Naturally, members of different Asafo groups have preferences for their artist
Usually tailored by males who gained knowledge through apprenticeship</li></ul>Asafo Flag <br />by KwekuKakanu<br />
NIGERIA AND YORUBA PEOPLES<br /><ul><li>Yoruba people believed the world was created at a place called Ile-Ife, now southwestern Nigeria
Evidence shows this site was populated as early as 350 B.C.E.
Ile-Ife: a thriving city-state since the 11th century
Makes Yoruba one of the largest ethnic group originating in the area
Ruled by kings who supposedly had a connection to the world of deities
Beads were one of the most highly sought luxury items acquired by the Yoruba through European trade</li></li></ul><li>WRAPPERS AND MID-20TH CENTURY<br /><ul><li>Adire- a type of tie-dyed cloth that was traditionally made by Yoruba women
Some adire wrappers displays elaborate decorations
Frontal pose emphasizes on the regalia of the royal figures
To either side of the medallion is repeated scenes
Has motifs from different cultures</li></li></ul><li>Page 6 in A.R.B. shows Wrapper by Yoruba Peoples similar to this<br />
Face Mask, Guro Peoples, Côte d'Ivoire, Mid-Twentieth Century<br /><ul><li>European traders working in Africa were active throughout the forested area along the Atlantic coast
A large portion of this region (referred to as Guinea by European, was colonized later by the French
Prior to the colonial period, there were many interrelationships among the various ethnic groups throughout the region.
For that reason, one can find similarities in artistic traditions through the coastal areas in the present-day countries of Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Guinea, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Guro People<br /><ul><li>Guro = a culturual group in Côte d'Ivoire
Neighbored by the Baule, Yaure, Wan, Anyi, and Attie groups
Artists from all of these groups produce carved wooden masks and sculptures that are quite similar in style
Unlike the Edo and Yoruba people, the Guro and other groups in this coastal region have traditionally not been ruled by kings</li></li></ul><li>Guro People cont’d<br /><ul><li>Cultural groups such as the Guro and Baule are relatively egalitarian
Ruled by a council of elder males who are not seen as divine, but are accorded special status for their age and wisdom.
For the Guro and related groups, masquerade plays an especially important role in upholding the social order
It is for these activities that the most significant art objects are created</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The MamiWata face mask consists of two discrete parts.
The bottom half is a highly stylized face mask.
Typical of masks in this region, the face mask is dominated by the colors red, black, and white.
The face mask is topped with a superstructure</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Masquerade is very important among many of the cultural groups in Côte d'Ivoire.
Some have powerful ritual significance, others are for entertainment
Can be both entertaining and sacred at the same time.
Masqueraders, who among the Guro are men, dress in full ensembles and perform with music for entertainment of the community.</li></ul>Masquerade<br />
<ul><li>Côte d'Ivoire became a French colony in 1897
Unlike many West African countries ruled by a small group of government officials, Côte d'Ivoire had a relatively sizable population of French citizen
The French approach to colonization in Côte d'Ivoire was to force assimilation.
They placed great emphasis on French language, history, literature, and culture.
Masquerade survived the colonial period and continues to flourish today
Brought together music, dance, costuming, and emphasizes shared social values.</li></ul>Côte d'Ivoire<br />
El Anatsui, Ghanaian<br /><ul><li>El Anatsui was born in Anyako, a town located in Ghana’s Volta Region.
In the year Anatsui was born, his country was a British colony known as the Gold Coast.
Anatsui received a formal art education at the College of Art of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi.
The British educational system imposed on its colonies a worldview that focused almost exclusively on European history and tradtions.</li></li></ul><li>After completing his formal artistic training and establishing himself as a teacher in Ghana, El Anatsui received an invitation to join the art faculty at the University of Nigeria in Nsukka. <br />By the 1970s Anatsu began to emerge as a major artist in Africa and earned recognition internationally. <br />He moved to Nigeria in 1975 and became associated with a group of artists called the Nsukka Group. <br />At the time, the most recognizable artists associated with contemporary African art lived in Europe and the Americas. Anatsui, instead continued to live and create art in Nigeria.<br />
<ul><li>Through his expansive career, Anatsui has favored materials that are local.
Broken ceramic pots and discarded cassava graters arefeatured in his sculptural installations
His recent works: wall installations made of discarded metal cans & bottle caps
The Fading Clothname refers to formal qualities of the intense colors in the center
Seen up close, this piece contains various colors that seem entirely random; from a distance, the pieces come together to create large bands of color.</li></li></ul><li>The Fading Cloth by El Anastui<br />
The Colonies, Commodities, and Trade<br /><ul><li>British Empire was built over centuries and encompassed locations across the globe
At the height of the Age of Empire, Great Britain was driven for political power
Commodities and trade were important for global expansion
Imports of spices and teas came from foreign land which later became colonies
These imports were first seen as luxuries then they later became necessities
The colonies helped with the financial stability of the empire through British markets/exports </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Chinese plate and Indian watercolor painting depicted use of designs and techniques in works used in the context of imperialism</li></ul>Plate, China, Eighteenth Century (1739-43)<br />
Selected Work<br /><ul><li>This was part of a set with fifty plates and four dishes created for LeakeOkeover and his wife, Mary Nichol,
highly wanted on the European market because its qualities made it preferable to other kinds of ceramic wares </li></li></ul><li>Porcelain<br /><ul><li>First porcelain objects developed around 600 C.E. in the northern regions of China
First porcelain pieces to arrive in Europe came during the early fourteenth century through Silk Road
Porcelain can be shaped in many ways, but still fragile, which makes it a desirable trade item
More porcelain became available to the Europeans once trade sea routes were established by the Portuguese
Once Europeans got their hands on the porcelain, it was embellished and turned it into showpieces
Europeans desired dining items to be made out of porcelain, such as mugs, teacups, and candleholders
Porcelain combined Chinese expertise and European design</li></li></ul><li>A common Indian Nightjar (caprimulgusasiaticus)India, eighteenth Century<br />
<ul><li>This painting was executed by an Indian artist for a European patron
Many Indian artists from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries adapted their styles to meet the demands of new European patrons
Company School Painting: a.k.a. kampanikalan, refers to works that were produced by Indian artists for British patrons</li></ul>Selected work info<br />
Company School <br /><ul><li>Company School artists were professional painters
Styles: some traditional Indian miniature painting and some influenced by European artistic conventions
East India Company: joint-stock company that has a special relationship with the British Crown
held a position of dominance in India and areas stretching into parts of Asia
Key commodities for East India Company: tea, cotton, and indigo
European reps. desired images that captured their new and interesting new home
Company School paintings depicted general subject matter of nature
Lucknow School: region where paintings that displayed a wide range of subjects were produced </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Company School paintings emerged in southern India, but traditions developed in other locations
Paintings used watercolors instead of gouache
Gouache: the medium more traditional to Indian miniature paintings
Both gouache and watercolors capture the smallest detail on a tiny scale
Lord Impey and Marquess Wellesley supported the Company School paintings
These paintings from the 18th and 19th centuries are similar to modern day tourist photographs
Started to die off when photography was introduced in 1840s
Patrons desired documentation; photography showed valued documentary content than their beauty</li></li></ul><li>Focus: John Singleton Copley<br /><ul><li>Born in 1783 possibly in Boston; died 1815
Copley established basics of art from him during his teen years
Established rep. as portrait painter in 1750’s; 1760’s rep. reached to Europe. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>London, 1766, exhibited paining “Boy with a Squirrel” which caught the attention of Benjamin West
Gothic design features, successful alteration of a traditional European style </li></li></ul><li>Questions!!!<br />Who helped Copley establish art into his life during his teen years?<br />Benjamin West<br />His father<br />His stepfather, Peter Pelham<br />Paul Revere <br />Taught himself<br />
What is the definition of Sapi? <br />First paintings emerged in southern India <br />Gothic style architecture <br />Ancestors of contemporary cultural groups<br />Multistoried shrines that houses items such as drums and flags<br />Taught himself<br />
<ul><li>The Chinese plate and Indian watercolor painting depicted use of designs and techniques in works used in the context of: </li></ul>Aristocracy <br />Royal Expedition <br />Imperialism <br />Slavery <br />Commodities<br />
or False<br />True<br />ChhatrapatiShivajiTerminus used to be called the Victoria Terminus Building. <br />
True or<br />False<br />Guro people and other groups around the coastal region have been traditionally ruled by kings<br />