The slide shows the key value propositions for the enhanced material-presentation will provide more detail about each of these value propositions ( stress the value that the utility will receive from this compound-see next slide ) Dow W&C is continuing to examine the opportunity for new technology Current B4202 cables have been qualified with a 105 C rating-however, per ICEA requirements, each cable manufacturer has to qualify their cables for a 105 rating but our materials, both B4202 and C4202, are capable of qualification with this rating
These attributes create value for utilities in these areas.
We want to be sure that we continue to link 4202 to the proven TR technology , we must maintain this as our solid competitive advantage-length of time in the market Dow W&C is committed to providing products that provide greater value at the lowest life cycle cost-as we have shown previously in the Dow Inside presentation we have a model that shows this value and would welcome the opportunity to work with you to customize this model to reflect your utility’s specific costs Dow W&C is continuing to examine the opportunity to bring new technology to the wire and cable industry Create a balance between improvements and new product releases
These are the three key dates in the development of TR-XLPE for North America
Technology has been under development for 6 years-survey was the catalyst to bring forward the technology developed and the need identified by the survey Dow 4202 was first introduced in 1983-27 years ago-it has been a very strong performer from which utilities have benefited greatly Top technical attributes from the survey were as follows: longer life, greater tree retardancy, smaller diameter and higher temperature rating. As always to have the greatest impact on reducing costs making the product easier to install was seen as the key commercial attribute. These attributes became the desired objective of our next generation MV insulation compound C-4202 ACLT test is used as a screening test on prototype materials
Dow’s introduction of TR-XLPE was a material science breakthrough solution to a problem that plagued the industry with XLPE cables
C4202 is based on the same tree retardant technology as A4202 and B4202 Include without pick-off verbally in second value bullet in the orange block
We will now present the electrical test data developed at this time
As a part of any compound development, tests are conducted at each step to validate the material being developed Our initial process is to confirm in fundamental material tests that the material meets designed performance targets. These fundamental material tests enable screening of multiple technologies. The first step is to make plaques of the material, the plaques are 6.4 mm thick and 25.4 mm long
We will now move to compound testing on plaques-this slide and the next two all refer to plaque testing C4202 shows the results of 3 samples and has a Constrained Water Tree Shape as Expected for a Dow TR-XLPE 3 micron needle point Very often, to increase conductivity, electrolyte solutions rather than water are used. Such tests are widely used to rapidly screen insulation compounds for resistance to the growth of vented Water Trees. Typical of such test methods is the ASTM D 6097-97, a ‘Standard Test Method for Relative Resistance to Vented Water Tree Growth in Solid Dielectric Insulating Material’ After 30 days the test is terminated and each specimen is then stained with a dye, such as methylene blue and slices are cut through the conical defect. For each sample the slice corresponding to the center of the defect is identified. The slices are examined under a microscope and the length of the vented Water Tree (LWT) and the distance (L) from the tip of the conical defect to the opposite surface of the sample are measured.
Key message here is that C4202 is consistent with B4202 in dissipation factor testing
Here again testing is being done on plaques-the results shown are for testing after 21 days at 6Kv and at a much higher frequency of 1KHz than the typical 60 hz signal-there are many who believe that the higher frequency causes faster aging. This is a Dow (UCC) developed test protocol that we have used over the years for screening developmental insulations. E-4201 is XLPE insulation and is shown as a reference against the other Dow TR-XLPE’s
Now let’s move on to testing results on cables-Accelerated Cable Life Test (ACLT) You can see that the new “enhanced TR-XLPE” moves the time to failure to the right-you can see the extended time that it took for failure for two different constructions “ Enhanced TR-XLPE” are various prototypes that have been investigated for development This screening process has given us confidence to move forward with this technology Hence we developed thin wall, higher stress cables to show the impact –next slide shows these results “ 4,4” ACLT (34.6 kV); no overlap at 90% or 95% confidence level. Not all the TRXLPEs were B4202. In this slide they were A4202 and 8202 .They are all Dow TRXLPE technology. Conventional semicons, copper mesh neutral 175 mil stress max 10.8 kV/mm, avg 7.8 kV/mm 4xVg all cables = 34.6 kV 90C conduct in air, water tank uncontrolled, 175 mil 70-75C mid sample in water, 46-55C water temp
Standard TR-XLPE (blue) is B4202 4xVg all cables = 34.6 kV 90C conduct in air, water tank uncontrolled 110 mil stress max 15.5 kV/mm, avg 12.4 kV/mm, stress enhanced 1.44X over 175 mil cables 110 mil 67-72C mid sample in water, 47-53 water temp Weibell plot-63% of the samples tested will fail in the number of days on the x axis corresponding to 63% on the Y axis The curved lines on either side of the ‘curve fit’ line reflects the 90% confidence intervals
Pilot plant made HFDC-4202 already exceeds the characteristic life of Commercial HFDB-4202 EC Though there are no failures after 570 days from Commercial HFDC-4202 EC, Weibaeys analysis line is included for illustration. Commercial HFDC-4202 EC, clearly demonstrates “best in class performance” of TR-XLPE Technology
4,4 conditions refers to 4 times rated voltage (Vo) and 4 times rated temperature For discussions with customers/utilities, the earliest version of C4202 made is the prototype. Then the production was scaled up to the pilot plant and finally to the production plant.
C4202 insulation material meets the MV 105 criteria As temperature increases, typically DF increases as well DF still much lower than EPR-which is typically .3 up to 6.5 at 90 C depending on the type of EPR formulation. We do not believe the initial data point at 140C (0.4% DF) is correct; our lab plaque data shows it should be lower. However, we are sharing the data unedited from the test lab.
Let us now look at the key mechanical data
Example is for a 1/0 15 KV cable using 0693 on pilot plant C4202. More testing will be done with other size constructions as they are made. The NA strip protocol involves a 90 degree pull at a rate of 20 inches per minute. The relaxed is Dow’s internal method of aging the cable for 4 hrs at 100C and measuring strip. This correlates with the strip force after ICEA cyclic aging. The IEC strip protocol involves at 180 degree pull at a rate of 10 inches per minute. The requirement is for the strip force to be between 4 to 45 N per cm. The IEC spec requires aging for 7 days at 100C as well and to meet the required range.
Data generated in Dow labs regarding strip force with both B4202 and C4202
More consistent quality manufacturing is expected-more experience needed to fully understand implications of this material Evaluations conducted on commercial insulation extruders (120mm, 6 inch, 200mm) in limited runs have shown that C4202 is similar to B4202 in extrusion processing; this was by design. The processing improvements were for cable centering/sag resistance and scorch resistance. These features would need to be assessed in longer runs to assess scorch (planned for 2011) and heavy walled cables where centering is an issue.
Southwire and Nexans currently have cables undergoing qualification GCC has made cables with C4202 but has not yet begun qualification Hendrix has made the qualification cables and is in process for qualification
ICEA specifies the compound manufacturer to conduct a 360 day AWTT test with performance of 380 v/mil required-as a result the material is now qualified and along with the Southwire and Nexans 120 day qualification, all requirements have been met. GCC’s is forthcoming. You can see that the C-4202 insulated cables achieve over twice the industry requirement for TR-XLPE insulated cables Note that C4202 has changed only 8.5% from the 120 day value to the 360 day value while B4202 has changed 21.3 %. Much slower degradation. Both AWTT tests were done by Nexans so this is as close as possible to apples to apples.
Desire is to have utilities requesting C-4202 from their cable manufacturer Dow also desires to understand how C-4202 is working for the end user-contact Brent Richardson with answers to the questions
Spider diagram shows improved performance in 4 key areas: -Cable life in wet environments -Water tree resistance -Electric strength retention in wet conditions -Ease of installation via lower strip force
Slide contains key points This slide summarizes the presentation The next slides discusses what end users should do next
Results shown are the average of qualification data from both Nexans and Southwire As expected, the 120 day values are all well above the 660 V/mil requirement of the ICEA Results are similar to AWTT results for B4202 at the same time period and this was also expected No major difference in performance in such a short period of time-short period does not allow for differentiation between CS types 0800 can be used for copper or aluminum. 0802 is typically used for solid conductors to reduce shrink back.
Results shown are from qualification data from Southwire only As expected, the 180 day values are all well above the 580 V/mil requirement of the ICEA Results are similar to AWTT results for B4202 at the same time period and this was also expected Some difference in performance is beginning to appear between CS types 0800 can be used for copper or aluminum. 0802 is typically used for solid conductors to reduce shrink back.
What does DOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202 ECdo for utilities? Life extension Enhanced reliability / better asset utilization Ease of installation Optimized costs, consistent installation Significantly Lower (~50%) water tree growth rate Longevity, lower probability of failures Higher quality cables Manufacturing consistency MV 105 C Rating for the material Option for higher ampacity, when needed
How do we create the value?Critical performance features for enhanced cable life….. Higher electrical breakdown strength Minimize electrical risks …water treeing in particular… Improved / consistent cable installation Eliminate accessory related risks Improved cable quality Robust, consistent manufacturing that minimizes insulation related stresses due to fabrication process
Why develop DOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202EC? An example of Dow Wire & Cable’s continuing commitment to bring higher value products at the lowest total owning cost to the industry An improved TR-XLPE built upon over 5 years of R&D and nearly 30 years of proven experience with 4202 technology A differentiated MV system for longer life cable performance
Chronology of Dow’s TR-XLPE Insulation1983 – HFDA 4202 Commercialized First commercial TR-XLPE insulation with demonstrated long life performance1998 – HFDB 4202 Commercialized Maintained the excellent electrical performance of the A4202 with improved properties for more robust cable manufacturing2010 – HFDC 4202 Validation and Customer Trials Advancements to enhance longer life, ease of installation and further manufacturing robustness to ensure quality and consistency
DOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202 EC History 2004 –wet electrical synergistic technology innovation demonstrated standard (175 mil) and reduced wall (110 mil) cable improvement. R&D continued Q1 2008 – conducted utility survey to understand needed attributes of next generation MV cables April 2008 – survey results analyzed and top-priorities determined Q2 2008 – lab work initiated to optimize formulation for desired performance based on R&D work done at that time Q3 2008 – prototype pilot plant samples made and screened March 2009 – cables made (175 mil), tested ACLT, no failures at 485 days November 2009 – material first introduced at dinner for AEIC CEC representatives and invited guests March 2010 – test cables made with Dow production HFDC 4202 April 2010 – product introduction at IEEE T&D conference
Historical Approaches to Extending MV Cable LifeOption 1: • Eliminate moisture incursion into cable / insulation Cable design options Water block layers (polymeric, swellable tapes, metallic tapes Extreme case -Radial moisture barrier (Similar to HV Cable Designs) However, typically result in higher cable costs (materials & processing)Option 2: • Use polymeric materials, especially insulation, resistant to water tree growth (path to electrical degradation / failures Enhanced materials’ performance (shield / insulation interface) Water Tree Retardant insulation (TR-XLPE) Typically more cost effectiveTR-XLPE (a water tree retardant XLPE) has been the marketleading technology for MV cables in North America for nearly 30years and gaining global acceptance as a long life insulation..
Technology of DOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202 EC Same proven “Tree-retardant” additive technology used in 4202 for nearly 30 years. Produced in totally integrated, state-of-the art facility − Feedstock to finished compound − Ongoing investments in continuous improvement Extended cable life (enhanced formulation technology) Improved ease of installation (reduced insulation shield stripping force) Enhanced quality cable manufacturing (more robust processing).
Supporting DataElectrical DataMechanical DataProcessing Data
Electrical Property Validation Laboratory Plaque Data Water Tree Resistance Dissipation Factor ACBD Retention Cable Data ACLT Results MV105C
Water Tree Size and Shape Changed with HFDC-4202 EC Water Tree Comparison ASTM D6037; 30 day Aging 0.6 0.5 4201 XLPE 0.4 0.3 0.2 B4202 TR-XLPEW 0.1mhgnLTear)(t 0 XLPE TR XLPE C4202 ASTM D6097-97 Water Tree Test Water Tree Retardance C4202 TR-XLPE All 80x Magnification
Dissipation Factor Testing on Cured Plaques Spec Max. HFDC 4202 has similar dissipation factor as HFDB 4202
Further Enhancements of ACBD Retentionwith Wet AgingPlaque Wet Aging Test Method21d at 6kV / 1kHz in ionic solution Retained Dielectric Strength with Wet Aging 1200 Dielectric Strength volts/mil 1000 800 Initial 600 After 21 days aging 400 200 0 E-4201 A-4202 B-4202 C-4202
Enhanced Wet Electrical Test Data175 Mil Wall CablesPrototype C4202, “Enhanced TR-XLPE 1,2” cable performances demonstrateimproved wet electrical performance and projected longer life.
Enhanced Wet Electrical Test Data for HigherStress Design 110 mil wall cablesPrototype C4202, “Enhanced TR-XLPE ” cable performances demonstrate improvedwet electrical performance and projected longer life.
Enhanced Wet Electrical Test Data Actual PerformanceEnhanced Dow TR-XLPE – HFDC-4202 EC – demonstratessignificant improvement over current commercial product
HFDC 4202 ACLT PerformanceACLT Testing under “4,4” ConditionsHFDB-4202 population at 1000 days aging - 0% remainPrototype HFDC-4202 at 1050 days aging - 53% remainPilot plant HFDC-4202 at 830 days aging - 92% remainProduction Plant HFDC-4202 • No failures out to 630 days C4202 demonstrating improved wet cable life • Aging continues… over B4202 17 DOW CONFIDENTIAL – Do Not Share Without Permission
Reduced Cable Strip Force•Facilitates ease of installation of splices, elbows andterminations•Early tests have shown a reduction in strip force whenusing C4202 as a part of a Dow system of materials•Dow continues lab testing to validate the amount ofstrip force reduction that can be obtained•Dow encourages utilities to obtain trial quantities ofcables with C4202 to conduct field validation of thereduced strip force
Reduced Strip Force System Inital and Predicted after ICEA Cyclic Aging 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 o b p 5 0 e S F " / c r t . , l i 4 2 0 B4202/0693 C4202/0693 B4202/0693LS C4202/0693LS Initial Thermally Conditioned Strip Force against Conditioning Temperature Strip Force Stability vs Time Aging at 100C 16 20 14 16 12 12 10 8 8 o b p 5 0 e S F " / c r t . , l i 6obp50eSF"/crt.,li 4 4 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (hrs) Conditioning Temp (deg C) for 4hrs B4202/0693 C4202/0693 B4202/0693LS C4202/0693LS B4202/0693 C4202/0693 B4202/0693LS C4202/0693LSTesting on 1/0 15 kV cables permission 21 DOW CONFIDENTIAL – Do Not Share Without Permission
Improved Extrusion and Crosslinking HFDC 4202 Cure Technology Cure Mh at 182C “Bending the rules” TM Superior scorch retardance that enables improved cable quality Scorch Optimized cure performance to ensure ts1at 140C consistent processing Extrusion characteristics compatible with existing equipment DOW CONFIDENTIAL – Do Not Share Without Permission
Commercialization TimelineCompound Production Trial 1Q10Dow material qualification cable testing initiated => 4Q10Cable manufacturers qualification initiated => Complete*ICEA Qualifications completed => 120day = Data available 360day = Data AvailableCommercially Available => NOW! *Southwire and Nexans have completed 120 AWTT testing.
HFDC - 4202 Qualification -CompletedVolts / mil Industry Requirement 380 V/milSource-Nexans
Action Steps We recommend utilities update their MV cable specifications to reflect the acceptance of DOW ENDURANCETM HFDC-4202 EC. Ask your cable manufacturer to provide cables with this insulation material. Dow welcomes dialog on specific steps to make this happen Dow also would like to understand your experience with the new compound: Do your line technicians like the lower strip capability? Do they think this makes the installation easier? Does this capability increase the likelihood of higher quality accessory installation? Are there any issues with cables made from the new ,. compound?
DOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202 ECPerformance Summary Excellent electrical performance, exceeding existing TR-XLPEs SUPERIOR VALUE !! Enhanced strip-ability Greater tree retardancy XLPE Cable Life in Wet Environments Ref. 4202 TR-XLPE 1 TRXLPE C4202 Ease of Installation 0 Water Tree Resistance Electrical Strength Retention In Wet Conditions .
SummaryDOW ENDURANCE™ HFDC 4202 EC TR-XLPE: Continues great tradition of high quality insulation compounds, based on proven experience and TR technology of the past 28 years Confirms Dow’s commitment to continuous improvement and bringing value added solutions to the industry Has enhanced electrical performance (projected longer life), higher water tree retardance, lower and consistent insulation shield strip force and robust cable manufacturing Provides superior performance solutions for power delivery industry. With the ICEA qualifications complete, installations can move forward.