quot;5% think, 10% think they think, 85% would rather die than think.quot;
“the trouble with the world is that
the stupid are cocksure and the intelligent
full of doubt” - Bertrand Russell
“. . . Intelligence . . . is in plentiful supply
. . . the scarce commodity is systematic training
in critical thinking.” --Carl Sagan
“The true critical thinker accepts what few
people ever accept -- that one cannot routinely
trust perceptions and memories.” –James Alcock
“Truth gains more . . . by the errors of one who,
with due study and preparation, thinks for himself
than by the true opinions of those who only hold them because
they do not suffer themselves to think.” --John Stuart Mill_
WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING?
WHAT IS THINKING?
Mental activity that helps to formulate or solve a problem, to make a decision or to seek
understanding involves critical and creative aspects of the mind, both the use of reason and the
generation of ideas.
INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING
Consider several Quotations:
Critical thinkers: distinguish between fact and opinion; ask questions; make
detailed observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make
assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence.
Ellis, D. Becoming a Master Student, 1997
Critical thinking is best understood as the ability of thinkers to take charge of
their own thinking. This requires that they develop sound criteria and
standards for analyzing and assessing their own thinking and routinely use
those criteria and standards to improve its quality.
Elder, L. and Paul, R. quot;Critical thinking: why we must transform our teaching.quot;
Journal of Developmental Education, Fall 1994.
DEFINING CRITICAL THINKING
• In general terms, we can say that to think critically is to think clearly,
accurately, knowledgeably, and fairly while evaluating the reasons for a
belief or for taking some action.
• Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and
reliable knowledge about the world
• Critical thinking is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking
that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.
• Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by
ordinary people to the ordinary world. This is true because critical thinking
mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: a question is
identified, an hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered,
the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable conclusions
are drawn from the result. All of the skills of scientific investigation are
matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific
method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific
disciplines or endeavors. Critical thinking is scientific thinking.
• Critical thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis
and evaluation. It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible
or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles
scientific evidence with common sense.
Critical thinking is...
• Using logic, reason and the scientific method over abstract theories and
• Awareness of heuristics (shortcuts) and biases (errors) that influence
• Using these abilities systematically on everything in your life. From that,
using the results to make improvements.
IDEAS & CONCEPTS
A Brief Conceptualization of Critical Thinking
Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to
reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way. People who think
critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically.
They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric
tendencies. They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers –
concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve
They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always
improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in
reasoning, human irrationality, prejudices, biases, distortions, uncritically
accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest. They
strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a
more rational, civilized society.
They embody the Socratic principle: The unexamined life is not worth living,
because they realize that many unexamined lives together result in an
uncritical, unjust, dangerous world.
The Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Among the
main characteristics are the following:
We are thinking critically when we
rely on reason rather than emotion,
require evidence, ignore no known evidence, and follow evidence where it
are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right
analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions.
We are thinking critically when we
weigh the influences of motives and bias, and
recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or point of view.
We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish motives,
nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
We are thinking critically when we
evaluate all reasonable inferences
consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives,
remain open to alternative interpretations
accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the
evidence better, is simpler, or has fewer inconsistencies or covers more
accept new priorities in response to a reevaluation of the evidence or
reassessment of our real interests, and
do not reject unpopular views out of hand.
We are thinking critically when we
are precise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive
resist manipulation and irrational appeals, and
Avoid snap judgments.
We are thinking critically when we
recognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and
recognize the extent and weight of evidence
Critical thinkers are by nature skeptical. They approach texts with the
same skepticism and suspicion as they approach spoken remarks.
Critical thinker’s reactive, not passive. They ask questions and analyze.
They consciously apply tactics and strategies to uncover meaning or
assure their understanding.
Critical thinkers do not take an egotistical view of the world. They are
open to new ideas and perspectives. They are willing to challenge their
beliefs and investigate competing evidence.
Critical thinking enables us to recognize a wide range of subjective analyses of
otherwise objective data, and to evaluate how well each analysis might meet our
needs. Facts may be facts, but how we interpret them may vary.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking is an effort to develop reliable, rational evaluations about what is
reasonable for us to believe and disbelieve. Critical thinking makes use of the tools of logic
and science because it values skepticism over gullibility or dogmatism, reason over faith,
science of pseudoscience, and rationality over wishful thinking. Critical thinking does not
guarantee that we will arrive at truth, but it does make it much more likely than any of the
Open-mindedness & skepticism
A critical thinker is neither dogmatic nor gullible. The most distinctive features
of the critical thinker’s attitude are open-mindedness and skepticism. A person
who wishes to think critically about something like politics or religion must be
open-minded. This requires being open to the possibility that not only are others
right, but also that you are wrong. Too often people launch into a frenzy of
arguments apparently without taking any time to consider that they may be
mistaken in something.
Doubt things. Don’t accept things at face value and think them through. The
worst error you can commit is to delegate all your thinking to another person. By
creating a layer of doubt on everything, even your ideas, you can improve them.
Having the right attitude and knowing the standards of evaluation are not enough
to guarantee that one will always succeed at critical thinking. Human beings are
subject to a number of limitations and hindrances that forever get in the way of
our best intentions.
Aristotle advised that we should not
demand more certainty than the “To doubt everything or to believe
everything are two equally convenient
solutions; both dispense with the
necessity of reflection.” --Jules Henri
subject allows (Nichomachean Ethics, I, iii.). That was good advice 2,500 years
ago and it’s good advice today. Most of the subjects that concern us in our daily
lives are incapable of absolute certainty. The most we can hope for is a
reasonable certainty that we’ve arrived at the best possible beliefs. Infallibility
and absolute certainty are beyond our reach. Think, for example, about the
source of most of our beliefs: sense perception. Each of the senses is limited in
extent: Each sense has a threshold beyond which we cannot perceive. We can
extend those thresholds by using instruments such as telescopes and
microscopes. But those instruments have thresholds, too. Our instruments
enhance our knowledge but they, too, are limited.
Furthermore, each perception must also be interpreted. With each interpretation
there is the possibility of error. Each of us has been mistaken about something
we thought we saw or heard. Although we often treat facts as if they were
infallibly certain, they aren’t. Facts are those things we don’t have any doubts
about. We call something a fact if we consider it grossly unreasonable to deny it.
But, since our grasp of facts is based on sense perception, we should not claim
to know any facts with infallible certainty.
Some beliefs can hinder critical thinking. If you believe you will fail at trying to
solve a problem, you probably won’t try. If you don’t try, you won’t avail yourself
of the opportunity to learn and develop your talents, including your critical
thinking talents. Surprisingly, much research has found that believing that
intelligence is something you are born with, and is fixed for life by your genes,
hinders people in several ways that might affect their ability to think critically.
“One of the dumbest things people do with the fixed view of intelligence is to
sacrifice important learning opportunities when those opportunities contain a risk
of revealing ignorance or making errors” (Dweck 2002: 29).
Differentiate Emotion and Reason
Even if we have clear logical and empirical reasons for accepting an idea, we
also probably have emotional and psychological reasons for accepting it —
reasons which we may not be fully aware of. It is important to critical thinking,
however, that we learn to separate the two because the latter can easily interfere
with the former.
Our emotional reasons for believing something might be quite understandable,
but if the logic behind the belief is wrong, then ultimately we should not consider
our belief rational. If we really are going to approach our beliefs in a skeptical, fair
manner, then we must be willing to set aside our emotions and evaluate the logic
and reasoning on their own terms — possibly even rejecting our beliefs if they fail
to live up to logical criteria.
Argue from Knowledge, not Ignorance
Because we often have an emotional or other psychological investment in our
beliefs, it isn’t unusual for people to step forward and try to defend those beliefs
regardless of whether the logic or evidence for them are weak. Indeed,
sometimes people will defend an idea even though they really don’t know a great
deal about it — they think they do, but they don’t.
A person who tries to practice critical thinking, however, also tries to avoid
assuming that they already know everything they need to know. Such a person is
willing to allow that someone who disagrees can teach them something relevant
and refrains from arguing a position if they are ignorant of important, relevant
Probability is not Certainty
There are ideas that are probably true and ideas that are certainly true, but while
it is nice to have an idea that belongs in the latter group, we must understand
that the latter group is far, far smaller than the former. However preferable it
might be otherwise, we can’t be absolutely certain about quite a lot of matters —
especially those matters that are the focus of many debates.
When a person exercises skepticism and critical thinking, they remember that
just because they can show a conclusion is probably true, that doesn’t mean
they have shown or can show that it is certainly true. Certain truths require firm
conviction, but probable truths require only tentative conviction — that is to say,
we should believe them with the same strength as the evidence and reason
Avoid Common Fallacies
Most people can reason well enough to get by in their daily lives and no more. If
that is enough to survive, why invest the extra time and work to improve? People
who wish to have high standards for their beliefs and reasoning, however, cannot
make do with the bare minimum just to get by in life — more education and
practice are needed.
To this end, good critical thinking requires that a person become familiar with
common logical fallacies which most people commit at some time or other
without ever realizing it. Fallacies are errors in reasoning which creep into
arguments and debates all the time; the practice of critical thinking should help a
person avoid committing them and aid in identifying their appearance in others’
arguments. An argument that commits a fallacy cannot provide good reason to
accept its conclusion; therefore, as long as fallacies are being committed, the
arguments aren’t being very productive.
Don’t Jump to Conclusions
It’s easy and common for people to quickly go to the first and most obvious
conclusion in any sort of dilemma, but the fact of the matter is the obvious
conclusion isn’t always the correct one. Unfortunately, once a person adopts a
conclusion it can be difficult to get them to give it up in favor of something else —
after all, no one wants to be wrong, do they?
Because it is better to avoid trouble than to try to get out of trouble once in it,
critical thinking emphasizes careful thinking as well — and this means not
jumping to conclusions if you can avoid it. Go ahead and acknowledge the
existence of an obvious conclusion because it might be right after all, but don’t
actually adopt it until other options have been considered.
CRITICAL THINKING PROCESS
The critical thinking process includes four steps.
Step 1 Identify the problem, the relevant information and all
uncertainties about the problem
Step 2 Explore interpretations and connections. (gather
information-organizing information in meaningful ways)
Step 3 Prioritize alternatives and communicate conclusions.
(analysis of underlying problem)
Integrate, monitor, and refine strategies for re-addressing
Step 4 the problem (an ongoing process for generating and
using new information)
BENEFITS OF CRITICAL THINKING
It has been said, quot;Learning to think critically is one of the most important activities
of adult life.quot;
Among the benefits of careful thinking:
Improved planning. Critical thinkers are more aware of uncertainty that hinges
beneath plans. Thinking is the key component of strategy and tactics. If you can’t
beat an opponent with luck, looks or lies, you need to be able to out think them.
This applies particularly when your opponent isn’t another individual but the world.
Less gullibility. You are less likely to fall for obvious deceptions and problems
when you can think critically. This doesn’t need to twist you into a trust-deficient
cynic, but it can help you remain cautious when others are greedy and smart when
others are fearful.
Creativity. Some would argue that creativity comes from intuition and randomness,
not controlled thinking. But I would argue that critical thinkers can utilize their
skills to see outside the imaginary lines they draw around a problem.
Intellectual Freedom. One could argue that people use the word 'freedom' too
liberally in American culture. But intellectual freedom is perhaps the greatest
benefit of critical thinking. Instead of simply conforming to the status quo, you can
actively question assumptions. Questioning assumptions (even your own) can lead
to finding new solutions for a greater quality of life.
Other Benefits includes:
More sophisticated analysis of information.
More flexibility in thinking.
Use of more logical inferences.
More rational conclusions based on an examination of evidence.
OUR CONCEPT OF CRITICAL THINKING
Critical thinking skills are vital to well-educated individuals and acquiring this
ability should be one of the most important goals in one's life. A broad
framework of intellectual rigor is called critical thinking. Critical thinking skills
enable people to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize
information. Those who possess critical thinking skills know that
knowledge is not a collection of facts, but rather an ongoing process of
examining information, evaluating that information, and adding it to their
understanding of the world. Critical thinkers also know to keep an open
mind- and frequently end by changing their views based on new
quot;A broad-based education, inter-disciplinary study, and the ability to think beyond
the textbook or class lecture is important for students. Being able to think and
write clearly, critically, and cogently is a skill that will contribute to quality of life.
Critical thinking is the art of taking charge of your own mind. If we can take
charge of our own minds, we can take charge of our lives; we can improve them,
bringing them under our self-command and direction. This requires that we learn
self-discipline and the art of self-examination. This involves becoming interested
in how our minds work, how we can monitor, fine tune, and modify their
operations for the better. It involves getting into the habit of reflectively examining
our impulsive and accustomed ways of thinking and acting in every dimension of
Our actions are based on some motivations or reasons. But we rarely examine
our motivations to see if they make sense. We rarely inspect our reasons
critically to see if they are rationally justified. As consumers we sometimes buy
things hastily and uncritically (undecidedly), without ever thinking whether we
really need what we are tending to buy or whether we can find the money for it or
whether it's good for our health or whether the price is competitive. As parents
we often react to our children impulsively and uncritically. We do not determine
whether our actions are consistent with how we want to act as parents or
whether we are contributing to their self-esteem. We do not think whether we are
discouraging them from thinking or from taking responsibility for their own
The Qur'an repeatedly provokes and challenges the reader to think and
contemplate the signs of Allah so that she/he can understand. Human destiny is
not to be passive like the angels but to be creative for which she/he has been
given the most sublime gift of all, the mind. And creative mind is a critical mind.
The religious justification for understanding the reading of the Qur'an as initially
an intellectual challenge is that mere unreflective and unexamined acceptance of
that which is handed down to us is frowned upon by Islam. There is a dynamic
relationship that exists in Islam between faith and reflective thought. And has not
the Qur'an said, quot;(Here is), a Book which We have sent down unto thee, full of
blessings, that they may meditate on its Signs, and that men of understanding
may receive admonition.quot; (Surah, Al-Sad, 38: 29). In fact, quot;verily in that are Signs
for those who reflect (Surah, Al-Rum, 30: 21) is a constant theme throughout the
Qur'an, which, among other things, underscores the point that meanings of the
sign of Allah cannot be read just off the face of the signs but require thinking and
In Islam there is no such thing as knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
Knowledge has no value and virtue in and by itself. Its virtue lies in bringing
human kind closer to Allah. The view that knowledge is the path that leads to
Allah highlights two things about Islam. Firstly that knowledge in Islam is
important for a Muslim's spiritual growth and development. And, secondly, since
knowledge is acquired through the active process of going beyond what one
already knows, critical thinking is essential for a Muslim to grow intellectually and
spiritually. It further suggests that intellectual growth without spiritual
development is aimless wandering, and spiritual development without the
intellectual component is meaningless.
In the Western societies critical thinking is required to lead a successful life
based on pragmatic and utilitarian grounds. Critical thinking in its secular mode is
entirely a worldly affair, undertaken purely to bring about changes in the world for
the purpose of this life. In Islam, to engage in critical thought is a moral
commitment and to be judged on it's moral worth independent of its success or
failures in this world. Allah (SWT) requires us to act morally; the success or
failure of such actions is entirely in His hands.
ISLAMIC CRITICAL THINKING
In Islam quot;enlightened thinkers” are known as Raushanfekran.
quot;Afalaa utadabbaroon al-Quran? (4:82)quot; Do they not do tadabbur in the Quran?
So says Allah in the Quran. Tadabbur means highly concentrated goal-oriented
critical thinking like the way scientists do when challenged to find something
new or when they embark upon solving a difficult problem.
Qur'anic view of creative reflection is called al-Basira. In Islam Ijtihad or
independent thinking is used as a principle of creative and critical thinking;
rationality and scientific rationality in a secular perspective.
The Quran encourages us over and over again to think, reflect, ponder,
understand and analyse. However, very rarely do parents encourage children
to question. Our response to difficult inquiries from our children is to say quot;do it
because I said so.quot; This discourages the children from developing critical
thinking. They become lazy and complacent and easy prey to cult type following.
To take things at face value makes us vulnerable.
Reason is the common bond of all humans, a means of connecting to the world
and to others, the same reason through which Plato and Aristotle communicated
their views. Reason and intellect represent the only way of understanding this
world, even though this understanding is too relative to guide us to ultimate
truths. Our great thinkers, while aware of the indispensability of reason, knew
that reason alone could not discover all of reality. Our religious tradition claims
that it is ultimately faith of the heart, not the intellect, which comprehends the
whole of reality.
If we think of reason and faith as contradictory and opposed to one another,
because reason achieves more instrumental impact in this world, faith will be
sidelined. It is important to note that the faith I am talking about exists alongside
and parallel to reason, not in opposition to it.
Reason can merely take us to the gates of the afterlife. Even though it is aware
that the world is not limited to the material, it cannot go farther than this world. It
is here that faith must step in. Humans cannot do without reason in their lives as
they encounter practical matters, and if they have to choose between faith and
reason, they will choose the latter. Interpretations of the world based on reason
are relative, a relativity that also permeates our perceptions of religion. But if our
understanding of religious tradition and the Quran gets moribund (declining) and
in need of transformation, this does not mean that tradition and the Quran have
aged themselves. Our intellect is capable of adapting to the current world while
also remaining attuned to tradition and the Quran, such that the solid essence of
religion is not harmed. Our religious thinking is bound to evolve.
Due to the regime of taqlid or blind imitation, imposed in the name of religion
from about the 12th century until the end of the 19th century, the Muslims
swallowed the teachings of the so-called `Four Great Imams', even the wholesale
medieval theology and jurisprudence, in toto. There were many factors that gave
rise to this blind imitation regime of that period and we cannot discuss them here.
Nevertheless, it is important for us to realize that after nearly a hundred years
since the reopening of the door if ijtihad or critical thinking by Muhammad
Abduh's reform movement, this taqlid regime is still with us.
One should develop critical thinking ability in one's studies first: in science,
mathematics, computers, and economics, whatever subject one has chosen. If
you cannot develop this ability most probably you would not understand the
Quran. Also, understanding of the Quran is a long and hard and a lifelong
process. And it requires lot of patience and perseverance plus it demands
sacrifice. Therefore, you should first try to take few important verses of the Quran
(the ones dealing with human relationships and character building) and try to
integrate them in your life and studies. Of course it will be very hard and there will
be lot of temptations to skirt. But try to avoid them. But keep in mind that we are
human beings. We make mistakes. So, don’t feel too bad or don’t be too hard on
yourself if you make mistakes. Just make sure that next time you are careful.
Barriers to Critical Thinking
• Egocentrism (self-centered thinking):
– The one thing that unites all human beings, regardless of age,
gender, religion, economic status, or ethnic background, is that
deep down inside, we all believe that we are better than average
drivers (Dave Barry).
• Sociocentrism (group-centered thinking):
– When all think alike, no one is thinking (Walter Lippmann).
Bassham et al., 2002
It is based on unreliable knowledge, suspicious arguments. This type of
knowledge could be true or false but unpredictable.
Beliefs of non- critical thinkers are a collection ideas planted in them by
others. They tend to be easily manipulated, but are unaware that they
are being manipulated. Of course, if one told them they were being
manipulated, they would likely deny it.
Non-critical thinkers generally accept the beliefs which are easiest to
The non-critical thinker's beliefs usually conform to the group they most
strongly identify with and are most comfortable with.
Non-critical thinkers spout slogans which are programmed into them,
but they are unable to logically defend these positions. The positions are
simply accepted as true. Anyone who challenges the position will likely
be considered ignorant or a bigot. Any challenge to the position is
responded to with anger rather than intellectual consideration.
Anger (and sometimes violence) is a predictable response. Here's why.
First, the belief is part of the person holding it. It feels good to hold the
belief. People around the person also accept the belief, so they are
comfortable holding it. When the belief is challenged the person feels
threatened. It violates their quot;comfort zone.quot; Second, they are not
capable of reasoning properly about the claim. The inability to think
logically causes them to feel inadequate. Operating in a world of
emotions, the only response a non-critical thinker can have to
opposition is anger.
The only way to change the mind of a non-critical thinker is to
expose them to propaganda which enables them to feel more
comfortable about a new belief. If a new idea feels better to them than
the one they currently hold, they may change their mind. As the group
they identify with changes its collective mind, the non-critical thinker
will change their mind to conform.
Notice that truth has nothing to do with the non-critical thinker's
selection of beliefs. Emotions alone drive their quot;thinking.quot; It should be
quite clear that the non-critical thinker is potentially quite dangerous.
Non-critical thinkers are likely to make decisions which are bad for
themselves and for those around them. The thinking in their minds is
literally disconnected from reality. They can be manipulated by
propagandists into voting in blocks large enough to result in bad
decisions for society. Ultimately they can be organized into violent mobs
or even armies who can harm or kill those who disagree with them.
CRITICAL VS UN CRITICAL THINKING
Critical Thinking Non-Critical Thinking
shades of gray - strives black and white -
for depth superficial level
View of interdisciplinary un disciplinary
knowledge: knowledge is open knowledge is closed
intertwined with thinking independent of thinking
rational and consistent
strives to learn how to
stirves to learn what to
View of thinking: think
second hand think
multiple frames of
one or limited frame of
suspends closure strives for closure
Strategies for fair-minded ego-/ethnocentric/emotio
thinking: active nal
Critical Thinking in Business
Everyone has a native ability to think logically and critically; but many people,
including many small business owners, have never had the training or practice to
develop this capacity. Fortunately, it is an ability which people can easily master,
and the small business owner who has the capacity to see things from the points
of view of his customers is already well on his way. Instead of seeing things from
his own point of view or those of his customers, he now has to analyze situations
without a quot;point of view,quot; critically, in terms of the essential facts only. Based on
these essential facts, he can determine if any action should be taken and what
The key thing about critical analysis is that it has to take place in the absence of
personal wants or desires. The owner of the business will have all kinds of hopes
and desires regarding his business, but often the facts will not support them.
Critical analysis, instead of starting with, quot;I want this - how do I get there?quot; starts
with, quot;This is what we have - what can we do?quot; It's clear how this is the opposite
approach to the one intuitively taken by many people in response to challenges.
The advantage of the latter is that the success rate is much higher.
A typical situation for the small business owner is one where a potential customer
doesn't make a purchase and says that the product is of poor quality. A typical
reaction is to make changes to the product, often changes which the owner
wanted to make anyway. This may be positive, but it isn't the action which should
result from a critical analysis. The essential fact here is not that the product is of
poor quality, but that a customer has criticized the product. There are at least
three explanations possible: the product could be bad; the product could be good
but the customer ill-informed; or the customer might have been in a bad mood.
Since the three explanations would result in different actions, the only reasonable
action to be taken is to find out more. In a business framework, it would probably
be best to wait until the customer comes in again or another customer makes the
same comment. They could then be asked what they meant.
If the same customer had criticized the product, saying he couldn't make it work,
the small business owner might have dismissed this. It sounds like a problem
that's hard to fix and it's only one customer. Yet, the essential fact here is that the
product did not work for this customer. It's clear that the problem is with the
product and therefore changes in the product would be justified.
The biggest obstacle preventing many small business owners from clearly and
critically analyzing their challenges is that they are too involved in their
businesses on a personal level. If that's the case, it is also one of the problems
preventing their business from being as successful as it could be. They need to
step outside, analyze what they have and then choose those of the possible
resulting actions which will get them closer to their goals.
CRITICAL THINKING: AN OVERVIEW
Roll # 106-862
Ms. Iram Saba
HAJVERY UNIVERSITY LAHORE