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20th centuryjazzrock

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20th centuryjazzrock

  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th Edition by Roger Kamien Part VI The 20th Century & Beyond Jazz & Rock 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  2. 2. Ch. 19 - Jazz <ul><li>Roots of Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>Blend elements of several cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West African emphasis on improvisation, percussion & call-and-response techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American brass band influence on instrumentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European harmonic & structural practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blues & ragtime were immediate sources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ragtime <ul><ul><li>Dance hall and saloon music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano music with left hand, “oom-pah” part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in duple meter at moderate march tempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right hand part highly syncopated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left hand keeps steady beat </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Blues <ul><ul><li>Vocal and instrumental form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 measure (bar) musical structure </li></ul></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I <ul><ul><li>3 part vocal structure: a a’ b </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement/repeat of statement/counterstatement </li></ul></ul>IV I V I
  5. 5. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Your Head Blues (1926) </li></ul><ul><li>Performed by Bessie Smith </li></ul><ul><li>(Smith known as “Empress of the Blues”) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 358 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 9:30 Brief Set, CD 5:51 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Strophic </li></ul><ul><li> 12 bar blues form </li></ul><ul><li> 3 part (a a’ b) vocal structure </li></ul><ul><li> Trumpet answers vocalist </li></ul><ul><li>Call and response </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Tone Color </li></ul>Elements of Jazz <ul><li>Usually performed by combo of 3-8 players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created & performed simultaneously </li></ul></ul>Improvisation <ul><ul><li>Similar to Baroque basso continuo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main solo instruments trumpet, trombone, saxophone, clarinet, vibraphone, piano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly 32-bar structure: A A B A format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backbone is rhythm section </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bends,” “smears,” “shakes,” “scoops,” “falls” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in theme and variations form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each performance is different </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rhythm, Melody, and Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Syncopation & rhythmic swing are features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chord progressions similar to tonal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncopation often occurs when performer accents note between the regular rhythmic accents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythmic accent on beats 2 and 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melodies flexible in pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As jazz evolved, harmony grew more complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Swing” result of uneven 8 th notes (triplet feel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd , 5 th , & 7 th scale steps often lowered (flatted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called “blue” notes, these pitches come from vocal blues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jazz Styles: New Orleans Style <ul><li>Also called Dixieland </li></ul><ul><li>Front line of horns supported by rhythm section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Orleans was center of jazz 1900-1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs frequently based on march or church melody, ragtime piece, pop song, or blues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvised arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many notable performers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple instruments improvising simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scat singing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme and variation form predominates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous was trumpeter Louis Armstrong </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Listening <ul><li>Hotter Than That (1927) </li></ul><ul><li>by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five </li></ul><ul><li>Based on tune by Lillian Hardin Armstrong, his wife and pianist </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 364 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 9:32 Brief Set, CD 5:52 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Interplay of front line instruments </li></ul><ul><li> Call and response </li></ul><ul><li> Scat singing </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jazz Styles: Swing <ul><li>Popular 1935-45 ( Swing era ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large bands (usually 15-20 players) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily for dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The popular music of the time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The music of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saxophones, trumpets, trombones, rhythm section </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melody usually performed by groups of instruments rather than by soloists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other instruments accompany w/ background riffs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme and variations form common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually included improvisation by soloists (singly) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Bebop Style </li></ul>Jazz Styles: Bebop <ul><li>1940s and early 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Meant for listening—not dancing </li></ul><ul><li>Combo was preferred ensemble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of each instrument changed from earlier jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theme and variations form still dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melodies derived from pop songs or 12-bar blues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial melody by soloist or 2 soloists in unison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melodic phrases varied in length </li></ul><ul><li>Chords built w/ 6 or 7 notes, not earlier 4 or 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Many notable performers including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trumpet Dizzy Gillespie, piano Thelonious Monk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous/influential alto sax Charlie Parker </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cool Jazz </li></ul>Jazz Styles <ul><li>1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>More calm and relaxed than Bebop </li></ul><ul><li>Relied more upon arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s </li></ul>Free Jazz <ul><li>Similar to Chance Music </li></ul><ul><li>Solos sections of indeterminate length </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation by multiple players at once </li></ul><ul><li>In late 1960’s, rock became potent influence </li></ul>Jazz Rock (Fusion) <ul><li>Style combined improvisation w/ rock rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Combined acoustic & electric instruments </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ch. 21 - Rock <ul><li>Developed in mid-1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Common features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also drew influences from country & western </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First called rock & roll , later shortened to rock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grew mainly from rhythm & blues </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated new technologies as they came available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard driving beat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Featured electric guitar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made use of heavily amplified sound </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Early performers included: </li></ul>Rock Styles <ul><ul><li>1960s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chuck Berry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diana Ross & the Supremes, Stevie Wonder, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More English groups followed: The British Invasion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling Stones, The Who, … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock also began to absorb influences from folk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1964: US tour by the Beatles, an English group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Haley and His Comets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>James Brown, Ray Charles, Aretha Franklin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motown blended R&B w/ mainstream white music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock by black performers called soul </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Richard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Platters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock Around the Clock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elvis (King of Rock & Roll) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many genres: folk rock, jazz rock, acid rock, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social issues: Environment ( Blowin’ in the Wind), Vietnam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beatles most influential group in rock history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st rock musical: Hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st rock opera: Tommy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>1970s: </li></ul>Development of Rock <ul><ul><li>Continuation of many 60’s styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country rock : blend of country music and rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reggae from the West Indies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funk with electrification & jazz-like rhythms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punk (new wave )—a primitive form of rock & roll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical rock —rock arrangements of earlier serious music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jazz rock reached wider group than ever before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago; Weather Report; Blood, Sweat, & Tears </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many veterans continued, many new artists arrived: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of early rock & roll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of a dance style called disco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linda Ronstadt, Billy Joel, Donna Summer, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other genres of rock arose: </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>1980s: </li></ul>Development of Rock <ul><ul><li>British new wave bands became popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased use of electronic technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metal-- sexually explicit lyrics & costumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police; Culture Club, Eurhythmics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the second British invasion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizers and computers (early sequencers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metallica; Iron Maiden; Motley Crue; Guns ‘n’ Roses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rap —developed among young urban blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began as rhythmic talking accompanied by disk jockey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often depicts anger and frustration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of hip-hop culture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The 80s and into the 90s: </li></ul>Development of Rock <ul><ul><li>Grunge or alternative rock was embraced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding guitar sounds & angry lyrics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to the polished sound of mainstream rock bands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct stylistic influence from 1970’s punk rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nirvana; Pearl Jam; Soundgarden; Alice in Chains </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smashing Pumpkins; Nine Inch Nails; Belly; Hole </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metal & rap continue in popularity in 80s-90s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metal continued to reach a mostly white audience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rap adopted devices from other types of music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rap began to attract broader audience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African music began to influence mainstream music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Simon: Graceland (1986) used an African vocal group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Guitar-based, small core performance group </li></ul>Elements of Rock <ul><ul><ul><li>2 guitars, bass guitar, drum set, keyboards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequent vocal effects (shout, scream, falsetto ) </li></ul>Rhythm <ul><li>Almost always in 4/4 meter </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple subdivision of beats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a singer/instrumentalist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally other instruments (horns, strings, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late 70’s & 80’s: more rhythmically complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 &, … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result of polyrhythmic influences of African music </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Tone Color
  19. 19. <ul><li>Two commonly utilized forms: </li></ul>Elements of Rock <ul><ul><ul><li>12-bar blues form </li></ul></ul></ul>Form, Melody, and Harmony <ul><li>Short, repeated melodic patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 3 or 4 (or less) chords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32-bar A A B A form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually built on modes, not major/minor </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonically simple </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often uses chord progressions that were rare in earlier popular music </li></ul></ul></ul>

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