NREL’s	  e-­‐Ca	  Test	                                                                                       Energy	  Inn...
Characteriza5on	  of	  Water	  Permea5on	  Barriers	                                                 Vapor	  adsorbs	  and...
Application Specific Tolerable Water Permeation                                   Volume	  in	  1	  m2	   WVTR	  	        ...
NREL’s	  e-­‐Ca	  Test	                                                                                    Ca	  +2H2O(g)	 ...
Ca	  Test	  Components	  •  Computer	  for	  Data	  collec5on	        o    Custom	  so[ware	              –  Data	  collec...
Test	  Card	  •  Ca	  Traces	  are	  fabricated	  separate	  from	  the	  barrier	  film	  •  3	  redundant	  4-­‐pt	  meas...
Why	  Incorporate	  a	  Diffusion	  Spacer?	  •  Worst	  Case	  Scenario:	  Ca	  traces	  are	  deposited	  onto	  the	  ba...
Spacer	  Advantages	                                                                                                      ...
Measured	  Sensi5vity	  of	  e-­‐Ca	  Test	   Actual	  measured	  data	  from	  a	  barrier	  film	  provided	  by	  a	  co...
Possible	  Market	  Integra5on	  of	  e-­‐Ca	  Test	  •  Integra5on	  of	  capabili5es	  at	  a	  test	  lab	      o    Pr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Nrel’s e ca test

1,451 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,451
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nrel’s e ca test

  1. 1. NREL’s  e-­‐Ca  Test   Energy  Innova5on  Portal  Webinar   Arrelaine  A.  Dameron   March  27,  2012  NREL  is  a  na*onal  laboratory  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Energy,  Office  of  Energy  Efficiency  and  Renewable  Energy,  operated  by  the  Alliance  for  Sustainable  Energy,  LLC.  
  2. 2. Characteriza5on  of  Water  Permea5on  Barriers   Vapor  adsorbs  and   dissolves  into   Ambient  Environment   barrier     Barrier   Vapor  diffuses   Sensi*ve  Components   Vapor  desorbs/ outgasses  •  Barrier  manufacturers   need  a  characteriza5on   method  that  is:   –  Reproducible   –  Highly  sensi*ve   –  Easy  to  use   –  Scalable   2  
  3. 3. Application Specific Tolerable Water Permeation Volume  in  1  m2   WVTR        a]er  20  yrs   (g/m2/day)   ~7  L     1    Food  Packaging            Gravimetric  Test  Limit   0.1    LCDs  ASTM  E96    (1  ×  10-­‐1)   0.01        TFTs   10-­‐3    Isosta5c  Test  Limit      CdTe  /Thin  Film  ASTM  F1249   ~7  mL     10-­‐4    (5  ×  10-­‐4)      CIGS       10-­‐5                 ~7  uL     10-­‐6  OPV  &  OLEDs    Ca  Test  Limit    (5  × 10-­‐7)   10-­‐7   3  
  4. 4. NREL’s  e-­‐Ca  Test   Ca  +2H2O(g)  →  Ca(OH)2  +H2  Ca  transforms  from  opaque,  conduc*ve  metal  to  transparent,  resis*ve  oxide  upon  exposure   to  water   Barrier  Film     Edge  Seal     Spacer     Test  Card     Edgecard    Connector   4  
  5. 5. Ca  Test  Components  •  Computer  for  Data  collec5on   o  Custom  so[ware   –  Data  collec*on  real-­‐*me  WVTR  display  and  calcula*ons  •  Commercial  digital  mul5meter   o  6.5  digit  accuracy  •  Mul5plexing  Distribu5on  Hardware   o  Combina*on  of  commercially  available  and  custom  assembled  instrumenta*on   o  Current  configura*on  can  measure  up  to  128  samples  •  Ca  Test  Assembly   o  Cables  between  electronics  and  Ca  assembly   o  Commercial  edgecard  connector  for  easy/fast   connect/disconnect   o  Custom  Test  Card  with  Ca  and  Au  traces   –  Evaporated  contacts  using  shadow  mask   onto  glass  substrate   o  Commercial  edgeseal  (extensive  tes*ng  done)   o  Custom  diffusion  spacer  element   –  Machined  aluminum  block   o  Barrier  Film   5  
  6. 6. Test  Card  •  Ca  Traces  are  fabricated  separate  from  the  barrier  film  •  3  redundant  4-­‐pt  measurements  of  Ca  resistance  as  a  func5on  of  5me  •  Witness  line  monitors  edgeseal  integrity  and  provides  internal  standard   of  sensi5vity  limits  •  Inert  contacts  pass  signal  to  the  outside  of  the  assembly  and  fit  into   standard  edgecard  connector  •  Test  cards  can  be  produced  in  bulk  (and  stored  in  inert  environment)   prior  to  obtaining  barriers  to  be  tested   6  
  7. 7. Why  Incorporate  a  Diffusion  Spacer?  •  Worst  Case  Scenario:  Ca  traces  are  deposited  onto  the  barrier  but  the   barrier  has  a  pinhole  defect:   t0   t1   t2   t3   t4   t5  •  Resultant  measurement  is  not  reflec5ve  of  the  average  WVTR!  •  For  Accurate  Test:  diffusion  distance  approx.  equal  to  area  of  the  Ca   7  
  8. 8. Spacer  Advantages   Glass/barrier   (a) Flat (b) Trench (c) “O” Ring sealing  surface   (d) Al Ridge•  The  ra5o  of  apertures  controls  the  sensi5vity  range  by  adjus5ng  the   barrier  area  rela5ve  to  the  Ca  area     o  Some  ra*os  that  we  can  use  presently  are  9x,  30x,  60x,  700x    •  The  sealing  surface  design  allows  for  reproducible  areas,  and  also  limits   the  influence  of  the  edgeseal  materials  on  the  measurement  •  The  spacer  also  allows  the  Ca  Test  to  be  assembled  quickly  with  a   mechanical  press   8  
  9. 9. Measured  Sensi5vity  of  e-­‐Ca  Test   Actual  measured  data  from  a  barrier  film  provided  by  a  commercial  partner  shows   steady  state  permea*on  at  ~3  ×  10-­‐5  g/m2/day.     Commercial   Test  Limit  This  data  is  well  above  the  sensi*vity  limits  of  NREL’s  e-­‐Ca  test  and  well  below  what   can  be  measured  using  a  commercially  available  test.   9  
  10. 10. Possible  Market  Integra5on  of  e-­‐Ca  Test  •  Integra5on  of  capabili5es  at  a  test  lab   o  Provide  tes*ng  services   o  NREL  receives  requests  for  tes*ng  constantly   –  Several  ongoing  commercial  partners  •  Instrumenta5on/Laboratory  Equipment   o  Source  the  instrumenta*on  and  required  deposi*on   designs   –  Lab  scale   –  Commercial  quality  control  scale   o  Source  the  consumables   –  Test  cards   –  spacers   10  

×