Cn 3 th14_eeza_slm_measures_in_spain_sole_benet

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Cn 3 th14_eeza_slm_measures_in_spain_sole_benet

  1. 1. Sustainable land management measures in semiarid SE Spain: the Alagüeces farm (Murcia) Albert Solé-Benet1 , Joris de Vente1 , Ashraf Afana1 , Jorge López1 , Carolina Boix-Fayos2 1 EEZA-CSIC (Almería) 2 CEBAS-CSIC (Murcia)
  2. 2. Los Alagüeces Zarzadilla de Totana Lorca Murcia Spain Land uses: rangeland, dryland cereals, almonds
  3. 3. Desertification indicators in the area: - Soil erosion (rills, gullies) - Water scarcity, droughts
  4. 4. - SLM 1: Green manure Autumn 2008 Spring 2009) SLM technologies under test
  5. 5. - SLM 2: reduced tillage in almonds Reduced tillage = disks + cultivator (2 operations per year) Conventional tillage = disks + cultivator (3 - 5 operations)
  6. 6. - SLM 3: boquera = diversion from main channel (water harvesting system)
  7. 7. - SLM 4: mulch Mulch used: cereal straw
  8. 8. - SLM 5: reduced tillage in cereals Mouldboard ploughing
  9. 9. Field A (almonds without terraces) 3 subplots, 3 replicates: - green manure (AL1-AL2-AL3), - rreduced tillage (AL4-AL5-AL6), - control (AL7-AL8-AL9). Implementation plan Variables monitored: - runoff - sediment yield - almond yield - organic carbon sequestration.
  10. 10. Implementation plan - Gerlach troughs for runoff and sediment yield monitoring in field A and B
  11. 11. Field B (almonds in terraces): - water harvesting (boquera) - mulch. - control. Variables monitored: - water height from boquera (capacitive sensor) runoff rates − θ at 30-35 cm continuously (4 probes / SLM technique & control) - θ manually after events at 0-20 cm - almond yield. Implementation plan
  12. 12. Field C (cereals in 2 subplots, 3 replicates): - control (conventional tillage): CE1-CE2-CE3 - reduced tillage: CE4-CE5-CE6. Variables monitored: - runoff - sediment yield - cereal yield. Implementation plan
  13. 13. © Joris de Vente Implementation plan - Meteorological station Variables measured: P, T & humidity air, wind direction & velocity
  14. 14. - Sediment data: we need to know the contribution area to every Gerlach trough © Joris de Vente Preliminary results Drainage accumulation flow at 5 cm resolution generated by the D8 method using IDRISI 3D representation of field site A. DEM generated by ANUDEM at 5 cm resolution. Original data from terrestrial laser scanner Leica ScanStation 2
  15. 15. - First sediment data © Joris de Vente Preliminary results Sediment yield in 1 year in site C (cereals) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 control reduced tillage sedimentyield(kg) Sediment yield in 1 year in site A (almonds) 0 5 10 15 20 25 green manure reduced tillage control sedimentyield(g/m²)
  16. 16. Field B - average soil water content in 3 SLM systems 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 18-11-08 18-12-08 17-01-09 16-02-09 18-03-09 17-04-09 17-05-09 16-06-09 16-07-09 15-08-09 14-09-09 14-10-09 13-11-09 13-12-09 12-01-10 11-02-10 13-03-10 12-04-10 12-05-10 11-06-10 11-07-10 10-08-10 09-09-10 Soilwatercontent(%vol) Control Water harvesting Mulch 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 18-11-08 18-12-08 17-01-09 16-02-09 18-03-09 17-04-09 17-05-09 16-06-09 16-07-09 15-08-09 14-09-09 14-10-09 13-11-09 13-12-09 12-01-10 11-02-10 13-03-10 12-04-10 12-05-10 11-06-10 11-07-10 10-08-10 09-09-10 Soilwatercontent(%vol) Control Water harvesting Mulch Field B - maximum soil water content values in 3 SLM systems - Soil moisture Preliminary results
  17. 17. Preliminary results - Almond yields Almonds yield in site A -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Green manure Reduced tillage Control annualyield(kg/tree) Almonds yield in site B -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 Boquera Mulch Control annualyield(kg/tree)
  18. 18. Preliminary results Magnitude and intensity during runoff events 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 21/09/09 30/09/09 16/12/09 12/01/10 02/02/10 24/02/10 21/04/10 04/06/10 18/06/10 25/08/10 P(mm)&Intensity(mm(h) P P intensity - weather Daily Precipitatipon and Average Daily Temperature 'Los Alhagüeces' 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 22/08/2008 05/09/2008 19/09/2008 03/10/2008 17/10/2008 31/10/2008 14/11/2008 28/11/2008 12/12/2008 26/12/2008 09/01/2009 23/01/2009 06/02/2009 20/02/2009 06/03/2009 20/03/2009 03/04/2009 17/04/2009 01/05/2009 15/05/2009 29/05/2009 12/06/2009 26/06/2009 10/07/2009 24/07/2009 07/08/2009 21/08/2009 Precipitation(mm) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Temperature(ºC)
  19. 19. Conclusions (to be considered with caution) - Water harvesting increases soil water content and consequently almond yield. - Clear results on sediment yield depend essentially on contribution areas which calculations are not straightforward from laser scanner data. Consequently final results on sediment yield might change with regards preliminary ones. - Mulch has not produced positive results so far. Possible causes: technology not properly implemented and/or mulch type (cereal straw). Is this mulching type affecting infiltration negatively causing lower soil water content? - Green manure has had a positive influence in almond yield with regard reduced and conventional tillage and seem to reduce soil and water loss. - Results from field C (cereals) are still under process.

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