Chapter 4 Notes-Agriculture


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Chapter 4 Notes-Agriculture

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Agriculture and Society
  2. 2. Agriculture and Society Agriculture basic part of every society <ul><li>Everyone has to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Societies that can’t feed themselves can’t do much else </li></ul><ul><li>Advances over the last few thousand years have resulted in more food being grown on less land </li></ul><ul><li>In United States: advancement over only about 200 years </li></ul>
  3. 3. US Farmers produce enough food to feed more than 280 million people of US PLUS millions of others around the world <ul><li>Only 1 % of the world’s farm labor force </li></ul><ul><li>Produce 25% of the world’s beef and 15% of the world’s supply of grain, milk and eggs </li></ul><ul><li>More than 25% of world’s food exports comes from US Farms </li></ul>
  4. 4. Food and Fiber System PA plays an important role: <ul><li>About 59,000 farms </li></ul><ul><li>9 million acres of farmland </li></ul><ul><li>18 th among 50 states in annual income from farming </li></ul><ul><li>Leader in milk production </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Many poultry farms and leader in production of eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Ranks first in the nation in production of mushrooms! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Food Production Much has changed in farming in the past 200 years
  6. 6. Food Production Changes over the years: <ul><li>Small farms: sell less than $250,000 worth of crops and livestock each year </li></ul><ul><li>Small farms still outnumber large farms in US </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk of food produced in US comes from large farms </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate farms dominate the US food and fiber system </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies have made farming efficient but expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of farms have decreased but the average farm size has increased </li></ul>
  7. 7. Food Production in Industrialized Countries:
  8. 8. Food Production in Industrialized Countries: The Green Revolution Uses scientifically produced varieties of grain, fertilizers, pesticides and water to increase crop yields
  9. 9. Food Production in Industrialized Countries: The Green Revolution <ul><li>Until 1950, farmers increased yield by increasing the numbers of acres planted </li></ul><ul><li>The Green Revolution allows farms produce more food not by planting more acres but by coaxing the land that is already planted to produce more </li></ul><ul><li>Now countries that are using these methods can produce enough food to feed themselves AND export to other nations (make money from it) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Food Production in Industrialized Countries: <ul><li>Irrigation systems: food can be produced on dry lands that would otherwise be unsuitable </li></ul><ul><li>Modern laborsaving machinery to prepare fields, plant and tend crops, and bring in harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Modern facilities and machines that help raise livestock, giving them food and water </li></ul>Other tools that increase productivity:
  11. 11. Food Production in Industrialized Countries: Benefits <ul><li>Food is cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>People spend less money on food, more money on other things </li></ul><ul><li>Raises standards of living </li></ul><ul><li>Provides jobs and income for people </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus food and fiber to sell as exports which helps the economy of the nation </li></ul>
  12. 12. From Farm to Market <ul><li>Farming local and personal </li></ul><ul><li>Raised food for families and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Work done entirely by hand </li></ul>1000’s of years ago: Today: <ul><li>Few of us grow our own food; or raise our own animals for meat </li></ul><ul><li>Small percentage of people provide food and fiber for the rest </li></ul>
  13. 13. From Farm to Market <ul><li>Can take weeks to get from farm to market </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible 100’s of years ago; food could not be packaged or frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be eaten right away; canned; dried or cured </li></ul><ul><li>Not Anymore! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Food Production in Developing Countries: Varies from place to place Green revolution technologies used in some areas…. But too expensive for most who must still practice Subsistence Farming
  15. 15. Food Production in Developing Countries: Results <ul><li>Crop yields are lower </li></ul><ul><li>People do NOT have money for other things </li></ul><ul><li>Lower standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Higher instances of starvation, pollution and death do to diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Countries must import food </li></ul>
  16. 16. Food Production in Developing Countries: Some methods in tropical areas: Shifting cultivation: <ul><li>Farmers clear land in a forest </li></ul><ul><li>Plant crops for a few years until the soil is used up </li></ul><ul><li>Move on to clear another field </li></ul>Slash and burn agriculture: <ul><li>Farmers cut down trees </li></ul><ul><li>Burn vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Use ash as a “fertilizer” </li></ul><ul><li>Plant between tree stumps </li></ul>
  17. 17. Food Production in Developing Countries: Can lead to ecological issues <ul><li>Cutting down tropical forests to grow crops depletes the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy tropical rains cause nutrients to runoff and causes erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Land becomes hard as it bakes in hot sun </li></ul><ul><li>Must clear fields every 2-5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Trees do not have time to grow back, or can’t because soil is destroyed </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Food and Fiber System in the United States
  19. 19. Steps in the Farm-to-Market Process 1) Production Farmers produce fruits, vegetables, grains, livestock or clothing fiber (Used to be the ONLY step) 2) Food Processing Transforms the raw foodstuffs from the farm into the food that you consume
  20. 20. 2) Food Processing Raw foods are: dried, canned, frozen, pickled, powder, juiced Raw foods are put into other products or mixed together with additives to make other products Some processes improve food quality Some processes also slaughter livestock and fish to make meat products
  21. 21. Packaging Last step of the processing <ul><li>Protects foods from spoiling, spilling or breaking </li></ul>3) Transportation and Distribution From farm to processing From farm to market From processors to wholesalers From wholesalers to restaurants, bakeshops, cafeterias etc.. From processors to retailers
  22. 22. <ul><li>Most consumers buy food from retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Supermarkets, grocery stores, delicatessens, butcher shops, vending machines </li></ul>Marketing <ul><li>The advertising, buying and selling of products in the food and fiber system </li></ul>3) Transportation and Distribution
  23. 23. Regulations USDA: United States Department of Agriculture FDA: Food and Drug Administration <ul><li>Food safety inspections </li></ul><ul><li>“ Grading” foods for standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure truthfulness of information on labels </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect imported foods </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that farm and production practices are safe for the environment </li></ul>
  24. 24. Research and Development <ul><li>New crop and livestock varieties </li></ul><ul><li>New food products </li></ul><ul><li>New methods for processing and storing food </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out by universities, government agencies and private companies </li></ul>
  25. 25. Major Agricultural Regions of the United States The climate, soil and landforms of each region determine the agricultural products it produces
  26. 26. The Northeast <ul><li>Cold winters </li></ul><ul><li>Thin, stony soils </li></ul><ul><li>Ample rainfall, moderate climate </li></ul><ul><li>Close to markets containing millions of people </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits, vegetables: New England and Mid Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy farming: PA, VT, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry: MD, DE, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing: New England </li></ul><ul><li>Sprawl taking over farms; Over fishing hurting fish industries </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Lakes States <ul><li>Northern part too cold and soil poor </li></ul><ul><li>Other areas excellent for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Many dairy farms </li></ul><ul><li>MN, WI leaders in milk, butter, cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan; 2 nd US producer of Christmas trees </li></ul><ul><li>MI Lower Peninsula; fruits: apples, blueberries, cantaloupes, cherries, peaches and strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>WI: beets, cabbages, snap beans, corn </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs, hogs, field corn, soybeans, wheat, hay important in region </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Appalachian States <ul><li>Thin, rocky soils; eroded hillsides, mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Some parts productive </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts, cattle, hogs and tobacco main products of region </li></ul><ul><li>Many dairy farms found here also </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Southeast <ul><li>Plentiful rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Mild summers, cool winters </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock: beef cattle, chicken, hogs </li></ul><ul><li>Many dairy farms </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia: peaches; Carolinas: tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Florida: semitropical climate; citrus fruit and sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>Florida also supplies North East with fruits and vegetables in winter months </li></ul><ul><li>Peanuts and cotton also big crops </li></ul><ul><li>Carolinas, Georgia; leading production of wood and wood furniture </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Delta States <ul><li>Fertile farmland along the Mississippi River flood plain. </li></ul><ul><li>Plentiful rainfall, moderate climate </li></ul><ul><li>Major crops: chicken, rice, corn, sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf region specializes in shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>Shellfish industry endangered due to fertilizer runoff from farms causing algal blooms </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Corn Belt <ul><li>Fertile land; favorable climate </li></ul><ul><li>½ of US corn comes from this region </li></ul><ul><li>Region also ideal for raising soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>Also major producer of hogs, cattle, and dairy products </li></ul>
  32. 32. Northern & Southern Plains <ul><li>Plains are grasslands; wheat, corn barley hay all grow here </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of precipitation decreases from east to west </li></ul><ul><li>Since west is dryer, it is better for cattle and hay </li></ul><ul><li>3/5 US spring and winter wheat produced in plains </li></ul><ul><li>Southern plains produces cotton </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Mountain States <ul><li>Cooler and wetter than plains </li></ul><ul><li>High meadows in mountains suited to cattle and sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part: Wheat major crop </li></ul><ul><li>Hay, sugar, beets, potatoes, some fruit and vegetables grown in valleys with help of irrigation </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Pacific Region <ul><li>Variety of climates </li></ul><ul><li>Farming aided greatly by irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>WA, OR: Wheat, fruit, potatotes </li></ul><ul><li>CA: leads US in fruits and vegetables, milk, dairy, cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii: rich volcanic soil and tropical climate good for pineapples and sugarcane </li></ul><ul><li>Alaska: hothouse nursery products in controlled environments </li></ul>
  35. 35. Food Safety <ul><li>Many ways that food can get contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial (Salmonella, E. Coli, Campylobacter) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign substances </li></ul><ul><li>Foodborne illnesses usually follow the eating of foods that have been contaminated with bacteria during processing, improper storage, or improper handling </li></ul>
  36. 36. Food Safety <ul><li>Can happen at the factory </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen at the store </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen at the restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen at home (and does!) </li></ul>Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” exposed the world of the meat packing industry and made many changes in food safety
  37. 37. Food Safety Now three agencies that keep food safe <ul><li>USDA </li></ul><ul><li>Inspects meat in slaughterhouses and processing plants </li></ul><ul><li>Grades meat to indicate quality </li></ul><ul><li>Enforces regulations to protect animals and plants from diseases and pests </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts research </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical residues in food </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul>
  38. 38. Food Safety <ul><li>FDA </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness in food labels </li></ul><ul><li>Safety of food packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of sanitary conditions in restaurants and other public eating places </li></ul><ul><li>Administers programs to help ensure safety of dairy products and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional labeling </li></ul><ul><li>Investigates outbreaks </li></ul>
  39. 39. Food Safety <ul><li>At Home: </li></ul><ul><li>Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often </li></ul><ul><li>Separate: Don’t cross contaminate </li></ul><ul><li>Cook: Cook to proper temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Chill: Refrigerate promptly </li></ul><ul><li>When Out : </li></ul><ul><li>Watch container dates </li></ul><ul><li>Examine packaging to make sure undamaged </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to holding temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of cleanliness of area </li></ul><ul><li>Watch utensil usage </li></ul>
  40. 40. Agriculture and Technology <ul><li>Some Important Agricultural Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton Gin </li></ul><ul><li>1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Eli Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanically separated seeds, hulls and other unwanted parts from cotton fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Cast-Iron Plow </li></ul><ul><li>1797 </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced wood plow </li></ul><ul><li>Allow farmers to till soil better and faster </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Reaper </li></ul><ul><li>1831 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus McCormick </li></ul><ul><li>Horse drawn machine for harvesting wheat crops </li></ul><ul><li>Some Important Agricultural Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Steel Plow </li></ul><ul><li>1837 </li></ul><ul><li>John Deere & Leonard Andrus </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier plow easily plows thick, sod covered soils of the Midwest </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Chemical Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>1849 </li></ul><ul><li>Allows farmers to enrich depleted soils </li></ul><ul><li>Increased crop production </li></ul><ul><li>Some Important Agricultural Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Transcontinental Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Opens up new areas for agricultural production and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Barbed Wire </li></ul><ul><li>1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers in the prairies and plains can fence off property to protect cattle </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Pasteurization </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1880’s </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled heating of foods to preserve them longer by killing bacteria and other harmful microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Some Important Agricultural Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Tractor </li></ul><ul><li>1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers worked the land faster </li></ul><ul><li>Increased production </li></ul>
  44. 44. Biotechnology The management or manipulation of living organisms for the benefit of people Genetic engineering: allows scientists to alter the physical characteristics of plants and animals by transferring genes Gene: The part of a cell that determines the characteristics that living things inherit from their parents