Bongos (Spanish: bongó) are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument. The drums are of
different size: the larger drum is called in Spanish the hembra (female) and the smaller
the macho (male). They are membranophones, or instruments that create sound by a
vibration of a stretched membrane.
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame,
often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the
term tambourine denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may
not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets. They
can be mounted, but position is largely down to preference.
Castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), used in Kalo, Moorish,
ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish, Sephardic, Swiss, and Portuguese music. The
instrument consists of a pair of concave shells joined on one edge by a string. They are
held in the hand and used to produce clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or rattling
sound consisting of a rapid series of clicks.
The horn (also known as the corno and French horn) is a brass instrument made of
more than 20 feet (6.1 m)
of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. A musician
who plays the horn is called a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). In informal use,
"horn" may also refer to nearly any wind instrument with a flared exit for the sound.
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments,
sound is produced when the player’s vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column
inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide
mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Instead of a
slide, the valve trombone has three valves like those on a trumpet.
A trumpet is a musical instrument. It is the highest register in the brass family.
Trumpets are among the oldest musical instruments,
dating back to at least 1500 BC.
They are played by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that
starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument.
The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical
bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is a
transposing instrument in B♭. It is not related to the renaissance and early baroque
(also referred to as the sax) is a conical-bore woodwind musical
instrument. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed
mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet.
The saxophone was invented by the Belgian
instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1846.
The bugle is one of the simplest brass instruments, having no valves or other pitch-
altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure.
Consequently, the bugle is limited to notes within the harmonic series. See bugle call for
scores to standard bugle calls, all consisting of only five notes. These notes are known
as the bugle scale.
The accordion is a box-shaped musical instrument of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone
family, sometimes colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is
called an accordionist.
The banjo is a four, five or six stringed instrument with a piece of animal skin or plastic
stretched over a circular frame. Simpler forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in
Colonial America, adapted from several African instruments of similar design.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched brass instrument. Sound is produced by vibrating or
"buzzing" the lips into a large cupped mouthpiece. It is one of the most recent additions to the
modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced
. Tuba is Latin for trumpet or horn.
The horn referred to would most likely
resemble what is known as a baroque trumpet.
The cor anglais (UK /ˌkɔr ˌɑˌŋɡleɪ/ or US /ˌkɔr ɒŋˌɡleɪ/; French: [kɔʁ ɑɡlɛ]), or English
horn (American English), is a double-reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family.
The piccolo (Italian for small) is a half-size flute, and a member of the woodwind family of
musical instruments. The piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the
standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave
rise to the name "ottavino," the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of
The clarinet is a type of woodwind instrument that has a straight cylindrical tube with a flaring
bell and a single-reed mouthpiece. The instrument has an approximately cylindrical bore, and
uses a single reed. A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist or clarinettist.
The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. In English, prior to
1770, the instrument was called "hautbois" (French compound word made of haut ("high,
loud") and bois ("wood, woodwind"), "hoboy", or "French hoboy".
The spelling "oboe" was
adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration in that language's
orthography of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French name. A musician who plays the
oboe is called an oboist.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into
electrical impulses. The most common guitar pickup uses the principle of direct electromagnetic
induction. The signal generated by an electric guitar is too weak to drive a loudspeaker, so it is
amplified before sending it to a loudspeaker. Since the output of an electric guitar is an electric
signal, the signal may easily be altered using electronic circuits to add "color" to the sound.
Often the signal is modified using effects such as reverb and distortion.
Invented in 1931, the electric guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify
their sound in the big band format. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the
most important instrument in pop music.
It has evolved into a stringed musical instrument
that is capable of a multitude of sounds and styles. It served as a major component in the
development of rock and roll and many other genres of music.
An acoustic guitar is a guitar that uses only an acoustic sound board. The air in this cavity
resonates with the vibrational modes of the string and at low frequencies, which depend on the
size of the box, the chamber acts like a Helmholtz resonator, increasing or decreasing the
volume of the sound again depending on whether the air in the box is moving in phase or out
of phase with the strings. When in phase, the sound is increased by about 3 decibels and when
in opposing phase, it is decreased about 3 decibels. As a Helmholtz resonator, the air at the
opening is vibrating in or out of phase with the air in the box and in or out of phase with the
strings. These resonance interactions attenuate or amplify the sound at different frequencies,
boosting or damping various harmonic tones. Also, the air in the box is coupled to the
resonance of the top plate. Together, this causes further interaction.
The bass guitar is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by
plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, thumping, or picking.
The bass guitar is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a longer
neck and scale length, and four, five, six, or eight strings. The four-string bass—by far the most
common—is usually tuned the same as the double bass,
which corresponds to pitches one
octave lower than the four lower strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G).
The bass guitar is a
transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds (as is the
double bass) to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the bass guitar is plugged
into an amplifier and speaker for live performances.
In music, a bow is moved across some part of a musical instrument, causing vibration which
the instrument emits as sound. The vast majority of bows are used with string instruments,
although some bows are used with musical saws and other bowed idiophones.
The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the
smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes
the viola, cello, and double bass.
The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member
of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola, and double
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον — xylon, "wood"
+ φωνή —phonē, "sound,
meaning "wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that
consists of wooden (not steel) bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch
of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian
instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use.
The term may be used generally, to include all such instruments, such as the marimba and
balafon or, more specifically, to refer to an orchestral instrument of somewhat higher pitch
range than the chromatic marimba. It is sometimes mistakenly used of similar lithophones and
metallophone instruments of the glockenspiel type such as the pixiphone.
A mandolin (Italian: mandolino) is a musical instrument in the lute family (plucked, or
strummed). It descends from the mandore, a soprano member of the lute family. The mandolin
soundboard (the top) comes in many shapes—but generally round or teardrop-shaped,
sometimes with scrolls or other projections. A mandolin may have f-holes, or a single round or
oval sound hole. A round or oval sound hole may be bordered with decorative rosettes or
The zampona or pan pipe is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the closed
tube, consisting usually of five or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times,
girth). The pan flute has long been popular as a folk instrument, and is considered the first
mouth organ, ancestor of both the pipe organ and the harmonica. The pan flute is named for its
association with the Greek god Pan.
The zither is a musical string instrument, most commonly found in Slovenia, Austria, Hungary,
northwestern Croatia, the southern regions of Germany, alpine Europe and East Asian cultures,
including China. The term "citre" is also used more broadly, to describe the entire family of
stringed instruments in which the strings do not extend beyond the sounding box, including the
hammered dulcimer, psaltery, Appalachian dulcimer, guqin, guzheng (Chinese zither), koto,
gusli, kantele, gayageum, đàn tranh, kanun, autoharp, santoor, yangqin, piano, harpsichord,
santur, swarmandal, and others.
The lyre (Greek: λύπα) is a stringed musical instrument known for its use in Greek classical
antiquity and later. The word comes from the Greek "λύπα" (lyra)
and the earliest reference
to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists", written in Linear B syllabic
The earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of
Hagia Triada (a Minoan settlement in Crete).
Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a
constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and
Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes have been for centuries
played throughout large parts of Europe, the Caucasus, around the Persian Gulf and in Northern
Africa. The term "bagpipe" is equally correct in the singular or plural, although in the English
language, pipers most commonly talk of "the pipes", "a set of pipes", or "a stand of pipes".
Maracas are a native instrument of Latin America. They are a kind of percussion instrument
(idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia "cue-
ya") or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. They may also be made of leather, wood,
The balalaika (Russian: , pronounced [bəlɐˌlajkə]) is a stringed musical instrument
popular in Russia, with a characteristic triangular body and three strings.
The balalaika family of instruments includes instruments of various sizes, from the highest-
pitched to the lowest, the prima balalaika, secunda balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika, and
contrabass balalaika. All have three-sided bodies, spruce or fir tops, backs made of three to
nine wooden sections (usually maple), and they are typically strung with three strings.