Food Resources
IB syllabus:
AP syllabus
Ch 13
Video – How to save the world,
Food Inc
Syllabus Statements
• 3.5.1: Outline the issues involved in the imbalance in
global food supply
• 3.5.2: Compare and contr...
• http://www.worldometers.info/
Unequal food resources
• The methods of food production differ
around the world
• Government policy and the climate of the...
Production Methods
Developed Countries
– Industrialized agriculture depends heavily on
capital and fossil fuels
Developing...
Industrialized agriculture
Shifting cultivation
Plantation agriculture
Nomadic herding
Intensive traditional agriculture
N...
Industrialized agriculture
in developed countries
Intensive traditional agriculture
in developing countries
Land
Labor
Cap...
Shifting cultivation in tropical
forests in developing countries
Nomadic herding in
developing countries
Land
Labor
Capita...
Distribution of food
• Enough food produced in the world for entire
population to have 2,720 kcal per day
• Many areas no ...
Population distribution in
poverty
Region % in $1 a day
poverty
Population
(millions)
Pop. in $1 a day
poverty (millions)
...
Influence of Ecology
• Developed countries in temperate areas –
plants and soils conducive to growth of
high yield cereal ...
Influence of Socio-political
factors
• Poverty is a self sustaining positive feedback
process
• Governments in LDCs focus ...
Poverty Malnutrition
Decreased
resistance
to disease
High death
rate for
children
Decreased
energy
Decreased
ability
to le...
Food Type Kilocalories of fossil fuel input per kilocalorie of protein output
Feed lot beef 20-78
Pigs
Broiler chicken
Ran...
First green revolution
(developed countries)
Second green revolution
(developing countries)
Major international agricultur...
DO NOT POST TO INTERNET
Crop
Cross breeding
Desired trait
(color)
ApplePear
Offspring
Cross
breeding
Best results
New
offspring
Desired
result
Sel...
Phase 1
Make Modified Gene
Identify and extract
gene with desired trait
Identify and remove
portion of DNA
with desired tr...
Phase 2
Make Transgenic Cell
Transfer plasmid
copies to a carrier
agrobacterium
Agrobacterium
inserts foreign
DNA into pla...
Phase 3
Grow Genetically Engineered Plant
Transgenic cell
from Phase 2
Cell division of
transgenic cells
Culture cells
to ...
Projected
Advantages
Projected
Disadvantages
Need less fertilizer
Need less water
More resistant to
insects, plant
disease...
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
Grainproduction
(millionsoftons)
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Total World Grain Production
Y...
400
350
300
250
150
Percapitagrainproduction
(kilogramsperperson)
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
World Grain Productio...
In use
Not usable
Arid land
6%
Tropical
forest
8%
Cultivated
10%
Grazed
11%
Forests,
arid
lands
14%
51%
Ice, snow, deserts...
Terrestrial vs. Aquatic Differences
Terrestrial
• Most food at low trophic
levels
• Producers or Herbivores
• Less energy ...
Systems of Production
1. Croplands
- grains, 76% of worlds food
2. Rangelands
- grazing meat production, 17% worlds food
3...
Food Production Systems
• There are many food production systems around
the world
• They vary depending on the geography,
...
100
80
60
40
20
0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
2000
Year
Total World Fish Catch
Catch
(millionsofmetrictons)
25
20
15
10
5
0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year
World Fish Catch per Person
Percapitacatch
(kilogramsperperson)
800
600
400
200
0
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Harvest
(thousandsofmetrictons)
Abundance
(kilograms/...
Demersal
(mostly bottom dwelling)
Hake
Haddock
Cod
Pelagic
(surface dwelling)
Crustaceans Mollusks
Sardine Anchovy
Herring...
Spotter airplane
Fish farming
in cage
Trawler
fishing
Purse-seine
fishing
sonartrawl flap
trawl
lines
trawl bag
Long line ...
Now we farm fish
• Fish is a major component of the human
diet
• Some countries almost exclusively based
on seafood – Japa...
Figur
e 13-
31
Seafood type Kilocalories of fossil fuel input per kilocalorie of protein output
Marine Fisheries
Shrimp
Sa...
Advantages
Highly efficient
High yield in small
volume of water
Increased yields
through
crossbreeding
and genetic
enginee...
System 1: Rice-Fish Farming -
China
• Fish farming in wet rice fields
• In China, Han Dynasty plate (2000 years old)
shows...
www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y1187E/y1187e18.htm
• Inputs – All fish food is in the system,
small fish left behind as stock for next year
rice requires input of small amou...
• Socio-cultural - tenant farmers improve
income, in china industrialization threatens
its continued use
• Environmental I...
Norwegian Salmon Farms
• Norway and Chile produce 2/3 of the
world’s farmed salmon
• 60% of world’s salmon is farmed
• Hig...
Norwegian Salmon farms
• Inputs – need pellets for feed made from
fishing for smaller fish in the ocean,
• System characte...
• Environmental Impacts – 100,000’s
escape cultivation & threaten native fish,
farmed fish less effective reproducers than...
Fish change form
Fish enter rivers
and head for
spawning areas
Grow to smolt
and enter the ocean...
Grow to maturity
in Pa...
Food Production Systems are
linked to social systems
• Modern US
– Developed, high tech, high fossil fuel input
– Value sp...
Cropland
Irrigated farm land
Rangeland
Pasture
Forest
Barren land
Wetland
Urban area
4% 2% 6% 5%
17% of total
commercial
energy use
Crops Livestock Food processing Food distribution and preparation
Food prod...
Think back to the rice-fish
system
• Tied to asian cultures as a historical
practice
• But asian culture is changing  mor...
Can the green movement
• Swing our culture to sustainable food
production?
• People interested in organic foods
• Green pr...
Increase
High-yield
polyculture
Organic fertilizers
Biological pest
control
Integrated pest
management
Irrigation efficien...
Croplands
• Help maintain water
flow and soil infiltration
• Provide partial erosion
protection
• Can build soil organic
m...
And don’t forget the global
trend in food production…
1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050
Year
0.20
0.25
0.15
0.10
0.05
Grainareaperperson(hectares)
• http://www.fao.org/nr/giahs/pilot-systems
• Food and agriculture organization of the
UN
 food resources
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food resources

  1. 1. Food Resources IB syllabus: AP syllabus Ch 13 Video – How to save the world, Food Inc
  2. 2. Syllabus Statements • 3.5.1: Outline the issues involved in the imbalance in global food supply • 3.5.2: Compare and contrast the efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic food production systems • 3.5.3: Compare and contrast the inputs of materials and energy (energy efficiency), the system characteristics, and evaluate the relative environmental impacts of two named food production systems • 3.5.4: Discuss the links that exist between social systems and food production systems
  3. 3. • http://www.worldometers.info/
  4. 4. Unequal food resources • The methods of food production differ around the world • Government policy and the climate of the area influence what is grown • The type used depends on relative availability of land, labor, capital, and fossil fuels
  5. 5. Production Methods Developed Countries – Industrialized agriculture depends heavily on capital and fossil fuels Developing Countries – Intensive traditional agriculture depends heavily on labor – Shifting cultivation in tropical forests depends heavily on land availability no fossil fuels – Nomadic herding depends heavily on land
  6. 6. Industrialized agriculture Shifting cultivation Plantation agriculture Nomadic herding Intensive traditional agriculture No agriculture
  7. 7. Industrialized agriculture in developed countries Intensive traditional agriculture in developing countries Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy Land Labor Capital Fossil fuel energy
  8. 8. Shifting cultivation in tropical forests in developing countries Nomadic herding in developing countries Land Labor Capital Land Labor Capital
  9. 9. Distribution of food • Enough food produced in the world for entire population to have 2,720 kcal per day • Many areas no land to grow food or money to purchase it • 982 million people living in poverty – actually a decrease in 20% from 1990’s • ¼ of the world population consumes ¾ of the food
  10. 10. Population distribution in poverty Region % in $1 a day poverty Population (millions) Pop. in $1 a day poverty (millions) East Asia and Pacific 9.07 1,885.0 170.0 Latin America and the Caribbean 8.63 549.0 47.0 South Asia 31.08 1,470.0 456.0 Sub-Saharan Africa 41.09 753.0 309.0 Total Developing countries 982.0 Europe and Central Asia 0.95 460.0 1.0 Middle East and North Africa 1.47 306.0 4.0 Total 987
  11. 11. Influence of Ecology • Developed countries in temperate areas – plants and soils conducive to growth of high yield cereal crops and livestock • Soil fertility poor in tropical areas • Livestock native to temperate areas in most cases as well
  12. 12. Influence of Socio-political factors • Poverty is a self sustaining positive feedback process • Governments in LDCs focus on exploitation of resources – Bananas in Costa Rica • Governments in developed nations subsidize fossil fuels • Support use of high yield green revolution crops • Research on and use of GMOs
  13. 13. Poverty Malnutrition Decreased resistance to disease High death rate for children Decreased energy Decreased ability to learn Decreased ability to work Shortened life expectancy Feedback loop
  14. 14. Food Type Kilocalories of fossil fuel input per kilocalorie of protein output Feed lot beef 20-78 Pigs Broiler chicken Rangeland Beef Sheep Vegetables 35 22 10 10 2-4
  15. 15. First green revolution (developed countries) Second green revolution (developing countries) Major international agricultural research centers and seed banks
  16. 16. DO NOT POST TO INTERNET
  17. 17. Crop Cross breeding Desired trait (color) ApplePear Offspring Cross breeding Best results New offspring Desired result Selective breeding We used to breed species for desired traits Takes multiple generations Now we just change the genes and create GMOs
  18. 18. Phase 1 Make Modified Gene Identify and extract gene with desired trait Identify and remove portion of DNA with desired trait Remove plasmid from DNA of E. coli Insert extracted DNA (step 2) into plasmid (step3) Insert modified plasmid into E. coli Grow in tissue culture to make copies cell gene DNA Plasmid E. coli DNA Genetically modified plasmid plasmid
  19. 19. Phase 2 Make Transgenic Cell Transfer plasmid copies to a carrier agrobacterium Agrobacterium inserts foreign DNA into plant cell to yield transgenic cell Transfer plasmid to surface microscopic metal particle Use gene gun to inject DNA into plant cell A. tumefaciens (agrobacterium) Plant cell Nucleus Host DNA Foreign DNA
  20. 20. Phase 3 Grow Genetically Engineered Plant Transgenic cell from Phase 2 Cell division of transgenic cells Culture cells to form plantlets Transgenic plants with new traits
  21. 21. Projected Advantages Projected Disadvantages Need less fertilizer Need less water More resistant to insects, plant disease, frost, and drought Faster growth Can grow in slightly salty soils Less spoilage Better flavor Less use of con- ventional pesticides Tolerate higher levels of herbicide use Irreversible and unpredictable genetic and eco- logical effects Harmful toxins in food from possible plant cell mutations New allergens in food Lower nutrition Increased evolution of pesticide- resistant insects and plant diseases Creation of herbicide- resistant weeds Harm beneficial insects Lower genetic diversity Use of GMOs
  22. 22. 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Grainproduction (millionsoftons) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Total World Grain Production Year Global Trend in Food Production
  23. 23. 400 350 300 250 150 Percapitagrainproduction (kilogramsperperson) 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 World Grain Production per Capita 200 Year But… what does this show?
  24. 24. In use Not usable Arid land 6% Tropical forest 8% Cultivated 10% Grazed 11% Forests, arid lands 14% 51% Ice, snow, deserts mountains © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
  25. 25. Terrestrial vs. Aquatic Differences Terrestrial • Most food at low trophic levels • Producers or Herbivores • Less energy loss between initial input and level of harvest Aquatic • Most food harvested at higher trophic levels • Makes total energy storages smaller • Due to tastes for fish / particularly large predatory ones • Energy conversion in this system is more efficient – sizes and lack of structural material in low trophic levels • Initial amount of sunlight fixed is less efficient because of reflection and absorbtion by water
  26. 26. Systems of Production 1. Croplands - grains, 76% of worlds food 2. Rangelands - grazing meat production, 17% worlds food 3. Oceanic fisheries - 7% world food Growth in production b/c technology Challenge  providing for future population
  27. 27. Food Production Systems • There are many food production systems around the world • They vary depending on the geography, sociopolitical dimensions, culture, needs of the area • They also vary based on the characteristics of the food being produced • We will look at a comparison of two of these many systems • Many areas of the world are dependent on fisheries for food
  28. 28. 100 80 60 40 20 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Total World Fish Catch Catch (millionsofmetrictons)
  29. 29. 25 20 15 10 5 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year World Fish Catch per Person Percapitacatch (kilogramsperperson)
  30. 30. 800 600 400 200 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Harvest (thousandsofmetrictons) Abundance (kilograms/tow) Abundance Harvest
  31. 31. Demersal (mostly bottom dwelling) Hake Haddock Cod Pelagic (surface dwelling) Crustaceans Mollusks Sardine Anchovy Herring Mackerel Tuna Krill Shrimp Lobster Crab Oyster Clam Octopus Squid Fish Shellfish Major Targets of Marine Fisheries worldwide
  32. 32. Spotter airplane Fish farming in cage Trawler fishing Purse-seine fishing sonartrawl flap trawl lines trawl bag Long line fishing lines with hooks Drift-net fishing Fish caught by gills float buoy fish school
  33. 33. Now we farm fish • Fish is a major component of the human diet • Some countries almost exclusively based on seafood – Japan • With wild stocks being increasingly depleted, we are turning to fish farming for various reasons as an alternative
  34. 34. Figur e 13- 31 Seafood type Kilocalories of fossil fuel input per kilocalorie of protein output Marine Fisheries Shrimp Salmon Cod Ocean Aquaculture Salmon cage culture Salmon ranching Seaweed 3-98 18-52 20 50 7-12 1
  35. 35. Advantages Highly efficient High yield in small volume of water Increased yields through crossbreeding and genetic engineering Can reduce overharvesting of conventional fisheries Little use of fuel Profit not tired to price of oil High profits Disadvantages Large inputs of land, feed, and water needed Produces large and concentrated outputs of waste Destroys mangrove forests Increased grain production needed to feed some species Fish can be killed by pesticide runoff from nearby cropland Dense populations vulnerable to disease Tanks too contaminated to use after about 5 years
  36. 36. System 1: Rice-Fish Farming - China • Fish farming in wet rice fields • In China, Han Dynasty plate (2000 years old) shows fish swimming from pond to field • Ecological symbiosis in the system – fish provides fertilizer to rice, regulates micro- climatic conditions, softens the soil, disturbs the water, and eats larvae and weeds in the flooded fields; rice provides shade and food for fish. • Provides balanced food, reduced costs and labor, less use of chemicals in the environment
  37. 37. www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y1187E/y1187e18.htm
  38. 38. • Inputs – All fish food is in the system, small fish left behind as stock for next year rice requires input of small amounts of urea, N,P,K and optional lime or manure • System Characteristics – uses native fish, polyculture using natural principles of ecosystem interaction, sustainable
  39. 39. • Socio-cultural - tenant farmers improve income, in china industrialization threatens its continued use • Environmental Impacts – may use pesticides but generally less than alternatives, reducing CH4 emissions compared to normal systems • Outputs – fish and rice, 2 rice crops per
  40. 40. Norwegian Salmon Farms • Norway and Chile produce 2/3 of the world’s farmed salmon • 60% of world’s salmon is farmed • High input system of penned fish in ocean areas or on land – depends on pellet food derived from wild caught fish • High density high waste systems
  41. 41. Norwegian Salmon farms • Inputs – need pellets for feed made from fishing for smaller fish in the ocean, • System characteristics – monoculture – disease susceptible so antibiotics used, may selectively breed stocks, human manipulated • Socio-cultural – farming operations provide local jobs, if effecting local fisheries that effects jobs as well
  42. 42. • Environmental Impacts – 100,000’s escape cultivation & threaten native fish, farmed fish less effective reproducers than natural but their offspring are more successful • Outputs – antibiotics, nutrients causing eutrophication,
  43. 43. Fish change form Fish enter rivers and head for spawning areas Grow to smolt and enter the ocean... Grow to maturity in Pacific Ocean in 1-2 years Eggs and young are cared for in the hatchery Fry hatch in the spring... Fingerlings migrate downstream In the fall spawning salmon deposit eggs in gravel nests and die Normal Life Cycle Fingerlings are released into river And grow in the stream for 1-2 years Human capture Salmon processing plant Eggs are taken from adult females and fertilized with sperm “milked” from males Modified Life Cycle To hatchery
  44. 44. Food Production Systems are linked to social systems • Modern US – Developed, high tech, high fossil fuel input – Value speed and convenience – Capitalism based revenue generation – Removed from food production so don’t see negative results – We are willing to compromise environmental health for the benefits now from pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, machine harvest etc.
  45. 45. Cropland Irrigated farm land Rangeland Pasture Forest Barren land Wetland Urban area
  46. 46. 4% 2% 6% 5% 17% of total commercial energy use Crops Livestock Food processing Food distribution and preparation Food production
  47. 47. Think back to the rice-fish system • Tied to asian cultures as a historical practice • But asian culture is changing  more cosmopolitan  more movement to cities • Could threaten this model system • It is a form that keeps soil fertility high in areas with high population density this can be used on the outskirts to maximize production per area.
  48. 48. Can the green movement • Swing our culture to sustainable food production? • People interested in organic foods • Green production – boutique types of grocers and restaurants • Benefits the planet and trendy
  49. 49. Increase High-yield polyculture Organic fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial crops Crop rotation Use of more water- efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidies for more sustainable farming and fishing Decrease Soil erosion Soil salinization Aquifer depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of biodiversity Loss of prime cropland Food waste Subsidies for unsustainable farming and fishing Population growth Poverty
  50. 50. Croplands • Help maintain water flow and soil infiltration • Provide partial erosion protection • Can build soil organic matter • Store atmospheric carbon • Provide wildlife habitat for some species Ecological Services Economic Services • Food crops • Fiber crops • Crop genetic resources • Jobs © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Done the right way Cropland can be very beneficial
  51. 51. And don’t forget the global trend in food production…
  52. 52. 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 Year 0.20 0.25 0.15 0.10 0.05 Grainareaperperson(hectares)
  53. 53. • http://www.fao.org/nr/giahs/pilot-systems • Food and agriculture organization of the UN

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