Fabulous Ferns - Notes


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Fabulous Ferns - Notes

  1. 1. 1/6/2013 Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Fabulous Ferns C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants February 5 & 8, 2011 Project SOUND – 2011 (our 7th year) © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDWhat do you picture when you think of ferns? http://www.cityprojectca.org/blog/archives/835 Fern Dell at Griffith Park © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 1
  2. 2. 1/6/2013 The move from water to land was difficult – even Ferns go back a long ways…> 360 MYA though conditions were a lot more tropical (humid/watery) back then  Need:  a rigid structural system for support  anchors to the ground (plants) or ways to move around  a vascular system to transport water and nutrients http://taggart.glg.msu.edu/isb200/cswamp.jpgFerns had their heyday in the Carboniferous Period (360- All this takes a long time and300 MYA) - 100 MY before the dinosaurs the ability to change – a lot http://www.kgg.org.uk/alethopteris4.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://cmex.ihmc.us/VikingCD/Puzzle/Advance2.GIF Ferns were among the first plants with a vascular system & lignin support system They also evolved a more sophisticated means of reproduction – alteration of generations (e.g. ‘sex’) http://media.photobucket.com/image/plant%20evolution%20tree/kofh/Genesis/plantkingdom.jpg © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 2
  3. 3. 1/6/2013 All higher organisms So ferns – like all other higher (including ferns & humans) plants – do have sex have alternation of generations  In sexual reproduction, only ½ of a parent’s chromosomes are passed on to the egg/sperm/spore (they are the (n) generation)  When fertilization occurs the new embryo (and the resulting adult) have the full complement of chromosomes (2n generation)  Sexual reproduction allows a species to recombine genetic traits © Project SOUND It’s just not quite as efficient - and it requires water © Project SOUND Ferns now make up only a fraction of the How ferns and amphibians are alike living plants – in part due to less efficient sex If theres no water, theres no fertilization and no fern... This is a real problem for ferns, in the same way that amphibians (frogs, salamanders, etc.) have the problem that to reproduce they must return to water. In both cases, that of the fern and that of the amphibians, this necessity for having water during sexual reproduction is a reflection of the organism-types primitive nature. Both ferns and amphibians evolved early in the history of land life on Earth, and both kinds of organism never did overcome their need to have water handy before they could reproduce. In contrast, later-day reptiles (and humans) and later-day flowering plants can indeed enjoy sexual reproduction without having water handy. http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/ISR/botzo/plants.gif © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 3
  4. 4. 1/6/2013 What are the ferns? (summary) The American Fern Society  Ferns are vascular plants differing from mosses by having true leaves.  Over 100 years old – established in 1892  They differ from seed plants  > 900 members worldwide (one of the largest (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in their international fern clubs in the world. mode of reproduction—lacking flowers and seeds.  Objective: fostering interest in ferns and fern allies.  Like all other vascular plants, they have  Wide range of publications & activities – good way to a life cycle referred to as alternation of learn more about wild ferns from experts and meet generations, characterized by a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic other people with a similar passion for ferns. phase.  Web site - http://www.amerfernsoc.org/ is  Unlike the gymnosperms and designed to expand on this exchange of information angiosperms, the ferns gametophyte is with amateurs and professionals around the world. a free-living organism. http://www.perspective.com/nature/plantae/ferns.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDTaxonomy of the Ferns – in a state of change The living fern-allies can be divided into four classes:  Psilotopsida:  ?Only living member Psilotum (whisk ferns)  Probably the most primitive vascular plant still in existence - may be directly related to the first vascular plants on land.  Lycopodiopsida:  Represented by the Selaginellia (Spikemosses), Lycopodium (clubmosses), and the Isoetes (Quillworts).  Equisetopsida:  Represented today by only one genus, Equisetum (Horsetails). http://www.amerfernsoc.org/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 4
  5. 5. 1/6/2013The living fern-allies can be divided into Selected Families/Genera used in gardensfour classes:  Family Adiantaceae  Genus Adiantum (Maidenhair Ferns)  Genus Cheilanthes (Lipferns)  Polypodiopsida (Pteropsida)  Family Blechnaceae  Genus Woodwardia (Chain-ferns)  The true ferns  Family Dennstaedtiaceae  Genus Dennstaedtia (Hay-scented fern)  By far the most numerous of  Genus Pteridium (Bracken) all of the fern-allies.  Family Dryopteridaceae  Nine sub-classes (Families),  Genus Cystopteris (Fragile Fern) about 250-300 genera and  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Genus Matteuccia (Ostrich Fern) over 12,000 different species  Genus Onoclea (Sensitive Fern) alive today.  Genus Polystichum (Sword Ferns)  Genus Woodsia (Woodsias)  Family Polypodiaceae  Genus Polypodium (Polypodies)  Family Thelypteridaceae  Genus Thelypteris (Beech Fern) © Project SOUND © Project SOUNDSelected Families/Genera used in gardens The Sword Ferns - genus Polystichum  Family Dryopteridaceae – Woodfern Family  Genus Cystopteris (Fragile Fern)  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Genus Matteuccia (Ostrich Fern)  Genus Onoclea (Sensitive Fern)  Genus Polystichum (Sword Ferns)  Genus Woodsia (Woodsias) http://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=60 Western Sword Fern  135-160 species worldwide – mostly temperate regions  Usually live in moist places  Have typical fern structure/anatomy © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 5
  6. 6. 1/6/2013 Parts of a typical fern * Western Sword Fern – Polystichum munitum http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazadero/Ferns.htm  Leaf = frond  Midrib of leaf = rachis  Petiole = stalk, stipe  Leaflets = pinna  Stem/stalk (rootstalk) = rhizome (like rhizome of higher plants)  Roots = roots http://www.nwplants.com/business/catalog/pol_mun.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND * Western Sword Fern – Polystichum munitum Fern pinna may be divided  Western N. America, primarily coastal states, from AK to Baja into pinnules or lobes  In CA, almost always below 2500 ft.  Favored habitat: the understory of moist  1 times pinnate – simple coniferous forests at low elevations – [Sword Fern] locally, San Gabriel mtns.  2 times pinnate – more  It grows best in a well-drained acidic soil complex [Wood Fern] of rich humus and small stones.http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200004619  3 or 4 times pinnate – complex (look lacy) [Maidenhair & Lipfern] http://www.backyardnature.net/n/x/sword-fn.htm © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polystichum_munitum http://bss.sfsu.edu/holzman/courses/Fall00Projects/swordfern.html 6
  7. 7. 1/6/2013 Western Sword Fern – corresponds to  A sorus (pl. sori) - a cluster of sporangia most people’s notion of a fern The fern sorus (structures producing/containing spores)  Form yellow/brownish mass on the edge or  Size: underside of a fertile frond.  3-6 ft tall  spreading to 3-6 ft wide  In some species, sori are protected by a scale or film of tissue called the indusium,  Growth form: which forms an umbrella-like cover.  Upright growth habit  As the sporongia mature, the indusium  Height depends on light – taller in shrivels. The sporangia then burst and dense shade release the spores.  Evergreen leaves in clumps of 100 or so – moderate spread rate  The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the  Long-lived identification of fern taxa.  Foliage:  May be circular or linear.  Arranged in rows or randomly  Medium to dark green  Location may be marginal or set away from  Single pinnate ( 1 times pinnate) the margin on the frond lamina. with alternating pinna  Fronds unroll, forming fiddleheads© 2008 Matt Below © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/pcmb/osu_pcmb/pcmb_lab_resources/images/pcmb300/cfern2/reproduction3.jpg Reproduction by spores Sword Ferns are  Soils:  Texture: well-drained loams are Ex: Sword Ferns forest floor plants best  pH: acidic (4.0 – 7.0)  Likes lots of humus  Sword fern sori occur on the undersides of normal-sized pinnae more generally  Light: distributed along the frond.  Part shade to quite dark full shade  Each round sorus is composed of dozens http://www.backyardnature.net/n/x/sword-fn.htm of spherical items. Those are not spores,  Water: but rather stalked, baglike sporangia filled  Winter: plenty with several spores.  Summer: moist soils – Zone 3  When the sporangia are ripe they burst, release the spores, and the wind carries  Fertilizer: the spores to new locations  ½ strength fertilizer fine  Organic mulch – leaf litter is  If environmental conditions are just right, optimal they germinate to form fern prothalli, from which eventually new ferns will emerge.  Other: difficult in very hot gardens © 2008 Matt Below © 2008 Keir Morse © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya 7
  8. 8. 1/6/2013 Sword Ferns – woodsy Sword Ferns -  Brightens very shady places Victorian  Under dense evergreens (pines, etc)  At back or shaded beds – nice  In a decorative pot background color  In a wall or fern grotto  On wet, mossy banks  In a rocky fernery http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/PNQkvKYUhfgwxJ9NW0YE_AGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences http://www.paghat.com/swordfern.html http://www.rainyside.com/features/plant_gallery/nativeplants/Polystichum_munitum.html © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/polystichum-munitum Family Dryopteridaceae (Woodfern Family) Coastal Wood Fern – Dryopteris arguta  Genus Dryopteris (Wood Ferns)  Wood ferns, male ferns, and buckler ferns  ~250 species; temperate Northern Hemisphere (highest species diversity in eastern Asia).  Hybridization common within this group; many species formed by hybridization. J. William Thompson  Dryopteris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. J.S. Peterson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 8
  9. 9. 1/6/2013 Coastal Wood Fern – Dryopteris arguta Coastal Wood Fern is adaptable  Most commonly near coast & in coastal Coastal forests, WA state In the Santa Monica Mtns ravines from British Columbia to central CA – tho’ south to Baja, Sierra foothills  Locally on Catalina & San Clemente Isl, Santa Monica & San Gabriel Mtns.  N. slopes/shady creeks: oak woodland, chaparral, coastal sage scrub up to 5000’ © Ed Alverson http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500589 © 2004 Brent Miller http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/dryopteris-arguta © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?19,27,28 http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Dryopteris_arguta.htm Coastal Wood Fern: a medium-size fern Sori are showy  Size:  2-3 ft tall (largest in rainforests)  Sporulates: usually late  2-3 ft wide spring/early summer in S. CA  Growth form:  Sori:  Moderately spreading clump  Rounded – look like a bagel  Fronds usually upright/fairly straight prior to maturity Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  Foliage:  Located in 2 parallel rows midway between midvein http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/dryopteris-arguta Medium to dark green; prom. scales http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Dryopterida.html  and margin of the segment  2 times pinnate - moderately complex structure  Spores:  Foliage soft - not stiff  Quite variable – some types appear  Vegetative reproduction: ruffled or lacy (leaflets turned at an angle  Via rhizomes  Drought-deciduous (S. CA Oak  Moderate spreadinghttp://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto= Woodlands)3 © Project SOUND © 2003 Keir Morse © Project SOUND http://www.answers.com/topic/dudleya 9
  10. 10. 1/6/2013  Soils:Sword Ferns: adaptable  Texture: most Wood Ferns - lovely  pH: slightly acidic (4.0-7.0) – under evergreens/oaks would be fine  Ferns always look nice in large containers  Light:  Great for shady slopes/banks –  Part-shade to full shade even growing in retaining walls  This is truly a forest under-story  Give a woodsy or old-fashioned fern; good even under dense (Victorian) look to any garden trees  In food/medicinal garden  Water:  Winter: like plenty  Summer: quite adaptable  Zone 2-3 or 3 – will stay green  Zone 1-2 or 2 – drought deciduous  Fertilizer: ½ strength or none Mark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database  Other: likes a good leaf mulch layer © 2003 Michael Charters © Project SOUND http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976 © Project SOUND Human uses of ferns Take your cues from Mother Nature  As source of fiber  North slope, in shade of oaks,  For mats, bedding evergreens, Bay, even Toyon  For religious/spiritual  With elderberries, snowberries, purposes © 2004 Brent Miller yarrow, goldenrods  As food: young fronds – usually cooked (note: some http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976 mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds  As a source of medicines: http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Dryopteris-arguta/ © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 10
  11. 11. 1/6/2013 Giant Chain Fern – Woodwardia fimbriata Genus Woodwardia – the Chain Ferns http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501358  Large ferns of temperate climates  in the family Blechnaceae W. Carl Taylor @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Giant Chain Fern – Woodwardia fimbriata Remarkable consistent looking  Primarily found in CA Floristic Province (W. of Sierras) except the Great central Valley)  Occasional (?relict) populations elsewhere from WA to Baja  Locally in Santa Monica and San http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Woodwardia_fimbriata.htm Gabriel Mtns. Santa Monica Mountains  Many plant communities but mostly inhttp://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501358 redwood, mixed conifer & mixed conifer-hardwood forests < 5000 ft  Always where moisture is present, such as stream banks or springs  Introduced into cultivation in http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Woodwardia_fimbriata California by Theodore Payne. © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?11,14,15 11
  12. 12. 1/6/2013 The name says it all…Giant Chain Fern Sori give the plant its  Size: common name  4-8 ft tall (usually 4-6 ft)  4-5 ft wide  Sori mature: late spring  Growth form: summer  Upright to vase-shaped clump  Sori:  Moderate spread rate  Elongated  In double ‘chains’ along the  Foliage: pinna midrib  Medium to dark green –  Visible from both surfaces evergreen of pinna  Petioles brown at base  Twice-pinnate leaves – large and somewhat coarse-looking  Fronds unfurl as fiddleneck  Rhizomes: stout © J. William Thompson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.coestatepark.com/woodwardia_fimbriata_c oe.htm Woodwardia : well-suited to some gardens Giant Chair Fern: a garden favorite  Soils:  From California Native Plants,  Texture: most Theodore Paynes 1941 catalog:  pH: acidic (4.0-7.0) – ? amend  Light: "The most useful of the native  Part-shade to full shade ferns, having long graceful  Good for dappled shade or N-facing fronds of a vivid shade of light exposures green, often 4 to 5 feet in length. Creates a wonderful effect on a  Water: shady bank or under trees, and  Young plants: moist very striking when planted  Winter: supplement in drought against a wall or building in a winters shady spot. Very hardy and  Summer: Zone 3 in part-shade; easy to grow. Gallon cans, 50c; tolerates Zone 2 or 2-3 in shade 5 gallon cans, $1.50."Chain Ferns like an organic  Fertilizer: ½ OKmulch – like in their foresthomes © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 12
  13. 13. 1/6/2013  As an attractive pot plant Victorian ‘Pteridomania’  Under pines and other evergreen trees – evokes the feeling of a woodland  Pteridomania or Fern-  In other shady places – near Fever was a craze for ponds or water features ferns. Victorian decorative arts  As a big, dramatic accent plant presented the fern  In Jurassic Park motif in pottery, glass, metal, textiles, wood, printed paper, and http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums/load/crypto/msg112238042369.html sculpture, with ferns "appearing on everything from christening presents to gravestones and memorials." http://www.georgeglazer.com/prints/nathist/botanical/fern.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND © Project SOUND Victorian ‘Pteridomania’ (Fern Mania)  The interest in ferns began in To learn more the late 1830s when the British countryside attracted increasing numbers of amateur and professional botanists (male and female).  People of many different social backgrounds sought out the species and varieties describedhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pteridomania in the fern identification books to press the fronds in albums or to collect fern plants to grow in their gardens or homes.  Some ferns were, unfortunately, collected out of existence Wardian Case © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 13
  14. 14. 1/6/2013 Caring for the larger Many people think that all ferns require lots ferns of water…..  Location is key to success: pay particular attention to light and water requirements  Well-placed ferns are pretty easyhttp://noseeds.blogspot.com/2010/05/woodwardia-fimbriata.html  Cut off oldest (dead or nearly so) fronds at time new ones are emerging  No need to cut all fronds back to the ground in winter – an old http://www.researchlearningcenter.org/bloom/species/Dryopteris_arguta.htm technique that’s better forgotten © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.globaltwitcher.com/artspec_information.asp?thingid=88976 Family Adiantaceae (Pteridaceae) Common Maidenhair Fern – Adiantum capillus-veneris Creeping or erect rhizomes Mostly terrestrial or epipetric (growing on rock) Fronds usually compound; linear sori - typically on the margins - protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed margin of the leaf.  Adiantoid ferns;  Adiantum, the maidenhair ferns  Cheilanthoid ferns;  Argyrochosma  Aspidotis the lace ferns  Astrolepis  Cheilanthes, the lip ferns  Notholaena, the cloak ferns  Pellaea, the cliff brakes  Pteridoid ferns;  Pteris, the brakes © 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 14
  15. 15. 1/6/2013 The Maidenhair Ferns  ~ 200 species of ferns in the family Pteridaceae (though some researchers place it Common Maidenhair Fern – Adiantum capillus-veneris genus Adiantum in its own family, Adiantaceae)  Name comes from Greek, meaning "not  Grows in warmer-winter wetting", referring to the fronds ability to shed water without becoming wet. places throughout much of The highest species diversity is in the Andes the Americas, Eurasia &  in South America. Fairly high diversity also Africa occurs in eastern Asia, with nearly 40 species in China.  In CA, many disjoint areas  Distinctive in appearance, with dark, often including Catalina Island black stipes and rachises, and bright green,http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200003518 often delicately-cut leaf tissue.  ?? Native or naturalized  The sori are borne submarginally, and are covered by reflexed flaps of leaf tissue which  In CA, uncommon (or locally resemble indusia. common). Shaded, rocky or  Generally prefer humus-rich, moist, well- moist banks, exposed sites drained sites. Many species are especially known for growing on rock walls around or not USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS © 2001 Larry Blakely waterfalls and water seepage areas. Many species common in horticultural http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Adiantum+capillus-veneris © Project SOUND trade for a long time © Project SOUND Common Maidenhair – sweet & delicate Sora are unusual  Size:  1-2 ft tall (may be < 1 ft)  Sori marginal.  1-3 ft wide  Growth form:  There is a flap of tissue known  Open, mounded habit as an indusium covering the  Slow-growing – remains clumped sporangia (where spores are located).  Evergreen or summer dormant  Foliage:  Indusia-like membranaceous  Light/bright green flaps, formed from the  Dark rachis many-branched reflexed margins of the frond,  Pinnae small, very wide (fan- cover the sora shaped to round)  Margins incised - ruffled-look  Refined and delicate appearance http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiantum_capillus-veneris © Project SOUND http://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=156 © Project SOUND © 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy 15
  16. 16. 1/6/2013 Easy to grow in the  Soils: Maidenhair Fern:  Texture: most – fine in sandy pot plant & more right place  pH: any local (4.0-8.0)  Near a pond or other water  Light: feature  Part-shade to full shade –  As a groundcover under dappled shade favored trees  No full sun, but bright shade is  As a pretty, evergreen great © 2009 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy accent plant  Water:  Pretty texture & color in  Winter: adequate shady mixed beds  Summer: best with regular water (2-3 or 3); Zone 2 is fine but will likely die back  Fertilizer: ½ strenght up to once a month – particularly if grown in container © 2004 James M. Andre  Other: likes leaf mulch © 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson © Project SOUND © Project SOUND http://www.jaycjayc.com/adiantum-capillus-veneris-maidenhairfern/ Cultivar ‘Banksianum’ Maidenhair (and other) ferns as medicine  Attractive color  Maidenhair fern has a long history of medicinal use – still used today  Larger pinnae  A tea/syrup used for coughs, throat  Very ruffled appearance afflictions and bronchitis. – super showy  Externally, it is used as a poultice on snakehttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=629  Available at the Grow bites, bee stings etc. Native (RSABG) nursery in Westwood &  In Brazilian herbal medicine today, frond/ leaf are employed for hair loss, coughs, Theodore Payne bronchitis, laryngitis/throat dryness, and Foundation http://www.milagroherbs.com/images/hairsupportpills to improve appetite and digestion, stimulate renal function, regulate .jpg To learn more about plant menstruation, and facilitate childbirth. compound come to ‘Talking Plants; next Sat. (2/12 –  Has both anti-bacterial & anti-viral 10:00 a.m.) (selective) properties © Project SOUND © Project SOUND 16