Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed David Wilkins
How does vocabulary learned?• Knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning.• The mind seems to words neither radomly nor in the form of a list, but in a highly organised and interconnected fashion called the mental lexicon.• the brain is better disposed to begin search via the meaning based lexicon than the form based one.
• Acquire knowledge requires not only labelling but categorising.• The second language learner simply maps the word directly onto the mother tongue equivalent.• It may be the case that , for a good many second language learners, most of the words in their L2 lexicon are simply acquantainces.
How many words does a learner need to know?• Educated native speaker: 20.000• Longman dictionary of contemporary english: 80.000 words and phrases• Oxford english dictionary: 500.000• A lucky learner: 5.000 words
How are words remembered?• Short term store (STS) : store only few seconds.• Working memory: cognitive tasks such as reasoning, learning, and understanding depend on working memory• Long term memory: as a kind of filling system. Some strategies to develop memory are repetition, retrieval, spacing, pacing, use, cogniti ve depth, personal organising, imaging, mnemonics, motivation, att ention
Why do we forget words?• It has been estimated up to 80% of material is lost within 24 hours of initial learning.• Overload students with vocabulary , may students forget the old ones.• Don’t recycle words.
VOCABULARY STRATEGIESLEARNING VOCABULARY THROGH MNEMONICTECHNIQUESMnemonic work by utilizing some well-knownprinciples of psychology: a retrieval plan isdeveloped during encoding, and mental imagery,both visual and verbal is used. They helpindividuals to learn faster and recall better becausethey aid the integration of new material intoexisting cognitive units and because they provideretrieval cues. Mnemonics can be adoptedvoluntarily, and once learned are difficult to forget.
VOCABULARY STRATEGIESa. Linguistic mnemonicsThe peg method: allows unrelated items to be recall by linkingthese items with a set of memorized “pegs” or “hooks” whichcan vary from rhyming words to digits.Example: one is a bun, two is shoe, three is tree, four is adoor, five is a hive, six are sticks, seven is heaven, eight is agate, nine us a line, ten is hen. (Paivio and Desrochers, 1979).The key word method: it calls for establishment of an acousticand imaginal link between an L2 word to be learned and aword in L1 which sounds familiar. (Atkinson and Raugh, 1975).Example: the Spanish word pan can be learned by imagining aloaf of bread in a pan.
• b. Spatial mnemonics• The Loci method: to use this ancient technique, which dates back to the Romans, one imagines a familiar location, then one mentally places the first item to be remembered in the first location, the second item in the second location, and so forth. To recall the items, one takes an imaginary walk along the landmarks, mentally examines each one, and retrieves the item one has “put” there (Yates, 1966).• Spatial grouping: rearranging words on a page to form patterns, such as a triangle (Decker and Wheatley, 1982).• The finger method: a variation of the spatial method is to associate the item to be learned with a finger.
THE PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD: Physically enactingthe information in a sentence results in a better recallthan simple repetition.THE VERBAL ELABORATION METHODSGrouping: organized material is easier to store in aretrieve from long term memory (Bousfield, 1953)The word chain: instead of associating each item with acue, each item in a list is associated with the precedingand following one (Delin, 1969). Example: car, house,flower.The narrative chain: one links the words in a list togetherby a story (Bower and Clark, 1969).
OTHER MEMORY-ENHANCING TECHNIQUESSelf-testing: testing students in a learning session involving the memorization of words(Mandler, 1967, Tulving, 1968).Spaced practice: long periods of study are less helpful to L2 learners than shorter butmore frequent study periods.Real-life practice: the participation in real life communicative situations duringlanguage training should be attempted at all levels of proficiency to ensure a greatermatch between coding and retrieval conditions (Jones, 1979).Word cards: learners write a word to be learned on one side of a small card and itsmother tongue translation on the other.Guessing from context: make intelligent guesses as to the meaning of unknown words.Coping strategies for production: paraphrasing, describing, using synonyms, usinggesture and mime, using L1 word.Using dictionaries: when guessing from context strategies fail. They can be usedproductively, both for generating text and as resources for vocabulary acquisition.