Literature during the pre-hispanic period is oral in
tradition and is related to rituals and social gatherings.
The earliest attempts to explain the mysterious forces
which affect man’s daily life are contained in legends,
myths, tales, poems, proverbs and riddles.
These epic deals with the adventures of super heroes
who fought monsters and the lives of gods and
The ancient Filipinos had metrical works which were
(e.g. lullabies, planting songs, boat songs, feasting and
They had musical instruments like the nose flutes,
instruments resembling the violin, the harp and a
variety of gongs.
Ethnic groups used woods, iron, bronze, brass, gold,
The propagation of the catholic faith made use of
religious paintings, engravings, sculpture, devotional
hymns and verses.
The types of poems, metrical tales, metrical romances
and reenactments that flourished were the Comedia,
the Moro-Moro, the shadow play, the panunuluyan,
the salubong, the zarzuela, the awit, the tibag, the
karagatan, the sainete, the cenaculo, the Santa Cruz de
Mayo, the Flores de Mayo and the duplo.
The bulk of sculpture in the 19th century consisted of
religious statues commissioned by the Church and the
Juan Luna- who belong to the calssical-romantic style.
Felix Hidalgo- who painted in the upcoming
Many Philippine churches show influence of the
baroque style, having massive walls and thick
buttresses, turrets and spiral motifs, ornate sculptural
façade and graceful, curving balustrades.
Period of reorientation-
Period of imitation-
Period of growth-
Period of post-war reporientation-
- closely related to writing or calligraphy. Most
paintings are enriched with verses or with
observations of man and nature. Done on silk or
paper, it has three principal formats-
The Vertical Hanging Scroll
The Horizontal Handscroll
The Small, Album-leaf (which maybe square, round,
or fan-shaped and framed on silk.)
Chinese building is usually identified by its curved
roof. It is not to be mistaken as a pagoda.
Pagoda has usually at least seven stories, each storey a
repetition of the first, diminishing as it gets higher.
Tomb sculpture, sculpture in the wood and bronze, the
arts of lacquer ware and masks, religious decorations
of temples, potable paintings in the form of scrolls,
albums, and screens and later printmaking, were
examples of the arts were encouraged.
ceramics was also introduced to japan from china and
along with the increased production of porcelain, the
birth of the tea ceremony.
The bourgeois novels, the kabuki theater, the genre
paintings, the poetic representation form, the haiku,
the favorite musical instrument, the koto and later, the
samisen, showed continuous shifting in day-to-day life
Zen- influenced the remarkable courtly romances to
the caricatures, from the samurai, the japanese warrior
class to the buddhist artists.
The Japanese architecture focuses the intimate
relationship between the building and its natural
Landscaping is of great importance.
The Noh and The Kabuki are the principal forms of the
The Bunraku ( puppet show) , like the Kabuki, covers a
wide range of subject matter including historical
subjects dealing with the great warriors, court lords
and ladies, as well as the merchant and ordinary men.
- bronze, copper statuettes, steatite seals, and
miniatures portraying intaglio bulls, elephants, other
ceremonial animals as well as deities.
- Two great epics:
- The Mahabharata
- The Ramayana
Wayang Kulit – a type of shadow play.
-an important ritual in the life of the
Bali – religion is intertwined with the dance.
Batik- a feature of indonesian art ion textile-making
Asian and western music have many points of
Indonesia and Japan music is closely related to the
theater and ceremonial dances.
Asian and western differs in vocal techniques.