Strengthening Tanzanian Livestock Health and Pastoral Livelihoods in a Changing Climate<br />Health for Animals and Liveli...
Importance of Ruaha<br /><ul><li>   Large population of traditional   </li></ul>     livestock keepers<br />	  -Maasai, Ba...
Drying of the Great Ruaha River<br />Pre 1993 – year round flow<br />	1994-Present – increasing	<br />		    days of no flo...
Water Scarcity and Resulting Threats:<br /><ul><li>Livelihood impacts on pastoral      communities
Labor stress
 Livestock productivity
 Human & livestock disease
Impaired ecosystem services
Water quality
 Disease transmission
 Reduced wildlife tourism </li></li></ul><li>The HALI Integrated Approach<br />Domestic animal <br />sampling<br />Health ...
HALI-2 Seed Grant Goals<br />Modeling Climate Change and Livestock Systems<br /><ul><li>    Build a collaborative, diverse...
    Develop a spatial modeling database for the Ruaha ecosystem
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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: HALI Project Update (W. Miller)


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An overview of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP HALI (Health for animals and livelihood improvement) Project and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by W. Miller (University of California-Davis) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • Introducing the idea of looking at health and livelihoods in an ecosystem that is already facing water scarcity, where changing climate could dramatically affect disease transmission and impact on livestock and people (changing picture on slide shows the drying of local major water sources….more detail later).
  • FROM JONNA (impacts of water scarcity and also areas that can be strongly affected by impacts of climate change). Maybe touch on a couple of examples of potential climate change driven diseases?
  • Using our current partnerships and building new ones, we will use a collaborative, participatory approach to understanding the impacts of climate change on livestock systems in rural Tanzania. 3 Approaches to accomplish our modeling goal (listed above). Models that can integrate the dynamic interactions among economic choices, resource availability, human and animal health, and climate change will provide an important tool to evaluate adaptive policy and management strategies to reduce adverse impacts on health and livelihoods. The proposed capacity assessment will provide vital and locally relevant baseline information to address important gaps in access to livestock extension services and disease response. Climate change driven alterations in variability and intensity of rainfall will likely have direct impacts on livestock productivity, but also indirect impacts through alteration of disease dynamics and incidence. Models of livestock systems and veterinary services in northern Tanzania suggest that disease risk can be more limiting to livestock populations than forage availability. Water scarcity is already of concern in Ruaha, but increased precipitation could also strongly influence disease transmission by increasing vector hosts for pathogens like Rift Valley Fever Virus.
  • Integrating our existing HALI livestock and disease data and pastoralist socioeconomic data (top two circles) with existing data available from partners (beige boxes) and data that we are generating as part of our project (bottom box).From the grant: The model will aid in direct efforts to prevent and respond to climate change driven disease, as well as to simulate linked ecological, economic, and social/cultural variables. The model will include ecological variables such as climate; fire regimes; and the seasonality, flow, and quality of the Great Ruaha River; economic variables such as village land-use plans; livestock management; household-level economic decision-making; and interdependencies of village, regional, and national economic sectors; social/cultural variables such as animal husbandry practices, diet customs, and household activities among different ethnic and gender groups; and health variables such as animal and human population density, disease prevalence, and available health services and diagnostic capacity
  • The seed grant has given us the opportunity to build essential new partnerships with key local, regional and national stakeholders (in addition to our established partners at the bottom). Our modeling meeting in May will build the foundation for a long-term modeling partnership. This meeting will draw together experts from diverse disciplines, many of whom have not had the chance to work together previously. Linking international and Tanzanian experts will significantly enhance the tools for and relevance of climate change modeling.Wout: This slide isn’t super exciting, but I thought it might be important to demonstrate our modeling plans and the partnerships that the grant has facilitated.Note: Kathleen Galvin and Randy Boone from CSU are collaborators on our grant who we will be excited to have share their rangeland/pastoralist modeling knowledge
  • The second major objective of our seed grant is to assess access to and quality of livestock health services in the Ruaha Ecosystem. An important feature of our capacity assessment work is our effort to link knowledge on livestock health services needs and access from government (the district veterinary officer and the regional veterinary investigation center), field extension agents (livestock and agricultural extension agents), and pastoralist households.
  • Important notes: Female field assistant, interviews in Swahili (for LFO’s and pastoralists), key gov’t and local stakeholders, wide variety of knowledge to idenitify critical gaps in health services (diagnosis, reporting, management, etc) that could result in increased climate change driven disease…will feed into modeling (ex time to outbreak response). DVO interviews already completed, LFO and pastoralist household interviews in MAY (will have IRB approval )From the grant : assess:  Pastoralist access to livestock health services: veterinarians, para-health professionals, and veterinary diagnostic laboratories  Testing capabilities of local and regional diagnostic labs for key pathogens including contagious bovine and caprinepleuropneumonia, East Coast Fever, trypanosomiasis, Brucella, Rift Valley fever virus, BTB, and water-borne protozoa  Current livestock disease surveillance activities  Regional animal and human disease reporting systems  Policy, cultural, and logistical challenges to disease detection, reporting, and response  Critical gaps in health services and diagnostic lab access that increase vulnerability to climate change-associated increases in livestock disease
  • The HALI Project has a strong history of training and capacity building in the Ruaha region…training game scouts in safe animal sampling, introducing new disease diagnostic techniquesOur CRSP seed grant will allow us to continue our team and capacity building efforts with: stochastic modeling workshops for students and faculty at Sokoine University of Agriculture, GIS training for HALI Team members, field interview training for our field assistants, and by building a spatial modeling database for epidemiologic, economic and environmental (climate change) modeling.Wout: maybe emphasize our commitment also to training women (female field assistants, female modeling team members, female students, etc)
  • continue integrative model refinement and testing of interventions to identify culturally appropriate and agriculturally sustainable strategies to strengthen livestock health and pastoral livelihoods in response to climate variability. The approaches outlined above will build the vital, collaborative local and international networks, spatial data, and linkages necessary for more complex evaluation of climate change on livestock and human populations. Wout: Maybe emphasize that leveraging resources (they seem really big on this) from our other HALI research programs will enhance our ability to meet the challenges of investigating and responding to climate change impacts on livestock systems.
  • Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: HALI Project Update (W. Miller)

    1. 1. Strengthening Tanzanian Livestock Health and Pastoral Livelihoods in a Changing Climate<br />Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) Project<br />
    2. 2. Importance of Ruaha<br /><ul><li> Large population of traditional </li></ul> livestock keepers<br /> -Maasai, Barabaig and Sukuma pastoralists<br /><ul><li> Low annual rainfall, heavy </li></ul> dependence on local natural resources<br /><ul><li> Livestock-dependent households are </li></ul> among the poorest in Tanzania<br />High Conservation Significance Resources for<br /> Rural Livelihoods<br />National Development<br />
    3. 3. Drying of the Great Ruaha River<br />Pre 1993 – year round flow<br /> 1994-Present – increasing <br /> days of no flow<br />
    4. 4. Water Scarcity and Resulting Threats:<br /><ul><li>Livelihood impacts on pastoral communities
    5. 5. Labor stress
    6. 6. Livestock productivity
    7. 7. Human & livestock disease
    8. 8. Impaired ecosystem services
    9. 9. Water quality
    10. 10. Disease transmission
    11. 11. Reduced wildlife tourism </li></li></ul><li>The HALI Integrated Approach<br />Domestic animal <br />sampling<br />Health and economic <br />Impact of disease<br />Recommendations<br />for disease <br />prevention<br />Recommendations <br />for water <br />management<br />Disease Data<br />Wildlife sampling<br />Water sampling<br />Socio-economic<br />Data<br />Pastoralist <br />household <br />surveys/<br />focus groups<br />TRAINING & CAPACITY BUILDING<br />
    12. 12. HALI-2 Seed Grant Goals<br />Modeling Climate Change and Livestock Systems<br /><ul><li> Build a collaborative, diverse modeling team
    13. 13. Develop a spatial modeling database for the Ruaha ecosystem
    14. 14. Create preliminary models to explore climate change impacts and </li></ul> adaptive strategies to preserve livestock health and rural livelihoods<br />Assess livestock health <br /> services and pathogen <br /> diagnosis and response <br /> capacity for climate change <br /> driven disease<br />
    15. 15. Collaborative Climate Change Modeling <br />Disease and<br />Livestock <br />Data<br />Health and economic <br />impacts of climate <br />change<br />Recommendations<br />for disease <br />prevention<br />Recommendations <br />for adaptive<br />management <br />strategies<br />Socio-economic<br />Data<br />Climate and <br />Water Data<br />Landscape Use<br />Data<br />Livestock Health <br />Services Capacity<br />Data<br />
    16. 16. Creating the Modeling Team<br />Collaborative Modeling Meeting to Integrate Data and Approaches<br /> May 16th and 17th at Sokoine University of Agriculture<br />Critical New Partnerships:<br />Rufiji Water Basin Office<br />Tanzania Meteorological Agency<br />Soil and Water Management Research Group (SUA)<br />Department of Agricultural Engineering and Land Planning (SUA)<br />Institute for Resource Assessment (University of Dar es Salaam)<br />World Wildlife Fund: Great Ruaha River Water Project<br />
    17. 17. Assessing Livestock Health Services Capacity in the Ruaha Ecosystem<br />Linking Local, District and Regional Needs<br />
    18. 18. Capacity Assessment Interviews with:<br />District veterinary officer<br /> Livestock field extension officers<br />HALI’s partner pastoralist households<br />
    19. 19. Training and Capacity Building<br />Modeling workshops for university students and faculty<br />GIS training<br />Spatial modeling database<br />
    20. 20. The Road Ahead<br /><ul><li>Building more advanced, collaborative </li></ul> climate change models<br /><ul><li> Addressing gaps in livestock health </li></ul> services capacity<br />
    21. 21. Asantenisana!<br />Visit HALI on our wordpress project blog, Facebook or Twitter to follow our progress on strengthening health and pastoral livelihoods in Tanzania<br />