booking system used by theoperator the date is the first piece of information required in order to perform a search.Because of the computer the operator requests to know the date the elderly lady is flying. SheRichard Page 11Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  12. 12. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010has not chosen a date because she first needs to know the prices. The agent simply chooses amid-week flight and continues to ask about the time of the flight, and then proceeds to ask hername. In all of this, the elderly lady’s enquiry about cheapest fares is not answered because“communication gets redefined” (Ibid: 39) around the computer system. Of course, thisexperience is not isolated, and indeed many people may actually bypass the phone call andpurchase the tickets online.Not only are computers more present than ever before in the real-world and thus this should bereflected in real-world tasks, but also computers can open a door onto the real-world fromwithin the classroom or language lab. For instance, telecollaboration and computer-mediatedcommunication (CMC) are powerful tools that can allow students to engage in a number ofinteractions and situations with fellow language learners or users across the world. One suchtask which I participated in was conducted by Michael Bush at Brigham Young University. Thetitle of the project was “Design of an Augmented Reality Experience for Language Learning”which aimed at producing a game for language learning as part of an Advanced MaterialsDevelopment class. Using email to find participants, volunteers from New Zealand to Iran loggedin to a virtual classroom using Adobe Connect to play the role of committee members whooverview and comment on the final design of the product (see appendix one).CALL and TBLT also seem to co-exist in the form of activities such as WebQuests, which involvestudents actively researching and completing tasks online in order to achieve a set of goals andthus to arrive at the outcome. A definition of WebQuests comes from Bernie Dodge, who iscredited with creating the initial model on his website2. A WebQuest is described as “an inquiry-2 http://webquest.org/index.php accessed 18/04/2010 at 17:05Richard Page 12Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  13. 13. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes fromthe web.” (Dodge, 1995). Siekmann (2008) defines WebQuests as language learning tasks, citingagain Skehans’ (1998) definition, focusing on meaning being primary, having a set of outcomesand being comparable to real-world activities. Having used WebQuests myself I believe that theydo provide students with access to rich and authentic language. As Siekmann points out,“WebQuests are sources of linguistically and culturally authentic materials” (2008:144). Willisand Willis (2007:104) site web-based projects within their practical book from the OxfordHandbooks for Language Teachers series, stating that “finding a resource like webquests [sic] isinvaluable” (Ibid: 104) in terms of reducing teacher planning time.Alongside teaching ideas and readily available lesson plans, there is a good amount of researchinto using web-based tasks. Wang (2009) conducted a study into web-based projects and foundthat students believed they were useful for enhancing cooperation, raising computer literacyand promoting cognitive skills. There was, however, also noted from the students to be a“preference for the more traditional paperwork” (ibid: 1) and comments about the time-consuming nature of the work. Despite the limitations and some negative findings regardingstudents’ attitudes to web-based projects, Wang concluded that using web-based projects “hasthe potential to bridge the gap between using English in class and using English in real lifesituations outside of class” and went on to suggest restructuring curriculums to feature moretechnology for authentic language exchanges. Another interesting point made was thatstudents’ digital literacy also improved, a skill which they would need in the real-world as well asEnglish.Richard Page 13Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  14. 14. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Hampel (2006) also reports very positive results from a study into using the web to conductonline tutorials. The online tutorials took place in Lyceum, which allows for synchronous onlinecommunication. Hampel found that the “tasks encouraged active participation and interaction”and that they “simulated authenticity” (ibid:118), although there were negative aspects, such asthe students finding the technology hard to use at first, which had a negative effect on theircommunication (ibid:118), and the fact that there was no body language affected turn taking(116). This is certainly something I have noticed in my own practice, and I have also experiencedissues with bandwidth and internet speed. Problems with the technology were reported by bothWang (2009) and Hampel (2006). Lawrence and Lam (2002) report on the changing of studentroles when using computer-based projects, finding that students maintained “constantinteraction … for technical and linguistic matters” (ibid:304). This corroborates the findings ofWarschauer (1996) who found that students in his study of computer-mediated communicationparticipated in a more balanced way than in face-to-face classes.As with Hampel (2006) and Siekmann (2008), the findings of Lawrence and Lam’s (2002) studysuggest that computer-based tasks lend themselves well to a sociocultural framework, withstudents providing scaffolding for one another, allowing for greater collaboration and a morelearner-centred dynamic. Both Leahy (2008) and Lam and Lawrence (2002) noted thedevelopment of students taking on ‘expert’ roles, suggesting greater autonomy and a morestudent-centred class. Barson et al (1993: 581) reported very high levels of student involvementfrom their collaborative CALL task study. Again, this is something I have observed personally,many students from my classes engaged in WebQuests put in additional hours to complete thetask to a high level, showing perhaps increased motivation and task involvement.Richard Page 14Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  15. 15. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Following on from this theme, the technology for collaboration and synchronous CMC has neverbeen so full of potential. There are now schools in Second Life, a virtual world free to access,where role-plays can be done in real-time 3D so students can actually practice going to a shop ina more immersive environment facilitated by the computer (see appendix two)I believe all of this shows that CALL tasks have reached a stage where they have the flexibilityand potential not only to simulate real-world tasks, but to actually be authentic real-world taskswhich take place in the classroom either with other learners or other speakers of the targetlanguage who may be across the world or in other institutions. As Doughty and Long state“*c+omputer simulations of real-world tasks are potentially the ideal environment in which tobuild a needs-based TBLT program” (2003: 56). In today’s world, many types of communicativeenquiry are done online, satellite navigation is often used and relied (on sometimes todisastrous effect) for directions, computers are used to answer phones and direct our calls. It ismy view that the real-world should still be reflected in tasks and in undertaking CALL taskslearners not only work towards improving their linguistic skills and their socio-collaborative skillsbut also their digital literacy and computer skills, all of which are essential in the real-world.Implications for teaching and researchAs I stated at the beginning of this essay, the way we achieve certain goals in the real-world isoften connected to the way technology dictates the process we go through to achieve theoutcome. Technology has changed the way many real-world tasks are done in the developedworld.Richard Page 15Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  16. 16. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010An important factor when looking at the question of how CALL and TBLT relates to teaching isthe practical side. Is this relationship available readily or does it depend on having state of theart language labs and computer networks with expensive software? One piece of softwarecalled FLAX, developed as a plugin for the Moodle Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) aims atexpanding available resources through digital libraries and allows the creation of simplequestions. This is free software and has been used to help students in Africa using low-endmachines (see appendix three). Another factor would relate to the students’ and teacher’s levelof ICT proficiency. This is something that would need to be taken into account when designingCALL tasks. The advantage of using CALL tasks, as stated earlier, is that learners wouldsimultaneously learn the target language and greater confidence with using computers. This ispointed out by Warschauer and Healey (1998) A somewhat serendipitous effect of using multimedia, the Internet, and collaborative tasks in language learning is the real-world benefit to students of becoming more sophisticated in using computers and more experienced with a group approach to projects Warschauer and Healey (1998: 61)In terms of research, can the computer be used to collect rich and accurate data? In one studyby Leahy (2008), camtasia, a computer program that records screen movement and audioaround the computer, was used to record students as they performed a task using MicrosoftWord. The data collected were obviously extremely rich in that they showed exactly what thestudents were doing and what they were talking about as they did it. An additional benefit ofthis is the fact that the software runs discretely and unobtrusively in the background. Because itRichard Page 16Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  17. 17. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010is very easy to trace and monitor activity on computers, I believe that they have already beenestablished as valuable additions to the tools employed by SLA researchers.Richard Page 17Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  18. 18. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010ConclusionIn this essay I have attempted to show that Task-based Teaching and Computer Aided LanguageLearning are compatible for simulating real-world tasks and the implications for research arethat computers can accurately measure and record the stages in task completion (see Leahy2008) hopefully in a way which is less intrusive than the presence of a human observer in awhite coat with a clip-board. In terms of the implications for teaching and learning, it seems thatthrough CALL tasks learners can be exposed to highly authentic real-world tasks that go beyondimproving language learning, but also give learners practice in collaboration, sociocultural skillsand digital literacy. In this way, CALL tasks are a valuable addition to the field of SLA and Ibelieve CALL and TBLT are highly compatible. 3,489 WordsBibliographyBarson, J., Frommer J. and Schwartz M. (1993) ‘Foreign Language Learning Using E-Mail in aTask-Oriented Perspective: Interuniversity Experiments in Communication and Collaboration’Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2(4), 565-584 www.jstor.org/stable/40186325(accessed 23/03/2010)Candlin, C (1987) ‘Towards task based language learning’ in C Candlin and D Murphy (eds)Language Learning Tasks Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall – Cited in Skehan, P. (1998) Acognitive approach to language learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Chapelle, C. (1998). ‘Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA’.Language Learning and Technology, 2(1), 22-34.http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num1/article1/index.html. (accessed 23/03/2010)Richard Page 18Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  19. 19. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Chapelle, C. (2001). ‘Computer applications in second language acquisition. Foundations forteaching, testing and research.’ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Dodge, B. (1995). ‘What is a WebQuest?’ http://webquest.org/index.php (accessed18/04/2010)Doughty, C.J. and Long M.H (2003) ‘Optimal Psycholinguistic Environments For Distance ForeignLanguage Learning’ Language Learning & Technology September 7(3) 50 - 80http://llt.msu.edu/vol7num3/doughty (accessed 19/04/2010)Duff, P. (1986) Another look at interlanguage talk: Taking task to task, in R. Day (ed.) Talking toLearn: Conversation in Second Language Acquisition.http://www.lerc.educ.ubc.ca/fac/duff/personal_website/Publications/Duff_1986_Another_Look_at_Interlanguage.PDF (accessed on 18/04/2010)Eckerth, J. (2008) ‘Task-based language learning and teaching – old wine in new bottles?’ inEckerth, J. and Siekmann, S. (eds.) Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: Theoretical,Methodological, and Pedagogical Perspectives. (13 – 46) Frankfurt: Peter LangEllis, R. (2003) ‘Task-based Language Learning and Teaching.’ Oxford: Oxford University Press.Hajela, S.K. (2005) ‘Role of Information and Communication Technologies in ManagingGlobalization at the national and regional levels’ United Nations Economic And SocialCommission For Asia And The Pacific International Conference On Strengthening RegionalCooperation for Managing Globalization Moscow 28-30 September 2005http://www.unescap.org/idd/pubs/Integrating-ICT-into-Nat-Dev-Plans-for-Central-Asian-States.pdf. (accessed 18/04/2010)Hampel, R. (2006) ‘Rethinking task design for the digital age: A framework for language teachingand learning in a synchronous online environment’ ReCALL 18 (1): 105–121. CambridgeUniversity Press DOI: 10.1017/S0958344006000711 www.journals.cambridge.org (accessed11/02/2010)Lam, Y. and Lawrence, G. (2002) ‘Teacher-Student Role Redefinition During a Computer-BasedSecond Language Project: Are Computers Catalysts for Empowering Change?’ Computer AssistedLanguage Learning, 15:3, 295 – 315 www.informaworld.com/call (accessed 23/02/2010)Lamy, M.N. and Hampel, R. (2007) ‘Online Communication in Language Learning and Teaching.’Eastbourne: Palgrave MacmillanLeahy, C.(2008) Learner activities in a collaborative CALL task, Computer Assisted LanguageLearning, 21: 3, 253 — 268 DOI: 10.1080/09588220802090295http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220802090295 (accessed 23/03/2010)Richard Page 19Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  20. 20. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Levy, M. and Stockwell, G. (2006) ‘Call Dimensions: Options and Issues in Computer-AssistedLanguage Learning.’ New York: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesLittlewood, W. (2007) ‘Communicative and task-based learning in East Asian Class-rooms.’Language Teaching. 40. 243-249 cited in Samuda, V. and Bygate, M. (2008) Tasks in SecondLanguage Learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacmillanLong, M. (1989). Task, group, and task-group interaction. University of Hawai’i Working Papersin English as a Second Language, 8 (2), 1−26 Cited in Skehan, P. (1998) A cognitive approach tolanguage learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Murray, D.E. (2001) ‘New Technology: New Language at Work?’ In Burns, A. and Coffin, C. (eds.)Analysing English in a Global Context: A reader. (38 -48) London: RoutledgeNunan, D (1989) ‘Design Tasks for the Communicative Classroom’ Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity PressNunan, D. (2004) ‘Task-Based Language Teaching.’ Cambridge: Cambridge University PressNunn, B. (2001). ‘Task-based methodology and sociocultural theory.’ http://ltsc.ph-karlsruhe.de/Nunn.pdf (accessed 20/04/2010)Pellettieri, J. (2000). ‘Negotiation in cyberspace: The role of chatting in the development ofgrammatical competence in the virtual foreign language classroom.’ In M. Warschauer & R.Kern, (eds.), Network based language teaching: Concepts and practice (59 - 86). Cambridge,England: Cambridge University Press.Richards, J. Platt, J. and Weber, H. (1986) Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London :Longman cited in Nunan, D. (2004) Task-Based Language Teaching. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity PressSiekmann, S. (2008) ‘Peer scaffolding and orientation towards the task during collaborativeWebQuests’ in Eckerth, J. and Siekmann, S. (eds.) Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching:Theoretical, Methodological, and Pedagogical Perspectives. (143 – 172) Frankfurt: Peter LangSkehan, P. (1996) ‘A Framework for the Implementation of Task-based Instruction’ AppliedLinguistics, 17(1) DOI:10.1093/applin/17.1.38http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/17/1/38 (accessed 11/02/2010)Skehan, P. (1998) A cognitive approach to language learning, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Skehan, P. (2003) ‘Task-based instruction’ Language Teaching 36, 1–14. DOI:10.1017/S026144480200188X http://journals.cambridge.org (accessed 11/02/2010)Richard Page 20Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  21. 21. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Swan, M. (2005) ‘Legislation by Hypothesis: The Case of Task-Based Instruction’ AppliedLinguistics 26(3): 376–401 Oxford University Press DOI:10.1093/applin/ami013http://applij.oxfordjournals.org (accessed 18/04/2010)Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M. and Norris, J.M. (2009) ‘Task-Based Language Teaching: Areader’ Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing CompanyWang, M.J. (2009) ‘Web based projects enhancing English language and generic skillsdevelopment for Asian hospitality industry students’ Australasian Journal of EducationalTechnology 2009, 25(5), 611-626. (accessed 23/03/2010)Warschauer, M. (1996). ‘Comparing face to face electronic discussion in the second languageclassroom’. CALICO Journal, 13(2), 7-26 http://www.gse.uci.edu/markw/comparing.html(accessed 03/01/2010)Warschauer, M. and Healey, D. (1998) ‘Computers and language learning: an overview’Language Teaching 31,57-71. Cambridge University Press http://journals.cambridge.org/(accessed 23/03/2010)Willis, D. and Willis, J. (2007) ‘Doing Task-based Teaching’ Oxford: Oxford University PressRichard Page 21Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  22. 22. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010AppendixFigure One –A screenshot of the collaborative project initiated by Michael Bush “Design of anAugmented Reality Experience for Language Learning” – the full session is viewable athttp://connect.byu.edu/p33882880/:Richard Page 22Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  23. 23. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010Figure Two – Second Life being used for Language Learning http://blog-efl.blogspot.com/2007/05/second-life-and-language-learning.htmlFigure Three – a screenshot of the FLAX Moodle plug-in showing students in Africa using thesoftware on low-end machinesRichard Page 23Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT
  24. 24. Richard S Pinner RPinner Task-Based Language Teaching & CALL.docx 26/04/2010http://flax.nzdl.org/resources/flax_module_video_web/flax_module_video_web.htmRichard Page 24Originally submitted to King’s College London as part of an MA in Applied Linguistics and ELT