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  1. 1. NOUN A noun is defined as the name of a person, place or thing. For this process of naming, we must make use of many different noun types in order to abide by the rules of English grammar. There are seven different types of nouns in the English language that we use to convey the meaning of a name. KINDS OF NOUN Proper Noun: This is used to denote a particular person, place or a thing. Examples: English is a global language. Common Noun : This is used to refer to a class. Examples: The cat loves comfort. Collective Nouns: This is used to refer to a group or a collection of things. Examples: I saw a herd of sheep nearby. Concrete nouns: You can experience this group of nouns with your five senses. These nouns can all be touched, smelt, tasted or seen. Examples: The cute rabbit hops around. Countable Nouns: To linguists, these count nouns can occur in both single and plural forms, can be modified by numerals, and can co-occur with quantificational determiners like many, most, more, several, etc. Examples: There were so many bikes on sale. Material Nouns : This is used to tell the substance by which the things are made. Examples: The chair is made of bamboo. Pronouns: These nouns can take the place of a noun when referring to people places or things. In English the personal pronouns are I, you, he, she, it and they. Depending on their function within a sentence these nouns can take on their possessive forms or their objective case. Examples: Suzy will let her hair grow longer. possessive personal He jumped on the bed. singular personal Abstract Noun: It is used to indicate the quality possessed by a person or thing. Examples: I appreciate your sincerity. Uncountable Nouns: These nouns cannot be counted they are often referred to as mass nouns. These nouns cannot be used in a plural form. Examples: The pool was full of water. The uncountable noun in this sentence is water VERBS Verbs explain what the subject of a sentence is doing or his state of being. The type of verb you employ in a sentence will affect whether you are writing in the active or passive voice and depends on whether the subject is performing an action or if you are describing the subject. Action Verbs An action verb describes the physical or mental act that the subject is performing. An action verb may also express possession. Walk, eat, think, smile, sleep, have and own are all examples of action verbs. Action verbs are broken down into transitive and intransitive verbs. A sentence with a transitive verb also has a direct object, or a noun that receives or is directly affected by the action. For example, in the sentence "I donated money," "I" is the subject, "donated" is the transitive verb and "money" is the direct object. In this case, the sentence would not make sense if there was no object. A sentence with an intransitive verb does not have an object that takes the action. For example, in the sentence "It rained all day," "rained" is an intransitive verb that has no object; "all day" is a modifier, but the sentence would still make sense without it.
  2. 2. Linking Verbs A linking verb connects the subject with a subject complement which describes the subject. The subject complement may be an adjective or noun, and it describes the personality, appearance, emotions or other aspect of the subject. Forms of "to be," such as "am," "are" and "is," "to become," "to seem," "to feel" and "to look" are examples of common linking verbs. Examples of sentences using linking verbs are: I feel happy. The house is red. She became a pediatrician. In these examples, "feel," "is" and "became" are the linking verbs. Helping Verbs Helping verbs, also called auxiliary verbs, support action and linking verbs and are positioned ahead of these verbs. Words such as "can," "will," "might," "must," "have," "could" and "should" are common helping verbs. In the sentence "We are going shopping," "are" is the helping verb and "going" is the action verb. Helping verbs also come into play when a writer chooses to write in the passive voice. In the sentence, "Our car was stolen," "was" is the helping verb and "was stolen" is a passive verb phrase. ADJECTIVE djectives are describing words. They tell us about the colour, size, shape, nature, quality or condition of a noun. Examples are: blue, green, round, square, good, old, tall, brave, beautiful, tired, happy, exhausted etc. An adjective usually describes a noun and denotes a temporary or permanent quality associated with that noun. For example, an intelligent boy is a boy who is distinguished from other boys by being permanently intelligent. A square table is a table that is distinguished from other tables by being square in shape. A brave soldier is a soldier who is distinguished from other soldiers by being brave. We need round tables. Tokyo is a big city. Adjectives can answer the question 'What kind?' (round tables; big city), 'How much?' (some rice, little effort) 'Which one?' (red shirt, second wife), and 'How many?' (two boys, ten books). Kinds of adjectives There are different kinds of adjectives. Adjectives of quantity An adjective of quantity answers the question how much. Examples are: some, little, much, enough, sufficient, insufficient, all, whole, great, any etc. Examples are: I have bought some bacon. I haven’t got much money. We have got enough time. There is little water in the bottle. Adjectives of number or numeral adjectives They answer the question 'how many?' Numeral adjectives are of three kinds: 1. Definite numeral adjectives (e.g. one, two, three, first, second, third etc.) 2. Indefinite numeral adjectives (e.g. some, any, no, several, few, all etc.) 3.Distributive numeral adjectives (e.g. each, every, either, neither) Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective modifies a noun by telling whom it belongs to. It answers the question "Whose?" Examples are: his, her, its, my, our, their, and your. You can share my rice. Have you seen their house? This is his room. They are our friends.
  3. 3. Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives that, these, this, those, and what answer the question "Which?" I'm going to open that present. Whose is this bag? These mangoes are very sweet. A demonstrative adjective may look like a demonstrative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence. Distributive adjectives There are four distributive adjectives in English: each, every, either and neither. Distributive adjectives are used with singular nouns. The following verb is usually singular, but can be plural in a very formal style. Interrogative Adjectives The interrogative adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions. Examples are what, which and whose. What movie do you want to see? Which leaves turn color first? Whose son is he? An interrogative adjective may look like an interrogative pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence: it is an adjective, used to modify a noun or pronoun. Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective gives indefinite, or general, information. Often, it answers the question "How much?" Some common indefinite adjectives are all, any, each, every, few, many, and some. Many children like dinosaurs. Did you want some bananas? Is there any water in the bottle? An indefinite adjective may look like an indefinite pronoun, but it is used differently in the sentence: it is an adjective, used to modify a noun or pronoun. PRONOUNS A pronoun is used in place of a noun or nouns. Common pronouns include he, her, him, I, it, me, she, them, they, us, and we. Here are some examples: INSTEAD OF: Luma is a good athlete. She is a good athlete. (The pronoun she replaces Luma.) INSTEAD OF: The beans and tomatoes are fresh-picked. They are fresh-picked. (The pronoun they replaces the beans and tomatoes.) Often a pronoun takes the place of a particular noun. This noun is known as the antecedent. A pronoun "refers to," or directs your thoughts toward, its antecedent. Let's call Luma and ask her to join the team. (Her is a pronoun; Luma is its antecedent.) To find a pronoun's antecedent, ask yourself what that pronoun refers to. What does her refer to in the sentence above—that is, who is the her? The her in the sentence is Luma; therefore, Luma is the antecedent. Subjective Pronouns A subjective pronoun acts as the subject of a sentence—it performs the action of the verb. The subjective pronouns are he, I, it, she, they, we, and you. He spends ages looking out the window. After lunch, she and I went to the planetarium. Objective Pronouns An objective pronoun acts as the object of a sentence—it receives the action of the verb. The objective pronouns are her, him, it, me, them, us, and you. Cousin Eldred gave me a trombone. Take a picture of him, not us! Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun tells you who owns something. The possessive pronouns are hers, his, its, mine, ours, theirs, and yours. The red basket is mine. Yours is on the coffee table.
  4. 4. Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out a noun. The demonstrative pronouns are that, these, this, and those. That is a good idea. These are hilarious cartoons. A demonstrative pronoun may look like a demonstrative adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun. Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used in a question. It helps to ask about something. The interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and compound words ending in "ever," such as whatever, whichever, whoever, and whomever. What on earth is that? Who ate the last Fig Newton? An interrogative pronoun may look like an interrogative adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun. Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite, or general, person or thing. Indefinite pronouns include all, any, both, each, everyone, few, many, neither, none, nothing, several, some, and somebody. Something smells good. Many like salsa with their chips. An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective, but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun, taking the place of a noun. Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces a clause, or part of a sentence, that describes a noun. The relative pronouns are that, which, who, and whom. You should bring the book that you love most. That introduces "you love most," which describes the book. Hector is a photographer who does great work. Who introduces "does great work," which describes Hector. Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of a sentence. The reflexive pronouns are herself, himself, itself, myself, ourselves, themselves, and yourselves. Each of these words can also act as an intensive pronoun (see below). I learned a lot about myself at summer camp. (Myself refers back to I.) They should divide the berries among themselves. (Themselves refers back to they.) Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent (the noun that comes before it). The intensive pronouns are herself, himself, itself, myself, ourselves, themselves, and yourselves. Each of these words can also act as a reflective pronoun (see above). I myself don't like eggs. The queen herself visited our class.