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MS-24 Jan June 2017

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MS-24 Jan June 2017

  1. 1. SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT MS-24 FIRST SEMESTER 2017 Course Code MS - 24 Course Title Employment Relations Assignment Code MS-24/TMA/SEM - I/2017 Assignment Coverage All Blocks To buy MBA assignments please use below link https://ignousolvedassignmentsmba.blog.spot.in/ KIAN PUBLICATION ignousolvedassignmentsmba@gmail.com kianpublication1@gmail.com ignou4you@gmail.com School of Management Studies INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY MAIDAN GARHI, NEW DELHI – 110 068
  2. 2. 1. Explain the historical perspective of Industrial relations in India. Discuss the issues and challenges facing by the organizations related to industrial relations in an organization you are familiar with. The term ‘Industrial Relations’ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------from union-employer relationship. Industrial relations are the relationships ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------interactions are mediated. Historical perspective of Industrial relations in India A study of modern industrial ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------the end of the First World War. The second phase comprises the period thereafter till ----------------------------------------------------- represents the post-independence era. First Phase : During the first phase, the British -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------advantages of indigenous employers against the British -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------relations in India. The close of the First World War -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------There was intense labour unrest because workers earnings did not keep pace with the rising prices and with their aspirations. The establishment of ILO in 1919 greatly influenced the labour legislation and ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------another significant event in the history of industrial relations in our country. Second Phase: The Policy after --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------prices, their profits went up enormously. The wages of workers, however did not keep pace with this tendency. Their economic distress brought together and an organized working class movement began in the country ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------Trade Unions Act (1926) and the Trade Disputes Act (1917). During the Second war, employers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- increase in proportion to the rise in prices. The years immediately following the war were --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------Disputes Act, 1947 provided for the settlement of disputes. Third Phase: Immediately after --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, therefore convened in 1947, at which the industrial Truce Resolution was adopted, giving paramount ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------all enacted in 1948. When India became independent -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------been prevalent everywhere. Govt. has emerged as an arbitrator between management ------------------------------------------------------------ Act of 1947 deserves importance. During the second five year -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------rationalization, code of discipline, code of conduct, scheme for workers participation in management. Evolution of Industrial Relations Policies 1. In pre-independence India State intervention in ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------:“ Far from protecting the interests of labour, the earlier attempts
  3. 3. to regulate labour consisted of enactments --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------at protecting the social system against labour rather than protecting labour against the social system. Deterioration in working ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------the workers; strained relations between labour and management the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------and labour problems. The beginning of industrial --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------three parties namely, govt., management and labour on a common platform as consultative tripartite forum for all matter of labour policy and industrial relations was accepted. 2. In Post-Independence India The Industrial Disputes Act (1947) provided for i. The establishment of a --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tribunals, Labour Courts: ii. Making an award of a ----------------------------------------------------- on the parties and legally enforceable. This Act seeks: i. The prevention ------------------------------------------------------------------------------, arbitration and adjudication. ii. To prohibit strikes --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- proceeding. In 1950, two bills were -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------collective bargaining would be compulsory for both employers and unions under stipulated conditions. Labour courts were empowered to certify unions as sole bargaining agents. Issues and challenges facing by the organizations related to industrial relations- In order to understand the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------India is in no way different from that of other parts of the globe. The various stages of industrial relations progressed from primitive stage to factory or industrial capitalism stage. The emergence of tripartite consultative system -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Also the fast changing technological development, industrial production ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------, it seems essential to have a historical review of industrial relations in India. Challenges Concerns for ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------the macro level. Industrial Relations systems and practices therefore must be directed towards ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------the challenges impacting on Industrial Relation can be stated as follows:-  India figures at the bottom of the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Report examines the competitive advantage of human resources on the basis of skills, motivations and flexibility, age structure and health of the people. The ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------levels and health factors.  India‟s rank is one of the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 parameters i.e. longevity(life expectancy),knowledge(adult literacy) and decent standard of living(per capital income).  India scored 14 points and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------cultural, social, economic and political affairs.(Venkatratnam,1994)  Although there has been ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in terms of human resources is not satisfactory. Although the literacy has increased to 52% in 1991, the no. of illiterates has increased from 301.9millon in 1981 to 328.9million in 1991.
  4. 4. Approaches to industrial relations that I am familiar with is Reliance Industries are as follows the rules as given below in the chart: According to ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------at Jamshedpur Strong and Stable Union: A strong ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------workers. The agreement with such a union will hardly be honored by a large section of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the terms and conditions of service. Mutual Trust: Both ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------outlook and should recognize the rights of workers. Similarly, labor unions should persuade their ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------methods of settling disputes. Workers’ Participation in Management: The -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------other methods. This will improve communication between managers and workers, increase productivity and lead to greater effectiveness. Mutual Accommodation. The ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------rather than conflict or uncompromising attitude. One must clearly understand that conflicting attitude does not lead to amicable labor relations; it may foster union militancy as the union reacts by engaging in pressure tactics--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the workers. Sincere Implementation of Agreements. The --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------be enforced both in letter and spirit. If the agreements are not implemented then both the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ensure the follow up of the agreements. Sound Personnel Policies: The --------------------------------------------------------------. The policies should be: o Formulated in consultation with the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- effectively. o Clearly ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of anybody. o Implementation of the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ to each worker. Government’s Role: The ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------intervene to settle disputes if the management and the workers are unable to settle their disputes. This will restore industrial harmony. Progressive Outlook: There should be ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, the employees, the consumers and the nation. The management must recognize the rights of workers to organize unions to protect their economic and social interests.
  5. 5. 2. Explain the meaning, origin and growth of trade unions in India. Describe the present trade union scenario of an industrial area with which you are familiar. What are your suggestions for strengthing the trade unions in India. An organization whose membership ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and working condition terms, (2) regulate relations between workers (its members) and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------grievances. A trade union may be: (a) A company union ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------one and generally illegal. (b) A general union that represents ------------------------------------------------------------------------- called industrial union. (c) A craft union that -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- or welding. Origin and Growth of Trade Unions in India Origin and Early Growth: The Trade ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the working class people and led them to form unions which, would voice their grievances, fight for their rights and ensure to them better working conditions. When they were sufficiently ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Act of 1926. Some valuable rights and privileges were conceded to Unions registered under this Act. Since then Trade Unions have been multiplying in large numbers till they reached the total figure of 1,863 in the year of our independence. Their membership also has been increasing in the same manner. Causes: The Trade Union ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------created by war conditions.  The rise in the cost of living --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------better service conditions from employers.  Their demand for ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------of our producing concerns failed to resist.  Public opinion being ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----------------------------------------------------------------of their demands conceded by the employers of labor. Initiatives: The national government --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------security against unjust exploitation. The success gained by trade unionism in ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of their own on trade union principles and wrest from the unwilling hands of their masters more and more amenities and privileges. Now-a-days we have not only railway men’s unions, postal and bank employees’ associations but also associations of shop- keepers’ employees and even of other -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the amenities of civilized life. Industrial Trade unions: Trade unionism--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------draw a large measure of public sympathy. A democratic government claiming to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to a life of toll, misery and insecurity. There should be proper mechanism to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, some legislative measures have been adopted
  6. 6. by the Government in the hope that they will mark a new epoch in the history of labor movement in this country and set at rest all disaffection and unrest among industrial workers. Trade unions in ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------history and a stormy career. Early Period Efforts towards organising the workers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------grounds. The first Factories Act, 1881, was passed on the basis of the recommendations of the Bombay Factory Commission, 1875. Due to the limitations of the Act, the workers in Bombay Textile Industry under the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Association conceded the demand for weekly holiday. Consequently------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------” was also published. Some of the important unions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------Postal Union (1907), the Kamgar Hitavardhak Sabha (1910) and the Social Service League (1910). But these unions were treated as ad hoc bodies and could not serve the purpose of trade unions. Modest Beginning The beginning of the Labour movement in -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------movement in India. Establishment of International Labour Organisation in 1919 helped the formation of trade unions in the country. Madras Labour Union was formed on systematic lines in 1919. A number of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi. These unions were later federated into an ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Philosophy of mutual trust, collaboration and non-violence. Present Scenario of trade unions in India There are over 9,000 trade ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------unionism is fairly high in organized industrial sector. It is negligible in the agricultural and unorganized sectors. Though the number of unions has ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a membership of over 5,000. More than 70% of the unions had a membership of below 500. Over the years the average membership figures per union have fallen steadily from about 1387 in 1943 to 632 in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------in the country. There is a high degree of unionization (varying from 30% to over 70%) in coal, cotton, textiles, iron and steel, railways, cement, banking, insurance, ports and docks ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------like doctors, lawyers, traders, etc. for safeguarding their interest. There are as many as 10 central trade union ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------should be 5 lacs numbers with a spread over to at least 4 states and 4 industries as --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. As per one survey (Economic Times, 24.9.97) the five leading Trade Unions’ strength are as follows: Example- Trade union at NTPC- NTPC Limited, a Public Sector Unit (PSU), ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, construction and operation of power- generating plants. It also provides consultancy to companies in India and abroad in the areas of power plant construction and power generation. NTPC's share in the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. It has set new benchmarks for the power
  7. 7. industry, in the areas of both power plant ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ of Indian public sector. The backbone of NTPC is its ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------of its 23,716 – strong workforce (as of 31March 2008) to fulfill its business plans. It had figured among the top ten 'Best Companies to Work for in India' survey conducted by Mercer HR Consulting in 2004. It was ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the third-most great place to work by the Grow Talent Company in their 'Great Places to Work' study in 2004. There are around 1200 employees at ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------efficient and effective running of the Plant, it has ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------in the success of the Power Station. At the national level, union-management ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (AITUC), Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS), the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------representatives on the other. Primary Function - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- My suggestions for strengthening the Trade Unions in India If the trade union movement is not united and strong enough to achieve its objectives, the industrial structure to be built in India on the basis of full------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------rights to the working class. Some measures that can strengthen the trade union movement in India Maintaining Unity: - Past experiences indicate that multiplicity of unions; political ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------necessity because “Unity is the strength”. Unity in trade unions can be stricken and maintained in different ways: 1. All workers should join -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------objective and one method for the labour movement. 2. Free from political Influence: At present, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------has weakened the labour movement. Therefore, one way to strengthen the trade union movement is the provision of leaders from the ranks of the workers themselves. These ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and patience. 3. Workers’ Education: Trade ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a sense of discipline and responsibility to perform their jobs satisfactorily. 4. Adequacy of funds: Particularly, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------prolong and ended in failure. Therefore, the maintenance of strike funds by the union is a necessity. 5. Welfare Activities for Workers: Along ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, crèches at work place, night school for adults, reading rooms, libraries, co-operative stores, gymnasiums, etc.
  8. 8. 6. Formation of craft unions should be ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------industrial federation should be encouraged. 7. Steps ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------outsiders. 8. Unity in the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- grow from within. 9. Collective --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- settlement of disputes. 10. An independent authority ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a similar suggestion.) These are some suggestions from me for strengthening the Trade Unions in India. 3. Explain the concept and objectives of Workers Participation in Management (WPM). Describe the structure, levels of participation, degrees and forms of participative management in an organization you are familiar with. Concept of Workers Participation in Management (WPM)- Worker's participation is a system where workers and management share important information with each other and participate in decision taking. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------to Management which brought about a new set of values to labor and management. Workers' participation in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------in the decision-making. It is a process by which authority and responsibility of managing industry are shared with workers. In India, according to the Industrial Policy -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------society, wherein the sharing of a part of the managerial powers by workers in considered necessary”. The purposes which workers’ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Five year Plan, are: (a) Increasing -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and the community; (b) Giving employees a better ------------------------------------------------------------------------ of production; and (c) Satisfying the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------and opinion in attaining firm’s objective. Objectives of Workers Participation in Management (WPM)- Workers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------to empower employees at every level but use of joint decision making at certain levels in organization ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- the main objectives to introduce participative style of management in organizations:  To Make Best Use of Human Capital: Workers Participative management does not restrict organizations to exploit only physical capital of employees. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- processes and create a better working environment.  To Meet the Psychological Needs of Employees: When ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------their performance, create a proper channel of communication and find practical solutions to design better organizational processes.
  9. 9.  To Retain the Best Talent: Workers ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a say in organizational decision making process. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------and achieving success.  To Increase Industrial Productivity: In ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, flexibility, delegation of authority, industrial democracy and ------------------------------------------------------- of any organization.  To Establish Harmonious Industrial Relationship: Workers --------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. The success of an --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------them their best to the organization.  To Maintain a Proper Flow of Communication: Two-way communication plays an important role in the success of any organization. Employee ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------by contributing their best to improve business processes. Workers Participative management is beneficial to organization as well as employees. It gives employees a higher degree of enjoyment at work place that ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------well as increase in its productivity. Levels of workers participation in management- Workers participation may exist --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------at top level of management. Broadly speaking there are following file levels of participation of workers in management. 1. Information participation of workers: It ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------portance. 2. Consultative participation of workers: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Even so, ultimate decision lie in the hands of management, only employees views are considered as advise. 3. Associative participation of workers: This --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and implement the opinion of employees. 4. Administrative participation of workers: Under this --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------were already taken by the management, thereupon employees ----------------------------------------------------------------- of implementation. 5. Decisive participation of workers: Decisive -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------welfare and production related issues. Forms of Workers’ Participation in Management The forms of workers --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------. The forms of workers participation may be as follows: 1. Joint ---------------------------------- Model 2. Joint ------------------------------------ Model 3. Self ----------------------------------------------------- Scheme 4. Workers ------------------------------------------ Board 1. Joint consultation model: In the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. This form is followed in United Kingdom, Sweden and Poland.
  10. 10. 2. Joint decision model: In this form -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------West Germany. 3. Self management of auto management: In --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the workers under a scheme called ‘Self Management or Auto Management Scheme’. 4. Workers’ representation on board: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- decision making process. The workers participation in management --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, Production Committee, Safety Committee, Joint Management Councils, Canteen -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------or transfer of workers from one department to another. Example- The organization I am referring is Tata Iron and Steel Company. Since Tata Iron and Steel Company are the pioneers in establishing joint consultation in India, it is worthwhile to look at workers' participation at TISCO. The Company seeks to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------corporate citizen, Tata Iron & steel has established systems to encourage and recognize employee participation in environment and social initiatives that contribute to organisational sustainability, training--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------communities. Closer association of employees --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------employees of their role and importance, and to satisfy the urge for self expression. The scheme as set up at TISCO consist f a three-tiered system with joint department councils (JDCs) constituted at the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------three bodies were as follows: JDCs were “to study operational results and production problems, advice on the steps deemed necessary to promote and rationalize production, improve productivity ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------fell within their purview.” JWCs were “ to discharge special ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Committee, etc.” JCCM was given the task of advising ---------------------------------------------------------- referred to by JDCs and JWCs In order to ensure that these -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------to effectively utilize the facility. TISCO's experience with workers' participation has been satisfactory. From 1957 to the middle of 1972 JDSs have discussed a total of 14,104 suggestions of which 70.3 per cent have ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------workers equally in the process of production. 4. Explain the meaning and context of grievance. Describe various approaches of grievance resolution in your opinion which approach is most effective and why? Meaning and context of the grievance
  11. 11. Grievance may be any genuine or ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------by the employee and brought to the notice of the management and the organization. Grievances take the form of collective disputes when they are not resolved. Also they will then lower the morale and efficiency of the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------when employees’ expectations are not fulfilled from the organization as a result of which a feeling of discontentment and dissatisfaction arises. This dissatisfaction must crop up from employment issues and not from personal issues. Grievance may result from the following factors-  Improper working ------------------------------------------------------------------------ with managers, etc.  Irrational ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- salary structure, etc.  Violation of ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- practices It can be broadly defined ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------as unfair, unjust or inequitable." (Prof. Jucius). This definition predicates that the grievance: (a)It can --------------------------------------------------------- the employee; (b) It is ----------------------------------------------------------- unwritten; (c)It is valid --------------------------------------------------------- baseless, and (d)It must have --------------------------------------------------------- relationship. In the modern management -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Appropriate corrective measures should also be taken for overall effectiveness, of an organization. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------They are normally - A shared culture - ------------------------------ attitudes - Scope for -------------------------------- and - A feeling of ---------------------------- The organization I aware of is Tata Steel:- A Fortune 500 company, ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------50 countries. The Group's vision is to be the world's steel industry benchmark in 'Value Creation' and 'Corporate Citizenship' through the excellence of its people, its innovative approach and overall conduct. Tata Steel is of the opinion ------------------------------------------------------------------- best practices for its employees. Grievance Handling Mechanism: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------thereby ensuring employee satisfaction. The informal grievance resolution mechanism is an online process and goes by the name of “Samadhan”. The formal grievance resolution is divided into three ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Committee. A grievance can be of any type ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------related and not personal. Grievances stem from management ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------personal problems of individual employees and union practices aimed at reinforcing and consolidating their bargaining, strength. The absence of proper two-way flow of communication can indeed be a fertile ground for breeding grievances. At Tata Steel, Standing Operating ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. The procedures mentioned in this SOP are meant to settle grievance of permanent employees, other than supervisors and fresh employees on probation. The grievance procedure at the organization is categorized into two --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------mainly for petty issues. It is an online
  12. 12. process and goes by the name of “Sama dhan” The Formal grievance resolution is divided into three stages, with each stage being reached when a solution is not arrived in the previous stage. Responsibilities 1. Employees are ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ it to the concerned authority. 2. Sectional Manager/Sr. manager are --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and return it to employee. They are also responsible for taking the appropriate action 3. Head of Department (HOD) is ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to the employees. 4. IR Managers assist the sectional manager / Sr. Manager at every step in the formal grievance resolution procedure. It is with their -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------through Samadhan are addresses to the IR managers who need to reply back in stipulated time. To lodge any --------------------------------------------------------------------- for grievance/complaint redressal mechanism. Employee log into their account by using the given password for their account, subsequently, they go to the Samdhan web page and log in their query in such a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the issue and give reply with appropriate action taken to the employees. If the grievance is out of scope and needs reference then he should forward the same. If the Employee is satisfied with the reply and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------be sending to the IR manager. On expiry of stipulated time and query still not being closed, a mail shall be send to the head of the IR manager who needs to take appropriate action. Eventually, on expiry ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------approach his shift In charge/sectional head, personnel executive, Union committee member or the Ethics department,(in case of any complaints) engage into a direct consultation and have his grievance/complaints --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------the course of a formal grievance redressal procedure. I think the approach followed by Tata Steel is effective and beneficial for both the workers and the company. Approaches of grievance resolution The role of Human Resource department in grievance handling  Improper working conditions such as strict ------------------------------------------------------ managers, etc.  Irrational --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- salary structure, etc.  Violation of organizational rules and practices The manager should immediately ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------work. Effective grievance management is an essential part of personnel management. The managers should adopt the following approach to manage grievance effectively- Quick action- As soon as ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------on the employees and their performance. Acknowledging grievance- The -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the manager is eager to look into the complaint impartially and without any bias. This will create a conducive work environment with instances of grievance reduced. Gathering facts- The --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------of grievance redressal. Examining the causes of grievance- The --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- grievance.
  13. 13. Decisioning- After identifying the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------management policies and procedure should be analyzed and accordingly decision should be taken by the manager. Execution and review- The manager should ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------that the grievance has been resolved completely and adequately. An effective grievance procedure ensures ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to frame policies and procedures acceptable to the employees. It becomes an -------------------------------------------------------------- dissatisfaction openly and formally. In my --------------------------------------------------- of grievance handling is : Drawing up a grievance procedure • Involve -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. • Explain procedures -------------------------------------------------------------- they have access to a copy. Operating grievance procedures • Where appropriate --------------------------------------------------- with line managers. • Employees ----------------------------------------------------------------------- management. • Invite the ----------------------------------------------------------------------- be accompanied. • Give the -------------------------------------------------------------------------- say at the meeting. • Respond in writing -------------------------------------------------------------- right to appeal. Appeals • A more senior manager should-------------------------------------------------------------------- they may be accompanied. • The senior manager -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- in the grievance procedure. Records • Written ----------------------------------------------------- reference. Write to the employee and state that in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------health specialist. If the employee is deemed fit enough to attend, you should arrange the hearing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------for written representation and make a decision in the employee’s absence. I think interview is the best method for grievance resolution. 5. Describe the new perspectives of 1990s. Discuss the implications of post modernism for employment relations. Explain the latest developments in HRM for industrial relations issues with suitable examples. New perspectives of 1990s- There has been a significant -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------dominated the scene: i) Liberal ----------------------------------------------------------- faire ii) --------------------------------------------------------------- management iii) Modernism ---------------------------------------------------Modernism i) Liberal individualism and neo- laissez faire The advent of conservative governments and the product-market imperatives resulting in an onslaught on trade unionism heralded a new era of ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of liberal individualism are:
  14. 14. a) That ------------------------------------------------------------------------- employers operating in competitive markets. b) That --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------be avoided. c) That in order to ensure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------them at that stage should be resolved. d) That once the employment ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------the best interests of all. e) That any combination by trade ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------market forces which determine a fair price for labour and ensure the greatest efficiency in terms of production and allocation of resources. f) That it is best for individuals, in a ------------------------------------------------------------ trade unions and the State. g) That there should be no ------------------------------------------------------------------------ should dominate; h) That there should be -------------------------------------------------------------------- and efficiency; i) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ and other restrictions; j) Privatisation of -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------services to private companies. ii) Human Resource Management a) The growth in --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------in the membership and influence of trade unions. b) HRM has been applied to a ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------or industrial relations management. c) The importance of HRM for our ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to the management of people. d) The ‘hard’ version of HRM ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------with people in organisations. e) HRM approaches ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------its employees. iii) Modernism vs. Post-modernism ‘Modernism’ refers to the era ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------by social organisation of production, the division of labour and assembly line of operations coupled with narrow specialization. During 1980’s and 1990s, these traditional systems have been gradually replaced -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1990s, embraces the notion that advanced capitalist societies are experiencing ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a change in assumptions as detailed below:  Knowledge ------------------------------------------------------------- skill work,  Customised ------------------------------------------------------------ referred to as ‘Fordism’),  Multi-skills as ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- functional area,  Flexible ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ of skills and abilities, and  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------orientation.
  15. 15. IMPLICATIONS OF POST-MODERNISM FOR EMPLOYMENT/INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS The post-modernist ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ as detailed below:  The outlook ------------------------------------------------------------ pessimistic.  Industrial ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------and challenging.  As a result of the ------------------------------------------------ union membership increasingly irrelevant.  ‘Working class’ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------its role as a political actor is therefore likely to diminish. Post-modern analysis suggests that the trade union movement is in terminal decline.  The term ‘----------------------------------------------------------------------------- part of a post-modernist project. HRM AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS STRATEGIES Industrial relations strategies and -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------traditionally been low in the order of organisational priorities and smaller firms generally have an unstructured and day-to-day approach to industrial relations management. Much of the industrial unrest of the 1960s was ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------was going on at the workplace. Corporate industrial relations should --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of positive personnel policies, formalisation of industrial relations procedures concerning dispute, discipline and grievance handling, creation of orderly collective bargaining machinery and the formal --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------policies, procedures and practices in industrial relations can be explained in terms of:  Fear of sharing power with -------------------------------------------------------------------------- of management.  Lack of managerial ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ to managing IR at the senior levels as, for example, ----------------------------------------------------- expert being inducted.  There is no ‘one best way’ to -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------none of which can prove satisfactory’. Example 1- (Tata Steel) The organisation I am referring here to support my answer is Tata Steel. “Industrial Relation” is a function of many variables. Some of the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------with an annual capacity of 23.5 million ton and employees approximately 80,000. Tata Steel ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- at Jamshedpur, where its Indian manufacturing operations are largely based. All employees of the Company ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and joint consultations. Non-officers of the Company interact -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------related to operational changes, production, productivity, quality, safety, welfare, training, etc. are addressed in a timely and effective manner. Free and fair elections via secret ballot ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------body, is scheduled for early 2012-13.
  16. 16. Officers are free to express their --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, amenities for employees and creating a safe and healthier work environment are addressed through these meetings. A new HR Desk was launched in 2011-12. A special forum for women’s --------------------------------------------------------------------------- related to women. Tata Steel’s culture of continuous improvements rests entirely on the contribution of its employees through their participation in initiatives under the Business Plan ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------employees in improvement activities and thereby create a vibrant -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Communication Meetings and the like. Deeper involvement and ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Management process. Example 2- The Organization I am referring to you is Amex India It is an assortment of such experiences that, for over a thousand employees at Amex India, make the company a great place to work. This is reflected in the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------for large corporations has its own advantages. Apart from the assurance and security of a good --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------India, its largest employee base anywhere outside the US, presents a good opportunity. The company also scores high on employee freedom at work front. The hallmark of any good ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------get to create. When employees set ---------------------------------------------------------------- it," says Rai, talking about the company's four-stage ------------------------------------------- in shaping company policy and direction. At Amex, individual leadership is given to junior managers, executional leadership rests with middle managers and strategic leadership roles are vested with vice presidents. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------clear distribution eliminates the need for much supervision, management of day to day employee affairs and also guarantees employee freedom," Power and authority process involves -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of authority. KIAN PUBLICATION ignousolvedassignmentsmba@gmail.com kianpublication1@gmail.com ignou4you@gmail.com

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