Group 3


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Group 3

  1. 1. Art Resource GuideGroup 3: Pages 47-77<br />Raul Lopez Wesley Nguyen Anthony Tran<br />Tony Vu Ali Mesallem Erika Albinto<br />
  2. 2. Sapi-Portuguese in Sierra Leone Fifteenth-Sixteenth Century<br /><ul><li>Sapi = ancestors of contemporary cultural groups
  3. 3. Tempe, Kissi, and Boloum in Sierra Leone
  4. 4. Portuguese visitors collected ivory objects by Sapi carvers
  5. 5. Many African cultural groups consider dogs to be attuned to the spiritual world
  6. 6. Ivory was a highly coveted material for Africans & Europeans
  7. 7. prestigious and wealthy sign
  8. 8. William Fragg grouped all African ivory objects as </li></ul>“Afro-Portuguese ivories” in 1959<br />Lidded Salt Cellar<br />
  9. 9. <ul><li>Portuguese found highly skilled artists in the Benin Kingdom
  10. 10. along the western coast of Africa, south of Sierra Leone
  11. 11. The Benin Kingdom was founded in present day Nigeria around 900 C.E. lead by series of leaders known as Ogiso (“Rulers of the Sky”)
  12. 12. Benin Kingdom grew through warfare
  13. 13. They made any types of artwork
  14. 14. Most prized were made of cast metal, ivory, and coral</li></ul>Plaque, Benin Kingdom Court Style, Edo Peoples, Nigeria, Mid-Sixteenth Century<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>Rear-Admiral Harry Rawson lead the attack on Benin City
  16. 16. British looted Oba’s palace, destroyed the city, took artworks, and exiled Oba
  17. 17. Many of the artworks are now in museums and some people of Benin want them back.
  18. 18. Even though better off in the western museums</li></ul>Benin Invasion<br />
  19. 19. Fante People<br /><ul><li>Cultural group in the costal area of Ghana
  20. 20. Referred as the Gold Coast by Europeans prior to independence
  21. 21. Part of the Akan language group
  22. 22. Power held in tribe by the chief
  23. 23. Each town in the Fante region has own Asafoorganization
  24. 24. Asafo: military associations imporant to Fante Society </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Flags (frankaa) and cement shrines (posuban) are important to the Asafo
  25. 25. Posuban: usually multistoried shrines that houses items of special importance in community such as drums and flags
  26. 26. Basically, a warehouse with a fancy name
  27. 27. Frankaa: elaborately decorated with highly symbolic imagery
  28. 28. Made on commision
  29. 29. Naturally, members of different Asafo groups have preferences for their artist
  30. 30. Usually tailored by males who gained knowledge through apprenticeship</li></ul>Asafo Flag <br />by KwekuKakanu<br />
  31. 31. NIGERIA AND YORUBA PEOPLES<br /><ul><li>Yoruba people believed the world was created at a place called Ile-Ife, now southwestern Nigeria
  32. 32. Evidence shows this site was populated as early as 350 B.C.E.
  33. 33. Ile-Ife: a thriving city-state since the 11th century
  34. 34. Makes Yoruba one of the largest ethnic group originating in the area
  35. 35. Ruled by kings who supposedly had a connection to the world of deities
  36. 36. Beads were one of the most highly sought luxury items acquired by the Yoruba through European trade</li></li></ul><li>WRAPPERS AND MID-20TH CENTURY<br /><ul><li>Adire- a type of tie-dyed cloth that was traditionally made by Yoruba women
  37. 37. Some adire wrappers displays elaborate decorations
  38. 38. Frontal pose emphasizes on the regalia of the royal figures
  39. 39. Also emphasizes the culture of the Yoruba
  40. 40. To either side of the medallion is repeated scenes
  41. 41. Has motifs from different cultures</li></li></ul><li>Page 6 in A.R.B. shows Wrapper by Yoruba Peoples similar to this<br />
  42. 42. Face Mask, Guro Peoples, Côte d'Ivoire, Mid-Twentieth Century<br /><ul><li>European traders working in Africa were active throughout the forested area along the Atlantic coast
  43. 43. A large portion of this region (referred to as Guinea by European, was colonized later by the French
  44. 44. Prior to the colonial period, there were many interrelationships among the various ethnic groups throughout the region.
  45. 45. For that reason, one can find similarities in artistic traditions through the coastal areas in the present-day countries of Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Guinea, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Guro People<br /><ul><li>Guro = a culturual group in Côte d'Ivoire
  46. 46. Neighbored by the Baule, Yaure, Wan, Anyi, and Attie groups
  47. 47. Known for their rich traditions in masquerade
  48. 48. Artists from all of these groups produce carved wooden masks and sculptures that are quite similar in style
  49. 49. Unlike the Edo and Yoruba people, the Guro and other groups in this coastal region have traditionally not been ruled by kings</li></li></ul><li>Guro People cont’d<br /><ul><li>Cultural groups such as the Guro and Baule are relatively egalitarian
  50. 50. Ruled by a council of elder males who are not seen as divine, but are accorded special status for their age and wisdom.
  51. 51. For the Guro and related groups, masquerade plays an especially important role in upholding the social order
  52. 52. It is for these activities that the most significant art objects are created</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The MamiWata face mask consists of two discrete parts.
  53. 53. MamiWata can be translated as “Mother Water”
  54. 54. The bottom half is a highly stylized face mask.
  55. 55. Typical of masks in this region, the face mask is dominated by the colors red, black, and white.
  56. 56. The face mask is topped with a superstructure</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Masquerade is very important among many of the cultural groups in Côte d'Ivoire.
  57. 57. Some have powerful ritual significance, others are for entertainment
  58. 58. Can be both entertaining and sacred at the same time.
  59. 59. Masqueraders, who among the Guro are men, dress in full ensembles and perform with music for entertainment of the community.</li></ul>Masquerade<br />
  60. 60. <ul><li>Côte d'Ivoire became a French colony in 1897
  61. 61. Unlike many West African countries ruled by a small group of government officials, Côte d'Ivoire had a relatively sizable population of French citizen
  62. 62. The French approach to colonization in Côte d'Ivoire was to force assimilation.
  63. 63. They placed great emphasis on French language, history, literature, and culture.
  64. 64. Masquerade survived the colonial period and continues to flourish today
  65. 65. Brought together music, dance, costuming, and emphasizes shared social values.</li></ul>Côte d'Ivoire<br />
  66. 66. El Anatsui, Ghanaian<br /><ul><li>El Anatsui was born in Anyako, a town located in Ghana’s Volta Region.
  67. 67. In the year Anatsui was born, his country was a British colony known as the Gold Coast.
  68. 68. Anatsui received a formal art education at the College of Art of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi.
  69. 69. The British educational system imposed on its colonies a worldview that focused almost exclusively on European history and tradtions.</li></li></ul><li>After completing his formal artistic training and establishing himself as a teacher in Ghana, El Anatsui received an invitation to join the art faculty at the University of Nigeria in Nsukka. <br />By the 1970s Anatsu began to emerge as a major artist in Africa and earned recognition internationally. <br />He moved to Nigeria in 1975 and became associated with a group of artists called the Nsukka Group. <br />At the time, the most recognizable artists associated with contemporary African art lived in Europe and the Americas. Anatsui, instead continued to live and create art in Nigeria.<br />
  70. 70. <ul><li>Through his expansive career, Anatsui has favored materials that are local.
  71. 71. Broken ceramic pots and discarded cassava graters arefeatured in his sculptural installations
  72. 72. His recent works: wall installations made of discarded metal cans & bottle caps
  73. 73. Example: most famous Fading Cloth
  74. 74. The Fading Clothname refers to formal qualities of the intense colors in the center
  75. 75. Seen up close, this piece contains various colors that seem entirely random; from a distance, the pieces come together to create large bands of color.</li></li></ul><li>The Fading Cloth by El Anastui<br />
  76. 76. The Colonies, Commodities, and Trade<br /><ul><li>British Empire was built over centuries and encompassed locations across the globe
  77. 77. At the height of the Age of Empire, Great Britain was driven for political power
  78. 78. Commodities and trade were important for global expansion
  79. 79. Imports of spices and teas came from foreign land which later became colonies
  80. 80. These imports were first seen as luxuries then they later became necessities
  81. 81. The colonies helped with the financial stability of the empire through British markets/exports </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Chinese plate and Indian watercolor painting depicted use of designs and techniques in works used in the context of imperialism</li></ul>Plate, China, Eighteenth Century (1739-43)<br />
  82. 82. Selected Work<br /><ul><li>This was part of a set with fifty plates and four dishes created for LeakeOkeover and his wife, Mary Nichol,
  83. 83. aristocrats from Staffordshire, England
  84. 84. Decorative style & number of dishes/plates showed that it was meant for only appearance, not for used
  85. 85. Made of porcelain
  86. 86. highly wanted on the European market because its qualities made it preferable to other kinds of ceramic wares </li></li></ul><li>Porcelain<br /><ul><li>First porcelain objects developed around 600 C.E. in the northern regions of China
  87. 87. First porcelain pieces to arrive in Europe came during the early fourteenth century through Silk Road
  88. 88. Porcelain can be shaped in many ways, but still fragile, which makes it a desirable trade item
  89. 89. More porcelain became available to the Europeans once trade sea routes were established by the Portuguese
  90. 90. Once Europeans got their hands on the porcelain, it was embellished and turned it into showpieces
  91. 91. Europeans desired dining items to be made out of porcelain, such as mugs, teacups, and candleholders
  92. 92. Porcelain combined Chinese expertise and European design</li></li></ul><li>A common Indian Nightjar (caprimulgusasiaticus)India, eighteenth Century<br />
  93. 93. <ul><li>This painting was executed by an Indian artist for a European patron
  94. 94. Unknown artist
  95. 95. Size = about a piece of notebook paper
  96. 96. Many Indian artists from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries adapted their styles to meet the demands of new European patrons
  97. 97. Company School Painting: a.k.a. kampanikalan, refers to works that were produced by Indian artists for British patrons</li></ul>Selected work info<br />
  98. 98. Company School <br /><ul><li>Company School artists were professional painters
  99. 99. Styles: some traditional Indian miniature painting and some influenced by European artistic conventions
  100. 100. East India Company: joint-stock company that has a special relationship with the British Crown
  101. 101. held a position of dominance in India and areas stretching into parts of Asia
  102. 102. Key commodities for East India Company: tea, cotton, and indigo
  103. 103. European reps. desired images that captured their new and interesting new home
  104. 104. Company School paintings depicted general subject matter of nature
  105. 105. Lucknow School: region where paintings that displayed a wide range of subjects were produced </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Company School paintings emerged in southern India, but traditions developed in other locations
  106. 106. Paintings used watercolors instead of gouache
  107. 107. Gouache: the medium more traditional to Indian miniature paintings
  108. 108. Both gouache and watercolors capture the smallest detail on a tiny scale
  109. 109. Lord Impey and Marquess Wellesley supported the Company School paintings
  110. 110. These paintings from the 18th and 19th centuries are similar to modern day tourist photographs
  111. 111. Started to die off when photography was introduced in 1840s
  112. 112. Patrons desired documentation; photography showed valued documentary content than their beauty</li></li></ul><li>Focus: John Singleton Copley<br /><ul><li>Born in 1783 possibly in Boston; died 1815
  113. 113. Lack of documentation about his life
  114. 114. Father died early on in his youth; mother married Peter Pelham in 1748
  115. 115. Pelham: painter and engraver
  116. 116. Copley established basics of art from him during his teen years
  117. 117. Established rep. as portrait painter in 1750’s; 1760’s rep. reached to Europe. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>London, 1766, exhibited paining “Boy with a Squirrel” which caught the attention of Benjamin West
  118. 118. The boy is Copley’s half brother
  119. 119. West encourage Copley to move to London, so Copley set sail to London in 1774
  120. 120. There he travelled Paris, Rome, Florence, and more.
  121. 121. Continued to make Colonial painting while in London
  122. 122. Died in London 1815</li></li></ul><li>The Midnight Ride!<br /><ul><li>Took place in 1775, prior to the battles of Lexington and Concord.
  123. 123. Rode from Boston to Lexington to warn fellow Patriots of the British incoming
  124. 124. Revere was actually one of several riders.
  125. 125. Henry Wordsworth Longfellow only acknowledged Revere in his poem, creating a false impression that Revere rode alone</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>1786, Revere sat for Copley for his portrait
  126. 126. At this point he was known as an artisan silversmith
  127. 127. Took the family business around the age of 34; same age as when he sat down for his portrait
  128. 128. Was also a skilled goldsmith and advertised himself as a dentist
  129. 129. Active member of his church , politics prior to his ride ; joined the Sons of Liberty: opposed British colonial policies. </li></ul>Paul Revere, the Silversmith <br />
  130. 130. The Sons of Liberty and the Stamp Act <br /><ul><li>Stamp Act (1765), passed by British Parliament, a retroactive declare that all printed works would be taxed upon.
  131. 131. The tax was actually small, but colonists saw it unreasonable for parliament to tax the American colonies without colonial representation at parliament
  132. 132. “No taxation without representation!” echoed the protesters…
  133. 133. Repealed in 1766, but more “unreasonable” taxes followed
  134. 134. Example: Boston Tea Party of 1773 was a response of a similar tax on tea. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>1878-1887 in Mumbai, India
  135. 135. By Frederick William Stevens
  136. 136. British Architect
  137. 137. Known for his Gothic style
  138. 138. Celebrate jubilee of Queen Victoria
  139. 139. Originally head quarters for </li></ul>the Great Indian Peninsular Railway<br /><ul><li> Influences: European & traditional Indian architecture
  140. 140. Italianate Gothic style
  141. 141. Inspired from Italian &English churches </li></ul>and St. Pancras Railway Station<br /><ul><li> Symbolizes colonial rule
  142. 142. Crown=Progress
  143. 143. Lion & Tiger=European & Indian power
  144. 144. Name of seventeenth-century wise Hindu King</li></ul>ChhatrapatiShivajiTerminus(Victoria Terminus Building)<br />
  145. 145. <ul><li>1823-1880 in Melbourne, Australia
  146. 146. Represented European notions of progress
  147. 147. Designed by Joseph Reed
  148. 148. Designed public, commercial, and ecclesiastical architecture
  149. 149. Firm: Reed & Barnes
  150. 150. For the Melbourne International Exhibition
  151. 151. High European ideas about progress
  152. 152. Ideas from church architecture, Gothic and Classical influences
  153. 153. Attention to city’s growth & progress
  154. 154. Main section exists, but side wings demolished</li></ul>Royal Exhibition Building<br />
  155. 155. St. George’s Cathedral<br /><ul><li>Completed in 1894
  156. 156. Design by Arthur Blomfield
  157. 157. English architect and member of Royal Institute of British Archietcs
  158. 158. Most recent in succession of significant Anglican churches in Georgetown
  159. 159. Small chapel in 1810, but additions were made
  160. 160. One of the tallest wooden churches (height: 143 feet)
  161. 161. Based on a Latin Cross with a central tower
  162. 162. Gothic design features, successful alteration of a traditional European style </li></li></ul><li>Questions!!!<br />Who helped Copley establish art into his life during his teen years?<br />Benjamin West<br />His father<br />His stepfather, Peter Pelham<br />Paul Revere <br />Taught himself<br />
  163. 163. What is the definition of Sapi? <br />First paintings emerged in southern India <br />Gothic style architecture <br />Ancestors of contemporary cultural groups<br />Multistoried shrines that houses items such as drums and flags<br />Taught himself<br />
  164. 164. <ul><li>The Chinese plate and Indian watercolor painting depicted use of designs and techniques in works used in the context of: </li></ul>Aristocracy <br />Royal Expedition <br />Imperialism <br />Slavery <br />Commodities<br />
  165. 165. or False<br />True<br />ChhatrapatiShivajiTerminus used to be called the Victoria Terminus Building. <br />
  166. 166. True or<br />False<br />Guro people and other groups around the coastal region have been traditionally ruled by kings<br />