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Health psychology chapter 3 part i %281%29


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Health psychology chapter 3 part i %281%29

  1. 1. Health Behaviours 1 PSYC2301 Chapter 3
  2. 2. Role of Be havioural factors in Disease & Disorder <ul><li>Patterns of disease changed dramatically over last 90 years </li></ul><ul><li>The prevalence of acute, infectious disorders (e.g., tuberculosis) has declined because of treatment innovations & public health standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously, increases in “preventable” disorders (i.e. cardiovascular disease, alcohol and drug abuse, lung cancer, and road traffic accident s). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly half of the deaths in Canada are caused by modifiable behaviours (smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity…) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Risk Factors for the Leading Causes of Death in Canada © McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2009
  4. 4. What Are Health Behaviours ? <ul><li>Health behaviours are behaviours that enhance or maintain health. </li></ul><ul><li>Health Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>firmly established behaviours that are often performed automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The se habits develop in childhood and s tabilize when you are 11 or 12 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex: wearing a seat belt, brushing your teeth, healthy diet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why are Health Behaviours important? <ul><li>Reduce deaths due to lifestyle related illness </li></ul><ul><li>Delay time of death, increasing longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Expand years of life free from chronic disease complications </li></ul><ul><li>Improve quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce health care costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. health care cost in 2006 in Canada was $148 billion, an increase of 300% over the last 23 years </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Factors that influence Health Behaviours <ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perception of Personal control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who see health under their personal control are more likely to practice healthy habits </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Factors that influence Health Behaviours (cont.) <ul><li>Social influence </li></ul><ul><li>Personal goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healt h habits are heavily tied to personal goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pain Try lowering cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to health care services </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows that rural residents have poorer health habits (higher rate of smoking, less healthy eating habits, lower leisure time physical activity etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Factors who influence Health Behaviours (cont.) <ul><li>Cognitive factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs that health behaviours are beneficial, </li></ul></ul>Premature mortality and morbidity improvements resulting from move towards recommended diets (deaths / year) Ofcom, 2006 Premature mortality avoided Quality adjusted life years gained Increase fruit and vegetable intake by 136g/day 42,000 411,000 Reduce daily salt intake from average 9g to 6g 20,000 170,000 Cut saturated fat intake by 2.5% of energy 3,500 33,000 Cut added sugar intake by 1.75% of energy 3,500 49,000
  9. 9. Barriers to Modifying Poor Health Behaviours <ul><li>Stress and low social support </li></ul><ul><li>Poor health habits become ingrained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very difficult to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cumulative damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms are not immediate easy to ignore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be pleasurable and addictive </li></ul>
  10. 10. Changing Habits <ul><li>“ Bad habits are like a comfortable bed, easy to get into, but hard to get out of” </li></ul><ul><li>Anon </li></ul>
  11. 11. Intervening with Children and Adolescents <ul><li>Adolescents are vulnerable to problematic health behaviours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., smoking, poor diet, high risk sexual behaviour, substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health promotion must target specific time to maximize its effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachable Moments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain times are better for teaching particular health practices than others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window of vulnerability: Junior high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For smoking and drug use that occurs in junior high school when the students are first exposed to these habits among their peers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why Is It Important to Target Adolescents? <ul><li>Adolescent health behaviours predict disease after 45 better than adult health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescent health habits may determine what chronic diseases a person may suffer from and what they may die of . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Habit changes done in adulthood may be too late. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ethnic, Gender and Health <ul><li>Alcohol – Men at greater risk than women </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise – African-American and Hispanic women get less exercise than Anglo women </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking – Anglo and African-American women at greater risk than Hispanic women </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, health promotion programs for gender and ethnic groups need to take account of co-occurring risk factors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Actual and Projected Obesity Levels for Men McPherson et al. 2007
  15. 15. Actual and Projected Obesity Levels for Women McPherson et al. 2007
  16. 16. How can we change Health Habits ? <ul><li>Educational Appeal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Communication: should be colourful and vivid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 17. How can we change Health Habits ? (cont.) <ul><ul><li>2. Communicator: should be an expert, prestigious, trustworthy, likeable, and similar to target group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Strong arguments: presented at the beginning and the end of message. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How can we change Health Habits ? (cont.) <ul><li>4. Message: short, direct and clean. Should state conclusion explicitly. Extreme messages are okay up to a point </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  19. 19. How can we change Health Habits ? (cont.) <ul><li>If Audience is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Then emphasize beneficial points only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-receptive Then present both side of the issues </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Is Fear Effective? <ul><li>Fear appeal: assumes if people are fearful, then they will change behaviour to reduce fear </li></ul><ul><li>Most people believe that fear is effective, but too much fear may have the opposite effect. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People may ignore or deny the problem (too much anxiety or not provided solutions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People get used to the fear messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore fear alone may not be sufficient </li></ul>
  21. 21. Is Fear Effective? (cont.) <ul><li>Fear effective when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat seems immediate and likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented with informative recommendations and specific action plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Diabetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations: Increase exercising, change diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action plan: meet with a nutritionist, go to the gym 3-4 times a week </li></ul></ul>