Nonwestern review


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Nonwestern review

  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation 7 th Brief Edition by Roger Kamien 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  2. 2. Music in Sub-Saharan africa <ul><li>Africa is divided into two parts: above and below the Sahara desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Above: Muslim, Arabic-speaking, music closely related to that of the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below: Extremely diverse, many religions, cultures, and languages (over 700) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Though Sub-Saharan music is diverse, there are some similarities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex rhythms and polyrhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussive sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety of instrumental ensembles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal music usually a soloist & responding chorus </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Music in society <ul><li>Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment, & magic to rites of passage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “ music ” is not used by many peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies, rituals, & celebrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Music is a social activity—everyone joins in </li></ul><ul><li>No musical notation—passed by oral tradition </li></ul>
  4. 4. Elements of African Music <ul><li>Rhythm and Percussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex rhythms & polyrhythms predominate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body used as an instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call and response extremely common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short musical phrases repeated to different words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often homophonic or polyphonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same melody often sung at many pitch levels </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. African Instruments <ul><li>Idiophones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common African instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylophones, a favorite, come in many sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Talking drum” w/ slit in side can produce 2-4 tones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membranophones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in many ceremonial & work-pace applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drum manufacture often accompanied by special rites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums usually played in groups—multiple players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of shapes, sizes, and forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerophones and Chordophones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flutes & trumpets (of wood & horn) most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reed instruments less widespread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chordophones plucked or struck, gourd resonators </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Listening <ul><li>Ompeh (from Ghana) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 398 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Male voice w/ choral responses </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion ensemble </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classical Music of India <ul><li>Musical traditions date back over 3,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Two main types of classical music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindustani : secular, court music from Northern India (including now-Pakistan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed many Persian elements due to Muslim Persian rulers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karnatak : temple music from South India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed along its own lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Performers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music viewed as a spiritual discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral tradition—study by apprenticeship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very important, sophisticated, & developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided by melodic & rhythmic formula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must study for years before allowed to improv in performance </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Elements of Indian Classical Music <ul><li>Music is based upon the human voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch range limited to about four octaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly embellished melody, both vocal and instrumental, is characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melodies almost always accompanied by a drone instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melodic Structure: Raga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melody exists within a framework called a raga —a defined pattern of notes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhythmic Structure: Tala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm is organized into blocks or cycles, each called a tala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tala range from 3-100 beats in length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-16 is most common </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Vocal music most important in India </li></ul>Instruments <ul><li>Sitar most popular chordophone </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Drums of many sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many instruments associated w/ specific gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long necked, lute (guitar) like instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 plucked strings, 9-13 sympathetically vibrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabla and mridangam drums most common </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Instruments <ul><li>Vocal music is most important in India </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many instruments associated w/ specific gods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sitar most popular chordophone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long necked, lute (guitar) like instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 plucked strings, 9-13 sympathetically vibrating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drums of many sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tabla and mridangam drums most common </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Listening <ul><li>Maru-Bihag </li></ul><ul><li>by Ravi Shankar </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 401 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: how the melody and rhythm are separate parts </li></ul>