Ferns & fern allies

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Ferns & fern allies

  1. 1. PRIMITIVE VASCULAR PLANTS Ferns and Fern Allies
  2. 2. Adaptations to life on land vascular tissue – specialized tissues for transport xylem – e.g. tracheid  Tracheophyta phloem  complex organization – possess true plant organs (basic structure and function)
  3. 3. root stem leaf (cuticle)  alternation of generations – sporophyte dominant (gametophyte independent in primitive forms, dependent on s’phyte in advanced forms) embryophyte condition – gametes and embryo protected (no need for env’l water)
  4. 4. Psilophytes (Whisk Ferns)
  5. 5.  whisk ferns  first vascular plants (earliest to evolve accdg to the fossil record  extinct or not extinct)  no specialized organs  no differentiation between root and shoot  small and creeping  sporophyll  specialized leaves containing sporangia  motile sperm swims in water  e.g. Psilotum
  6. 6. Lycophytes (Club Mosses)
  7. 7.  club mosses  true roots, stems and leaves (small and scale- like, arranged spirally)  sporophyll  specialized leaves containing sporangia  water required for reproduction  e.g. Lycopodium (ground pine)  Selaginella
  8. 8. Sphenophytes (Horse Tails)
  9. 9.  horsetails  leaves arranged in whorls (small & simple) on the stem (siliceous)  motile sperm must swim in water  e.g. Equisetum (scouring rush)
  10. 10. Pterophytes (Ferns)
  11. 11.  vascular tissue well-developed  w/ xylem & phloem  thrive in predominantly damp or seasonally wet habitats  sporophyte dominant, gametophyte inconspicuous  structure of the sporophyte: leafy frond bearing sori (sorus) ctg. spores fiddlehead with circinate vernation
  12. 12. rhizome (underground stem)  structure of the gametophyte heart-shaped prothallus rhizoids antheridia & archegonia  reproduction requires water  e.g. Pteris, Adiantum, Christella

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