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Workshop at UAL
University of Arts London
Alexandra Okada

Published in: Technology, Education
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  1. 1. Mapping Techniques applied to Academic Research: implementation and value Alexandra Okada The Open Univerity Knowledge Media Institute
  2. 2. What is a map?
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>If you are in Japan looking for the Tokyo Metropolitan Government building what options below would you choose in order to get there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions written in Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directions written in English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A map of with the location </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ~自立を支える安心の仕組み~ 「生活保護を変える東京提言」(東京都試案)を公表 <提言に向け、都民の皆様からご意見を募集します> 平成 19 年 2 月 1 日 福祉保健局  生活保護制度は、発足から50年余を経て、社会経済状況は大きく変容を遂げましたが、これまで抜本的な見直しが行われてきませんでした。  都では、生活保護の実態分析を行いながら、緊急に取り組むべき課題について検討を行い、平成16年7月に「生活保護制度改善に向けた提言」をとりまとめ、自立支援を重視した取組を強化するよう、国に対して提言を行いました。  その後、都の提言に沿った見直しが行われるなど、生活保護制度をめぐっては様々な動きがありましたが、都は、国家責任としてのセーフティネットを堅持しつつ自立支援を総合的・効果的に進めていくために、更に一歩進んだ具体的提言を再度とりまとめることとしました。  このたび、提言の試案を公表し、都民の皆様からご意見を募集します。 【提言の主な内容】
  5. 5. Beginning in Shinjuku Station, follow the signs to the &quot;West Exit&quot;. You should then emerge onto an open-square area surrounded by department stores, banks and insurance companies. The two funnel like constructions at either end are air vents for the station below. Using the pedestrian walkway that runs along the front of Odakyu Halc department store, make your way towards Fuji Bank. In the streets behind the bank you'll find what is now considered to be one of the best areas in Tokyo for buying electronic and photographic equipment. Work through the streets in a westerly direction until you come to a main road. Just over this road and opposite the post office, you'll find the Keio Plaza Hotel. Today, compared to its neighbours it's small, but in 1971 this was Shinjuku's tallest building. It's 170 meters high and has forty seven floors. From the front entrance of the hotel, head off in a northerly direction. As one road over-passes the other, look to the left for a good view of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building. At the end of the overpass you'll see some steps. These lead down to the concourse of the Mitsui Building. Finished in 1974, the building is 209 meters high and has 55 floors. Inside, together with shops and restaurants, you'll find the Pentax Forum. This is an exhibition space for photographs and photographic equipment (open daily, except public holidays 10:30 am to 6:30 pm). Next look for the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building. With Notre Dame in Paris apparently and clearly the inspiration, you won't mistake it. The building, the fourth tallest in Japan, was finished in 1990. It's 296 meters high and thanks to special shock absorbing pillars and posts, it's supposed to be fully earthquake proof. There are two observation galleries, one in each tower at 45 floors up. Entrance is free and the panoramic view is fantastic. On a clear day, you can even Mount Fuji and Yokohama! (Open: Tuesday to Friday 9:30 am to 5:30. Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays 9:30 am to 7:30 pm. Closed: Mondays, Tuesdays (if the day before was a public holiday) December 29th - 31st and January 2nd - 3rd inclusive).
  6. 7. <ul><ul><li>What is the difference between map and text? What are the benefits of each one? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. What is a knowledge map?
  8. 9. Why can it be useful for research?
  9. 10. Reading - Understanding - Sensemaking <ul><li>How can learners express and contest several and significant pieces of information? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they manage multiple - possibly contradictory - connections between information, issues, ideas, and arguments? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they provide a trace of collective deliberations for review? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to become not just literate, but fluent with knowledge media for sensemaking? </li></ul>
  10. 11. We need models and tools to: - represent the process of thinking - visualise main topics in a discussion - analyse any source of information - augment sensemaking - organise and store collective memory Big challenges!How can we respond?
  11. 12. Hypermedia <ul><li>Modelling discourse relations </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing different perspectives on a conceptual space </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting the incremental formalization of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rendering structural visualizations </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting heterogeneous content </li></ul><ul><li>Buckingham Shum (2008) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Discourse
  13. 14. An orientation to reading and writing conversations, dialogue and arguments (with particular interest in distributed discourse over the internet) Hypermedia Discourse … reading and writing interactive, evolving networks of information, concepts, issues, ideas, arguments Buckingham Shum (2008)
  14. 15. <ul><li>Cartography is one of the most promising resources to support knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>It helps us to integrate information on a hypertextual structure organized within various hierarchies and levels of representations. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>It requires learners to think deeply and make sense of what they are studying </li></ul><ul><li>Through information maps, students can create, represent and visualize what they know and do not know </li></ul>
  16. 17. “ Maps are essential to associate information and knowledge without feeling lost in oceans of data ”. (Machado,2001) “ Maps can help us to deconstruct conceptions and reconstruct our own thoughts” (Boaventura Santos, 2000) “ Maps help us to abstract and integrate meanings. Graphical schemes promote the understanding through spatial relationships” (Lévy,1997) “ Maps are very useful to connect various areas of knowledge opening new horizons”. (Deleuze e Guattari, 1997)
  17. 18. Concept Mapping Alberto Canas Software CMap Tools Mind Mapping Tony Buzan Software Mind Manager Web Mapping Romain Zeiliger Software Nestor Web Cartographer Argumentative Mapping Simon Buckingham Shum Software Compendium
  18. 19. Maps are one of the oldest forms of human communication Mapping pre-dates number systems and written language. For many centuries, maps have been considered as a graphical language for analogical thinking. Through maps scientists have explored everything from giant galaxies to tiny DNA molecules
  19. 20. Mind Map Web Map Concept Map Argument Map
  20. 21. Knowledge Mapping Techniques
  21. 26. Questions and Discussion
  22. 27. <ul><li>Problem: ineffective meetings & disorganised discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: use an argumentative map to record discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Compendium mapping software promotes structured arguments, new ideas and multiple perspectives </li></ul>Compendium
  23. 28. Compendium is a tool for visual thinking, used to connect ideas, concepts, arguments, websites and documents.
  24. 29. In Compendium you can drag and drop any kind of document or text from the unit, internet and your computer
  25. 30. Concept Map
  26. 32. Reason!Able argument mapping tool
  27. 33. Rationale argument mapping tool
  28. 34. Questions and Discussion
  29. 35. <ul><li>e-PhD supervision session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematise meetings of academic supervisors and their researchers around the world e-Science Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organise the research and discussions of scientists in NASA </li></ul></ul>Projects in Compendium
  30. 36. Modelling @ NASA Mission Control
  31. 37. NASA e-science field trials (2004 and 2005) Distributed Mars-Earth planning and data analysis tools for Mars Habitat field trial in Utah desert, supported from US+UK
  32. 38. NASA Mobile Agents Architecture
  33. 39. Conversational Modelling of NASA workflow: IBIS
  34. 40. KMi-NASA e-science demo site
  35. 41. Supporting information analysis
  36. 42. Compendium Maps facilitate the organization of research and academic articles
  37. 43. Compendium can map any kind of document
  38. 44. Issue Templates for e-Response in Personnel Recovery operations <ul><li>A set of interlinked Issue templates to structure and capture planning deliberations </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation bar to step through the analysis and decision making methodology </li></ul>
  39. 45. Compendium knowledge elements (nodes) can be overlaid on any image, and can point to any media file
  40. 47. Mapping an existing debate to engage newcomers (Robert Horn, Stanford Univ.) <ul><li>One of seven maps in the Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Think? Series. MacroVU Press. </li></ul>
  41. 48. MacroVU Press.
  42. 49. Service: “What papers challenge this paper?” <ul><li>Extract concepts for this document </li></ul><ul><li>Trace concepts on which they build </li></ul><ul><li>Trace concepts challenging this set </li></ul><ul><li>Show root documents </li></ul>
  43. 50. Analysing the arguments in a scientific literature ( KMI’s ClaiMaker)
  44. 51. Analysing the arguments in a scientific literature ( KMI’s ClaiMaker)
  45. 52. 42 researchers from: education, medicine, administration, technology, psychology, social science, arts, marketing... Portugal Inglaterra Salvador Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Brasília Porto Alegre País de Gales
  46. 56. Maps are useful to define my research questions Maps are essential to select important references Maps help to understand concepts and theories Maps promote the association of theorical and empirical data Maps facilitate reading and writing, deconstructiing and reconstructing meanings Maps offer a systematc view and help to structure arguments Through Maps I can visualise my way of thinking and organise my thoughts better
  47. 61. Questions and Discussion
  48. 62. SUMMARY Why map arguments?
  49. 63. <ul><li>Why do we need Knowledge Mapping in Research ? </li></ul><ul><li>Maps help researchers to </li></ul><ul><li>- organise and integrate all stages of the research </li></ul><ul><li>- visualise the whole process </li></ul><ul><li>- select what is important and relevant </li></ul><ul><li>and Online learning? Maps help students and teachers to </li></ul><ul><li>navigate easier and faster in the VLE </li></ul><ul><li>visualise design in a more attractive and meaningful way </li></ul><ul><li>construct networks of knowledge </li></ul>
  50. 64. Visual language <ul><li>Compared to text, maps can be added to cumulatively by a group, without losing coherent structure </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the debate is explicit if the correct distinctions are made (a cognitive discipline) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual language can highlight significant patterns </li></ul><ul><li>With practice, erroneous reasoning is detected faster </li></ul>
  51. 65. Why use a software tool? <ul><li>Managing the structure is easier than on paper </li></ul><ul><li>In a hypertext system, contributions may be connected in different ways </li></ul><ul><li>Maps can be constructed over the Net </li></ul><ul><li>The results can be Web published in different formats </li></ul>
  52. 66. Compendium for knowledge management Scenario Design Requirements Construction Project Reviews Data Analysis Specification Decision Rationale Presentations Knowledge Management Documentation Meeting Capture/Replay Domain Modelling Envisioning
  53. 67. Pedagogical affordances <ul><li>Argument maps are no silver bullet, but experiments and case studies indicate… </li></ul><ul><li>Co-construction of maps provokes learning conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping arguments in texts fosters deeper critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue Mapping is an effective way to analyse real world Wicked Problems </li></ul>
  54. 68. Visualizing Argumentation (Springer 2003) Argument mapping for learning, scholarly publishing, scientific and public policy debates, teamwork, and organisational memory Paul Kirschner , Buckingham Shum and Chad Carr
  55. 69. Knowledge Cartography (Springer 2008, in press) Knowledge mapping - techniques and tools for learning, information analysys and knowledge management. Alexandra Okada, Buckingham Shum and Tony Sherborne
  56. 70. References <ul><li>Download of Compendium </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Courses about Compendium and Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Papers and other publications </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>