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Parts of the Plant and 
Their Functions 
By: Ita Rodríguez 
3rd Grade
Importance of plants 
• Without plants 
life on earth 
would not exist
Plants 
• Primary source of 
food for people and 
animals 
• Produce oxygen 
• Help keep us cool 
• Renew (filter) the 
air
Plants 
• Slow wind speed 
• Provide a home for 
wildlife 
• Beautify 
surroundings 
• Perfume the air 
• Provide building 
materials and fuel
Plants 
• Need nutrients 
• Soil 
• Water 
• Sunlight
Plant Photosynethesis 
• Photosynthesis is the 
process by which plants 
make food (sugar or 
glucose) 
– Sunlight provides energy 
– The air provides carbon 
dioxide 
– Nutrients and water are 
absorbed by the roots 
– Photosynthesis occurs in the 
chloroplast in the leaves 
– Sugars are made as food for 
the plant and oxygen is 
released 
Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through 
stomata (tiny holes) in the leaves. Oxygen 
leaves the same way.
Soil Nutrients 
Nitrogen – growth, photosynthesis 
Phosphorus – photosynthesis, flowering 
Potassium – build proteins, prevent disease 
Calcium – strong cells 
Magnesium – photosynthesis 
Sulfur - build proteins and produce food
Parts of a Plant 
• Four basic parts 
– leaves 
– stems 
– roots 
– flowers
Leaves 
• Definition: flattened 
outgrowth of stem 
• Used for: 
photosynthesis, 
respiration, and 
transpiration 
• Produces food 
used by the plant 
and also store it for 
later use
Shape and Size of Leaves 
• Vary among plants 
• Used for identification of plants
Leaves: Their Basic Parts 
•Leaf Base 
•Petiole 
•Lamina (blade) 
•Midrib 
•Veins 
•Margins (edges)
EXTERNAL ANATOMY
Leaf Base 
•Part attached to the stem or branch 
•Protects a bud in its axil
Petiole 
• Part of leaf that connects the lamina with 
the stem (leaf stalk) 
•Some time a leaf may not have a petiole, 
such leaves are called – Sessile
Lamina (blade) 
•The flat, expended, and broad part of leaf 
•Most important part of the leaf (food 
manufacturer) 
• Has veins 
• Forms structural 
framework of 
the leaf
Midrib 
• Large center vein 
from which all 
other leaf veins 
extend
Veins 
• Systems of tubes 
(xylem and phloem) 
for the transport of 
nutrients and water 
– Xylem: ducts that bring 
water and minerals 
from the roots into the 
leaf 
– Phloem: ducts that 
usually move sap, with 
dissolved sucrose, 
produced by 
photosynthesis in the 
leaf, out of the leaf
Venation Types 
Netted or Reticulate 
Venation
Margins 
• Edges of leaves 
• Assists in plant identification
Leaf Arrangement 
• Alternate 
• Opposite 
• Whorled 
– arranged in a 
circle around the 
stem
Leaf Types 
• Simple leaf: 
undivided blade 
with a single 
axillary bud at the 
base of its petiole
Leaf Types 
• Compound leaf: 
blade divided into leaflets 
has a single bud at the base of its petiole 
– pinnate -- palmate
Leaf Types 
• Peltate leaves: petioles 
that are attached to the 
middle of the blade 
• Perfoliate leaves: sessile 
leaves that surround and 
are pierced by stems
Specialized or Modified Leaves 
• Cotyledons 
• Tendrils 
• Shade leaves 
• Drought-resistant leaves 
• Prickles and thorn 
• Storage leaves 
• Reproductive leaves 
• Insect-trapping leaves 
• Bracts 
• Window leaves 
• Flower pot leaves
Cotyledons or “Seed Leaves” 
•First leaves produced by a germinating 
seed 
•Often contains a store of food to help the 
seedling become established
Tendrils 
Garden Pea 
•Leaflets are reduced in 
size 
•Allows plant to cling to 
other objects
Leaves: Needles and Spines 
Drought 
Resistant 
leaves
Leaves: Colorful Bracts 
Petal-like leaves
Internal Leaf Structure 
• Epidermis 
–skin of the leaf 
–single layer of cells 
–protects leaf from loss of too 
much moisture
Internal Leaf Structure
Stoma 
• Small hole 
• Opened and 
closed by 2 
guard cells 
• Allows the plant 
to breathe and 
transpire 
– gives off 
moisture 
open closed
Stoma Function: gas exchange in 
the leaf 
Guard oxygen 
cell 
When a plant is 
photosynthesising 
Carbon 
dioxide
Leaf Cell (Palisade)
Chloroplasts 
• Contains 
chlorophyll 
• Located inside 
the food making 
cells
Photosynthesis 
• Process by which 
CO2 and H2O in 
the presence of 
sunlight are 
converted to sugar 
and oxygen 
• This makes the 
plants' food
Respiration 
• Plants respire 24 hours a day 
• They consume O2 and nutrients and 
give off CO2 and water
Stems 
• Have two main 
functions 
–movement of 
water and 
minerals from 
the roots upward 
–movement of 
manufactured 
food down
Stem Functions 
• Support of leaves 
and reproductive 
structures
Stem Functions 
• Used for food storage 
and reproduction of 
plants involving 
cuttings 
• Green stems 
manufacture food just 
as leaves do
External Stem Structure 
• Lenticels: 
breathing pores 
• Bud scale scars: 
indicate where 
terminal bud has 
been located 
previous year
Leaf Scars 
• Show where leaf 
was attached 
• Distance between 
the two represents 
one year of growth
Internal Stem Structure 
• Phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down 
• Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up 
• Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new 
cells
Roots 
• Underground or 
above ground 
• Functions: 
– anchor plant and 
hold upright 
– absorb water 
and minerals 
form soil and 
conduct to stem 
– store food
External 
• Root Cap 
– produces new cells 
– protects roots as they 
push through soil 
• Root Hair 
– increases surface area 
of roots 
– facilitate the 
absorption of water 
and nutrients
Root Structure 
• Internal 
– similar to stems 
– older roots have xylem, phloem and 
cambian
Type of Root Systems 
• Fibrous Roots: 
– easier 
transplanting 
– shorter, smaller, 
more compact 
Examples of plants 
with this root 
system are 
 Banana 
 Coconut 
 Rice 
 Corn 
 Sugar Cane 
All grasses
Type of Root Systems 
• Tap Roots: 
– large central 
roots with 
shorter, 
branching roots 
Examples of plants 
with this root 
system are 
Mango 
Avocado 
Carrots 
Tomatoes 
Peppers
Type of Root Systems 
• Aerial Roots: 
– hang down in 
mid-air and 
absorb water 
from rainfall 
Examples of plants 
with this root 
system are 
Some mangroves 
Wild Pine 
Orchids
Specialized Root Systems 
• Stilt Roots: 
– grow down from 
lateral branches, 
branching in the 
soil
Specialized Root Systems 
• Adventitious Roots: 
– Grow from 
unusual places 
on plants such 
as stems, leaves 
and even fruits
Specialized Root Systems 
• Stilt Roots: 
– grow down from 
lateral branches, 
branching in the 
soil
Flowers 
• Definition: the seed-bearing part of a 
plant, consisting of reproductive organs 
(stamens and carpels) that are typically 
surrounded by a brightly colored corolla 
(petals) and a green calyx (sepals) 
• Vary in size, shape, and colors 
• Flowering plants are called 
angiosperms
Flower Structure 
• Petals 
• Stamen and pistil: 
reproductive 
organs 
• Anther and ovary 
• Calyx (sepal): 
green leaf-like part 
that covers and 
protects bud before 
opening
Petals 
• Are actually leaves 
• Usually bright colors to attract 
pollinating insects
Stamen 
• Stamens 
–male part of 
flower 
– has two parts 
1.filament 
2.anther 
Anther 
Filament
Pistil 
• Stamens 
– female part of flower 
– has three parts 
1.stigma 
2.style 
3.ovary
Anther 
• Anther: sac-like structure on top of 
filament, contains pollen
Ovary 
• Egg cells develop here 
• Grows to become fruit 
or seedcoat
Animals: A Simbiotic Relationship 
• Pollination: color of 
flower attracts insects 
to fertilize flower 
– beginning of fruit 
and seed formation 
• Fruits and seed are 
attractive to birds who 
eat and spread seeds 
– reproduces plant 
– some seeds carried 
on animals coats
Types of Flowers 
• Complete contains 4 main parts 
• Incomplete does not have all 4 main 
parts
Flower Classification 
• Monoecious 
– stamens and pistils are found in separate 
flowers on the same plant 
– ex: Corn
Flower Classification 
• Dioecious 
– stamens and pistils are 
found in separate flowers 
on separate plant 
– ex: Holly
Gymnosperms 
• Group of non-flowering, 
seed-producing plants: 
– conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, 
and Gnetales 
– comes from the Greek 
word gymnospermos, 
meaning "naked seeds" 
– seeds develop either on 
the surface of scales or 
leaves, often modified to 
form cones, or at the end 
of short stalks
Pteridophyta 
• Primitive plant 
• Do not produce flowers 
or seeds 
• Reproduce by spores 
• Have xylem and phloem 
(making them vascular 
plants) 
• Have stems, leaves, and 
roots
SSeeeeddss 
A seed is an embryonic plant 
enclosed 
in a protective outer covering called 
the seed coat, usually with some 
stored food
EExxtteerrnnaall SSeeeedd SSttrruuccttuurree 
Seed Coat
SSeeeedd CCooaatt TTeexxttuurree 
• Cactus seed under a powerful microscope
IInntteerrnnaall SSeeeedd SSttrruuccttuurree
Different Types of Seeds
GGEERRMMIINNAATTIIOONN 
Steps: 
• Seed coat breaks 
• Radicle becomes 
root 
• Hypocotyl and 
epicotyl become 
the stem 
• First leaves grow 
and 
photosynthesis 
begins 
First leaves 
Watch the following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYzXToyEzBU
LLiiffee CCyyccllee
THE END

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Plant Parts

  • 1. Parts of the Plant and Their Functions By: Ita Rodríguez 3rd Grade
  • 2. Importance of plants • Without plants life on earth would not exist
  • 3. Plants • Primary source of food for people and animals • Produce oxygen • Help keep us cool • Renew (filter) the air
  • 4. Plants • Slow wind speed • Provide a home for wildlife • Beautify surroundings • Perfume the air • Provide building materials and fuel
  • 5. Plants • Need nutrients • Soil • Water • Sunlight
  • 6. Plant Photosynethesis • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make food (sugar or glucose) – Sunlight provides energy – The air provides carbon dioxide – Nutrients and water are absorbed by the roots – Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast in the leaves – Sugars are made as food for the plant and oxygen is released Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through stomata (tiny holes) in the leaves. Oxygen leaves the same way.
  • 7. Soil Nutrients Nitrogen – growth, photosynthesis Phosphorus – photosynthesis, flowering Potassium – build proteins, prevent disease Calcium – strong cells Magnesium – photosynthesis Sulfur - build proteins and produce food
  • 8. Parts of a Plant • Four basic parts – leaves – stems – roots – flowers
  • 9. Leaves • Definition: flattened outgrowth of stem • Used for: photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration • Produces food used by the plant and also store it for later use
  • 10. Shape and Size of Leaves • Vary among plants • Used for identification of plants
  • 11. Leaves: Their Basic Parts •Leaf Base •Petiole •Lamina (blade) •Midrib •Veins •Margins (edges)
  • 13. Leaf Base •Part attached to the stem or branch •Protects a bud in its axil
  • 14. Petiole • Part of leaf that connects the lamina with the stem (leaf stalk) •Some time a leaf may not have a petiole, such leaves are called – Sessile
  • 15. Lamina (blade) •The flat, expended, and broad part of leaf •Most important part of the leaf (food manufacturer) • Has veins • Forms structural framework of the leaf
  • 16. Midrib • Large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend
  • 17. Veins • Systems of tubes (xylem and phloem) for the transport of nutrients and water – Xylem: ducts that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf – Phloem: ducts that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose, produced by photosynthesis in the leaf, out of the leaf
  • 18. Venation Types Netted or Reticulate Venation
  • 19. Margins • Edges of leaves • Assists in plant identification
  • 20. Leaf Arrangement • Alternate • Opposite • Whorled – arranged in a circle around the stem
  • 21. Leaf Types • Simple leaf: undivided blade with a single axillary bud at the base of its petiole
  • 22. Leaf Types • Compound leaf: blade divided into leaflets has a single bud at the base of its petiole – pinnate -- palmate
  • 23. Leaf Types • Peltate leaves: petioles that are attached to the middle of the blade • Perfoliate leaves: sessile leaves that surround and are pierced by stems
  • 24. Specialized or Modified Leaves • Cotyledons • Tendrils • Shade leaves • Drought-resistant leaves • Prickles and thorn • Storage leaves • Reproductive leaves • Insect-trapping leaves • Bracts • Window leaves • Flower pot leaves
  • 25. Cotyledons or “Seed Leaves” •First leaves produced by a germinating seed •Often contains a store of food to help the seedling become established
  • 26. Tendrils Garden Pea •Leaflets are reduced in size •Allows plant to cling to other objects
  • 27. Leaves: Needles and Spines Drought Resistant leaves
  • 28. Leaves: Colorful Bracts Petal-like leaves
  • 29. Internal Leaf Structure • Epidermis –skin of the leaf –single layer of cells –protects leaf from loss of too much moisture
  • 31. Stoma • Small hole • Opened and closed by 2 guard cells • Allows the plant to breathe and transpire – gives off moisture open closed
  • 32. Stoma Function: gas exchange in the leaf Guard oxygen cell When a plant is photosynthesising Carbon dioxide
  • 34. Chloroplasts • Contains chlorophyll • Located inside the food making cells
  • 35. Photosynthesis • Process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight are converted to sugar and oxygen • This makes the plants' food
  • 36. Respiration • Plants respire 24 hours a day • They consume O2 and nutrients and give off CO2 and water
  • 37. Stems • Have two main functions –movement of water and minerals from the roots upward –movement of manufactured food down
  • 38. Stem Functions • Support of leaves and reproductive structures
  • 39. Stem Functions • Used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings • Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do
  • 40. External Stem Structure • Lenticels: breathing pores • Bud scale scars: indicate where terminal bud has been located previous year
  • 41. Leaf Scars • Show where leaf was attached • Distance between the two represents one year of growth
  • 42. Internal Stem Structure • Phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down • Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up • Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells
  • 43. Roots • Underground or above ground • Functions: – anchor plant and hold upright – absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem – store food
  • 44. External • Root Cap – produces new cells – protects roots as they push through soil • Root Hair – increases surface area of roots – facilitate the absorption of water and nutrients
  • 45. Root Structure • Internal – similar to stems – older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian
  • 46. Type of Root Systems • Fibrous Roots: – easier transplanting – shorter, smaller, more compact Examples of plants with this root system are  Banana  Coconut  Rice  Corn  Sugar Cane All grasses
  • 47. Type of Root Systems • Tap Roots: – large central roots with shorter, branching roots Examples of plants with this root system are Mango Avocado Carrots Tomatoes Peppers
  • 48. Type of Root Systems • Aerial Roots: – hang down in mid-air and absorb water from rainfall Examples of plants with this root system are Some mangroves Wild Pine Orchids
  • 49. Specialized Root Systems • Stilt Roots: – grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil
  • 50. Specialized Root Systems • Adventitious Roots: – Grow from unusual places on plants such as stems, leaves and even fruits
  • 51. Specialized Root Systems • Stilt Roots: – grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil
  • 52. Flowers • Definition: the seed-bearing part of a plant, consisting of reproductive organs (stamens and carpels) that are typically surrounded by a brightly colored corolla (petals) and a green calyx (sepals) • Vary in size, shape, and colors • Flowering plants are called angiosperms
  • 53. Flower Structure • Petals • Stamen and pistil: reproductive organs • Anther and ovary • Calyx (sepal): green leaf-like part that covers and protects bud before opening
  • 54. Petals • Are actually leaves • Usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects
  • 55. Stamen • Stamens –male part of flower – has two parts 1.filament 2.anther Anther Filament
  • 56. Pistil • Stamens – female part of flower – has three parts 1.stigma 2.style 3.ovary
  • 57. Anther • Anther: sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen
  • 58. Ovary • Egg cells develop here • Grows to become fruit or seedcoat
  • 59. Animals: A Simbiotic Relationship • Pollination: color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower – beginning of fruit and seed formation • Fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds – reproduces plant – some seeds carried on animals coats
  • 60. Types of Flowers • Complete contains 4 main parts • Incomplete does not have all 4 main parts
  • 61. Flower Classification • Monoecious – stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant – ex: Corn
  • 62. Flower Classification • Dioecious – stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on separate plant – ex: Holly
  • 63. Gymnosperms • Group of non-flowering, seed-producing plants: – conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales – comes from the Greek word gymnospermos, meaning "naked seeds" – seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, often modified to form cones, or at the end of short stalks
  • 64. Pteridophyta • Primitive plant • Do not produce flowers or seeds • Reproduce by spores • Have xylem and phloem (making them vascular plants) • Have stems, leaves, and roots
  • 65. SSeeeeddss A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food
  • 67. SSeeeedd CCooaatt TTeexxttuurree • Cactus seed under a powerful microscope
  • 70. GGEERRMMIINNAATTIIOONN Steps: • Seed coat breaks • Radicle becomes root • Hypocotyl and epicotyl become the stem • First leaves grow and photosynthesis begins First leaves Watch the following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYzXToyEzBU