Unit1 Principle Processes


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Unit1 Principle Processes

  1. 1. Welcome toPsychology 41G:<br />
  2. 2. Write About You<br /><ul><li>You are going to write a letter to me.
  3. 3. Address to Mr. Boughen
  4. 4. Content
  5. 5. Brief introduction about yourself
  6. 6. Goal of this class
  7. 7. What kind of student are you…
  8. 8. Reader, writer, presenter, group worker. When do you work well, work do you not work well.
  9. 9. What do you need from me?
  10. 10. Interests
  11. 11. What you did over the summer</li></li></ul><li>KWL <br />What do you know about Psychology<br />What do you want to know about Psychology <br />What have you learned about Psychology<br />
  12. 12. What is Psychology?<br /><ul><li>“This course is designed to be an introduction to the field of Psychology. Psychology is a diverse and ever-changing discipline that is constantly seeking revolutionary ways to apply knowledge gained from new research. This class will explore what the study of psychology has to offer individuals, groups, and society as a whole.”</li></li></ul><li>Units of Study<br />Unit 1: The Foundations of Psychology<br /><ul><li>- Introduction to the Field of Psychology
  13. 13. - Historical Overview of Psychology</li></ul> <br /> <br />Unit 2: Research Methods<br /><ul><li>- Types of Research Methods
  14. 14. - Experimentation
  15. 15. - Ethical Guidelines ,Restrictions, and Questions</li></ul> <br /> <br />Unit 3: The Principles of Learning<br /><ul><li>- Classical Conditioning
  16. 16. - Operant Conditioning
  17. 17. - Observational Learning
  18. 18. - Punishment</li></li></ul><li>Units of Study Continued…<br />Unit 4: Memory<br /><ul><li>Structure of Memory
  19. 19. Models of Memory
  20. 20. Types of Memory
  21. 21. Memory Improvement Techniques
  22. 22. Eye Witness Testimonies</li></ul> <br /> <br /> <br />Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology<br /><ul><li>Problem Solving and Decision Making
  23. 23. Thinking
  24. 24. Creativity
  25. 25. Language
  26. 26. The Brain Structures and Functions
  27. 27. Intelligence – Testing, Types Etc.</li></ul> <br /> <br />
  28. 28. Units of Study Continued…<br />Unit 6: Experiencing the World<br /><ul><li>Sensation
  29. 29. Perception
  30. 30. Sleep and other Altered States of Consciousness</li></ul>Unit 7: Aspects of Identify Formation<br /> <br />
  31. 31. Assessment<br /> <br /> I will be assessing you every day. Observations, discussions, and daily work etc. You will know well in advance the work I will be collecting and using to determine your grade.<br />Course work 70%<br /> <br /> Exam 30%<br />Course work will include, test, assignments, presentations, and projects. <br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Unit 1:<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Dr. Phil’s Basic Personality Test:<br />Below is Dr. Phil’s Test. (Dr. Phil scored a 55, he did this test on Oprah – she got a 38)<br />Some folks pay a lot of money to find this stuff out<br />When you take the test don’t be overly sensitive. They say it is accurate. Take the test for yourself.<br />Answers are for who you are now . . . Not who you were in the past.<br />This is a real test given by the Human Relations Dept at many major corporations today, it helps them get better insight concerning their employees and prospective employees<br />Have a pen or paper ready. Its only 10 simply questions<br />
  37. 37. 1. When do you feel your best ?:<br />a) In the morning<br />b) During the afternoon and early evening<br />c) Late at night<br />
  38. 38. 2. You usually walk:<br />a) Fairly fast, with long steps<br />b) Fairly fast, with little steps<br />c) Less fast head up looking straight<br />d) Less fast, head down<br />e) Very slowly<br />
  39. 39. 3. When talking to people you:<br />a) Stand with your arms folded<br />b) Have your hands clasped<br />c) Have one or both your hands on your hips<br />d) Touch or push the person to whom you are talking<br />e) Play with your ear, touch your chin, or smooth your<br />hair<br />
  40. 40. 4. When relaxing, you sit with:<br />a) Your knees bent with your legs neatly side by side<br />b) Your legs crossed<br />c) Your legs stretched out or straight<br />d) One leg curled under you<br />
  41. 41. 5. When something really amuses you , you react with:<br />a) Big appreciated laugh<br />b) A laugh, but not a loud one<br />c) A quiet chuckle<br />d) A smile<br />
  42. 42. 6. When you go to a party or social gathering you:<br />a) Make a loud entrance so everyone notices you<br />b) Make a quiet entrance, looking around for someone you know<br />c) Make the quietest entrance possible, trying to stay<br />unnoticed<br />
  43. 43. 7.You’re working very hard, concentrating hard, and you’re interrupted, you:<br />a) Welcome the break<br />b) Feel extremely irritated<br />c) Vary between these two extremes<br />
  44. 44. 8. Which of the following colors do you like most:<br />a) Red and orange<br />b) Black<br />c) Yellow or light blue<br />d) Green<br />e) Dark blue or purple<br />f) White<br />g) Brown or gray<br />
  45. 45. 9. When you are in bed at night, in those last few moments before going to sleep you are:<br />a) Stretched out on your back<br />b) Stretched out face down on your stomach<br />c) On your side, slightly curled<br />d) With your had on one arm<br />e) With your head under the covers<br />
  46. 46. 10. You often dream that you are:<br />a) Falling<br />b) Fighting or struggling<br />c) Searching for something or somebody<br />d) Flying or floating<br />e) You usually have dreamless sleeps<br />f) Your dreams are always pleasant<br />
  47. 47. Points:<br />1. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6<br />2. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 2 (e) 1<br />3. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 5 (d) 7 (e) 6<br />4. (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 2 (d) 1<br />5. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 2<br />6. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c)2<br />7. (a) 6 (b) 2 (c)4<br />8. (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 5 (d) 4 (e) 3 (f) 2 (g) 1<br />9. (a) 7 (b) 6 (c)4 (d) 2 (e) 1<br />10. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 6 (f) 1<br />
  48. 48. Over 60 Points:<br /><ul><li>Others see you as someone they should “handle with care”
  49. 49. You can be seen as vain, self-centered, and as someone who is extremely dominant
  50. 50. Others may admire you, wishing they could be more like you, but don’t always trust you hesitating to become too deeply involved with you</li></li></ul><li>51 to 60 Points:<br /><ul><li>Others see you as an exciting, rather impulsive personality, a natural leader, who is quick to make decisions, though not always the right ones
  51. 51. Others see you as bold and adventuresome, someone who will try anything once, some one who takes chances and enjoys adventure
  52. 52. People enjoy being in your company because of the excitement that you radiate</li></li></ul><li>41 to 50 Points:<br /><ul><li>Others see you as fresh, lively, charming, amusing, practical, and always interesting
  53. 53. Your seen as someone who is constantly in the center of attention, but sufficiently well-balanced enough not to let it go to your head
  54. 54. Others see you as kind, considerate, and understanding, someone who will always cheer them up and help them out</li></li></ul><li>31 to 40 Points:<br /><ul><li>Others see you as sensible, cautious, careful and practical
  55. 55. You are seen as clever, gifted, or talented, but modest
  56. 56. You are not a person who makes friends too quickly or easily, but someone who is extremely loyal to friends you do make and who expects the same loyalty in return
  57. 57. Those who really get to know you realize it takes a lot to shake your trust in your friends, but equally that it takes you a long time to get over it if that trust is ever broken</li></li></ul><li>21 to 30 Points:<br />Your friends see you as painstaking and fussy<br />They view you as very cautious, extremely careful, and slow and steady<br />It would really surprise them if you ever did something impulsively or on the spur of the moment, expecting you to examine everything carefully from every angel and then, usually decide against it<br />They think this reaction is caused partly by your careful nature<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. What is Psychology?<br />Psychology:<br /><ul><li> The science of behavior and mental processes
  60. 60. Although this definition emphasizes behavior, it also</li></ul>includes the inner self, such as dreams, daydreams, and<br />other inner emotions / drives<br />
  61. 61. Count every &quot; F&quot; in the following text: <br />You don’t need to say the number out loud.<br />FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS... <br />
  62. 62. The Cambridge University Language Study O lnysrmatpoelpe can raedtihs. I cdnuoltblveieetaht I cluodaulacltyuesdnatnrdwaht I was rdanieg. The phaonmnealpweor of the hmuanmnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at CmabrigdeUinervtisy, it deosn&apos;tmttaer in wahtoredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olnyiprmoatnttihng is taht the frist and lsatltteer be in the rghitpclae. The rset can be a taotlmses and you can sitllraed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamnmniddeos not raederveylteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyastghuhotslpeling was ipmorantt! <br />
  63. 63. Name the Color that the following words are written in:<br />Red . . . Yellow . . . Blue . . . Purple . . . <br />Orange . . . Green . . .Pink . . . White<br />
  64. 64. Old or Young Lady?<br />
  65. 65. Good or Evil?<br />
  66. 66. Psychologist:<br /><ul><li>Individuals who have earned a doctoral degree and are interested in the behavior of humans and animals</li></ul>Vs.<br />Psychiatrist:<br /><ul><li>Physician with specialized training in the medical treatment of mental and emotional disorders</li></li></ul><li>Boughen the Mentalist<br />Think of two simple geometrical shapes, one inside the other.<br />Now a number between 1-50<br />Both digits odd, but not the same one.<br />15 is OK but 11 is no good.<br />
  67. 67. A Little Case Study with a Big Point!<br /> Q: Who was Sir Arthur Conan Doyle?<br />A: He invented the character of detective Sherlock Holmes!!!<br />
  68. 68. Rise of Spiritualism and Mediums<br />
  69. 69. Look at this picture and tell me what you think:<br />
  70. 70.
  71. 71.
  72. 72. My question to you is . .<br />Why did Sir Arthur Conan<br />Doyle believe these girls and<br />these photographs?<br />
  73. 73. Bias:<br />Preconceptions (already held beliefs) that cloud our<br />observations and influence the questions we ask.<br />Law of Parsimony:<br />Theory that tells us to adopt the explanation that<br />requires the fewest assumptions<br />
  74. 74. When studying Psychology you should always ask yourself:<br />1.What is the claim and who is making it?<br />2.Is the claim based on scientific observation?<br />3. What do statistics reveal?<br />-When evaluating a claim we need to know whether the findings occurred by chance<br /> - Findings are only significant if they are statistically<br /> significant (occur over and over enough times)<br />4.Are there plausible alternative explanations for the claim?<br />
  75. 75. The Placebo Effect<br />
  76. 76. Placebo Effect:<br />Found in research and experiments, refers to the effects<br />(either positive or negative) associated with a subject’s<br />beliefs and attitudes<br />This phenomena has been found in:<br /> 1. Headache Experiments<br /> 2. Alcohol Experiments<br />
  77. 77. Specialties in Psychology:<br />Research<br />Forensic (Jury Selection, Discredit Eye Witness)<br />Psychiatrist<br />School <br />Consumer<br />Cognitive <br />Health (changing Harmful Behaviours) <br />Industrial and Organizational<br />Neuropsychology<br />Eclectic<br />sports<br /><ul><li>Clinical (Diagnosis and treatment of Psychological disorders)</li></li></ul><li>Phineas Gage<br />
  78. 78. The Three Debates:<br />Nature Vs. Nurture<br />Person Vs. Situation<br />Stability Vs. Change<br />
  79. 79. The Three Big Debates:<br />Read the handout “Enduring Issues in Psychology” and think about the three debates discussed in the article: The Nature vs. Nurture debate, The Person vs. Situation Debate, and the Stability vs. Change Debate.<br />Pair up with a partner and discuss the debates. Write a definition of each debate in your notes. Then take a stance on your own beliefs.<br />Journal Assignment: In three well written paragraphs explain what each debate is and then take a stance about which side of each debate you think is correct. Explain why you think a particular side is more correct by providing examples that you have seen in your own life, and/or by making reference to different things you have heard about or read.<br />
  80. 80. Historical Psychology<br />First lab devoted to the scientific study of Psychology – 1879, University of Leipzig, Germany. <br />Wilhelm Wundt credited with establishing psychology as an academic discipline<br />
  81. 81. Wilhelm Wundt:<br />A German medical doctor and psychologist<br />regarded as the father of psychology<br />founded one of the first formal laboratories for psychological research <br />His greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science<br />
  82. 82. Three Most Influential Movements in Modern Psychology<br />1. Behavioral Perspective [Behaviorism]<br />2. Psychodynamic Perspective <br />3. Humanistic Approach<br />
  83. 83. Behavioral Perspective of Psychology<br />Simply called “Behaviorism”<br />Main focus is on observable behaviors – only what can be seen<br />Does not speculate on mental processes such as thinking<br />Main belief is that all behavior is learned<br />
  84. 84. Ivan Pavlov:<br />Russian Psychologist<br />Won Nobel Prize for Medicine<br /> in 1904<br />Created a famous behaviorist theory on learning – Classical Conditioning<br />
  85. 85. Learned Associations - Conditioning<br />When two unrelated things (stimuli) are paired together and eventually become associated with each other<br />For example when the school bell rings you stand up and leave the classroom<br />
  86. 86. Pavlov Con’t:<br />Famous for his Salivating (drooling) Dog Experiment<br />When he would jingle his keys the dogs would begin to drool<br />This is an example of conditioning because the sound of the keys and the food are unrelated, but when paired together many times, the dogs associated the sound of keys with feeding<br />Same thing happens when a cat hears the can opener and comes running<br />
  87. 87.
  88. 88. John B. Watson<br />brought Behaviorism to America<br />Insisted all psychology should only be concerned with observable behaviors<br />Developed strict laboratory control systems<br />By controlling a subjects environment you can control all behavior<br />
  89. 89. Watson’s Little Albert Experiment:<br />
  90. 90. B.F. Skinner<br />“Give me a child and I&apos;ll shape him into<br />anything.&quot; <br />
  91. 91. B.F. Skinner<br />called the “greatest contemporary psychologist of all time”<br />believed that behavior changes as the result of rewards and consequences (punishments)<br />environment, not free will, shapes human behavior<br />goal of psychologist is to identify and change the environmental conditions to control subjects behavior<br />Created the “Skinner Box”<br />
  92. 92. Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective:<br />Freud sought to delve deep beneath observable behaviors<br />Wanted to find the root of the problem that he believed was often located in the unconscious mind<br />Believed behaviors were only manifestations or signs of a deeper problem<br />
  93. 93.
  94. 94. Sigmund Freud:<br />trained Neurologist<br />Patients who came to him often suffered from a variety of anxieties and other mental disturbances<br />Often his theories on behavior and personality were based on patients who would be considered “psychotic”<br />
  95. 95. Psychodynamic Perspective:<br />Developed by Freud<br />States both normal and abnormal behaviors are<br /> determined primarily by unconscious forces<br />The unconscious mind exerts great control over behavior<br />
  96. 96. Psychodynamic Theory Con’t<br /><ul><li> Created idea of slip of the tongue – a persons true feelings are revealed through slips in speech
  97. 97. Dream Analysis – mind often disguises dreams with symbols or deeper meanings
  98. 98. Childhood Experiences – have major influence on personality development
  99. 99. Gained great fame and controversy by suggesting people (even children) are driven by motives that are sexual in nature</li></li></ul><li>
  100. 100.
  101. 101. Psychodynamic Theory Con’t:<br />Goal treatment – to bring unconscious causes of behavior to the conscious level<br />Only once the source of distress was brought to awareness could it be changed<br />It treating patients he often used hypnosis<br />Developed Psycho-Therapy<br />
  102. 102.
  103. 103. The Humanistic Approach:<br />Often viewed as the “third force” because this view of psychology offered an alternative perspective <br />Is a distinctly positive view of human nature<br />Major players – Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Albert Bandura<br />
  104. 104. Humanistic Approach Con’t:<br />States that human beings have choices in their lives<br />Each person is a unique individual and experiences the world differently<br />All human beings share the basic need to grow to their fullest potential – Self Actualization<br />
  105. 105. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:<br />
  106. 106. Treatment Mental Illness: A Historical Overview<br />
  107. 107. Rush’s Tranquilizer Chair<br />
  108. 108. Assingment<br />Historical Treatment of the Mentally ill<br />Define the following terms and state what they have to do with Historical psychology<br />Lunatic Bleeding a patient<br />Asylum insane<br />Crazy<br />List 4 Eras of History<br />Eg 20th C, 16 - 18th C, Early Civilizations eg Greek Egypt etc<br />For each Era you need 6 points of information<br />Cite your work. State where you found it.<br />
  109. 109. Each of the following descriptions could apply to one of the historical perspective on psychology discussed in class. Which perspective best fits the description?<br />Believes that unconscious forces are the most significant determinants of behavior.<br />Is concerned with observing behaviors that can be seen<br />Believes that as humans we have a choice and desicion.<br />Believes in dream analysis and hypnosis<br />Is interested in studying the neurons of the brain<br /> <br />Identify the individual who is most likely to have made each of the following statements.<br />“Even though Albert may have been scared, the experiment was worth it.”<br />“The study of my parents convinces me that unconscious forces lie beneath many of their disturbances.”<br />“What impresses me about human behavior is the freedom each of us has to make choices.”<br />“When I jingled my keys my subjects (dogs) started to salivate.”<br /> <br />Name the type of psychologist (or specialty) described in each of the following:<br />Was asked to diagnose and treat a 35-year-old man who hears frightening voices every day.<br />Helped an second base men for the Yankees complete a throw to first.<br />Designed a survey to determine whether purchasers of a liquid detergent were satisfied with the product<br />Was involved in determining the accuracy of eyewitness testimony for jurors.<br />