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Political Parties
  Dr. Christopher S. Rice
What is a political party?
Political Party
     An ongoing coalition of
interests joined together in an
 effort to get its candidates for
 public offi...
2
Parties give citizens the
capacity to act together
Enables people from
 diverse backgrounds
with diverse interests to
 unite behind a single
       alternative
“It is the competition of [parties]
that provides the people with an
opportunity to make a choice.
Without this opportunit...
Party Coalition
the groups and interests
  that support a party
The Necessity of
   Coalitions
Democratic coalition tends to
draw from society’s “underdogs”
Democratic Party Coalition
•   Blacks           • Jews
•   union members    • Gays and
•   the poor           Lesbians
•  ...
Republican Party Coalition
• White, less-educated working-
  class (mostly male)
• Upper-class Protestants
• Southern evan...
Image (c) 2007 Young America Foundation
Republican Party Coalition
• GOP tends to do better in the
  suburbs, the South and
  Midwest, and among white
  fundament...
The Reagan Coalition
               Social
            Conservatives




   Fiscal                   Neo-
Conservatives   ...
Party Organization
 the formal organizational
apparatus of a political party
Roles and Functions of
   Party Organizations
• Primary purpose of a party
  organization is to run candidates
  for elect...
Some of these functions
are being taken over by 527
          groups
Nomination
selection of individual who will
run as the party’s candidate in
     the general election.
VS.
Change in Nomination Process
+
Decline in Patronage
__________________________
Decline in Party Organizations
VS.
Republicans:
Ahead of the Game?
Democrats:
Lagging Behind but Catching Up
Blogs & the
Emerging “Netroots”
3
Types of Party Systems
One-party system
  A political system in which
representatives of one political
 party hold all or almost all the
 major o...
Two-party system
  A political system in which
only two political parties have
     a realistic chance of
controlling the ...
Multi-party system
   A political system in which
 three or more political parties
effectively compete for political
office...
Why does the US have
 a two party system?
• Electoral Rules
• Restrictions on Minor
  Parties
• Attitudes of the American
...
Most democratic nations use a
proportional representation
          system.
United States uses a
Plurality, Single-Member District
              system
“Winner Takes All”
US system discourages rise of
        Third Parties




             (cc) 2005 Grant Neufeld - Creative Commons, Some Rights
Why does the US have
 a two party system?
• Electoral Rules
• Restrictions on Minor
  Parties
• Attitudes of the American
...
The major parties often establish rules
that make it difficult for other parties to
           get on the ballot.




     ...
Qualification rules for third-party
presidential candidates can create
      financial difficulties…
                      (c...
Suspension of the FCC’s “equal time” and
 “fairness doctrine” requirements creates
difficulties for third party candidates ...
Why does the US have
 a two party system?
• Electoral Rules
• Restrictions on Minor
  Parties
• Attitudes of the American
...
The broad belief
                                                  in The American
                                       ...
People grow comfortable with the
   system they are used to…

(cc) 2006 Mattias Berg - Some Rights Reserved
“Human institutions have an
impressive capacity to
perpetuate themselves, or
at least to preserve their
form.”

~V.O. Key
Minor parties in the
 two-party system
PROTEST       IDEOLOGICAL



Types of Minor Parties

SINGLE-ISSUE    SPLINTER
PROTEST       IDEOLOGICAL



Types of Minor Parties

SINGLE-ISSUE    SPLINTER
PROTEST       IDEOLOGICAL



Types of Minor Parties

SINGLE-ISSUE    SPLINTER
PROTEST       IDEOLOGICAL



Types of Minor Parties

SINGLE-ISSUE    SPLINTER
PROTEST       IDEOLOGICAL



Types of Minor Parties

SINGLE-ISSUE    SPLINTER
The Role of Minor Parties
Articulate and popularize
        new ideas
Allow people with grievances to
express themselves in a way not
possible within the major parties.
Minor parties are usually not as
 cautious as the major parties
• Tend to be loud, unambiguous about
  policies, ideologic...
Realignment
  When a new party system has
taken the place of the old system
because of a fundamental shift in
 the types o...
Realignment
Why are they caused?
Realignment
When do they tend to occur?
Critical elections?
1932
PS 101 Political Parties Summer 2008
PS 101 Political Parties Summer 2008
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PS 101 Political Parties Summer 2008

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PS 101 Political Parties Summer 2008

  1. 1. Political Parties Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. What is a political party?
  3. 3. Political Party An ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public office elected under a common label.
  4. 4. 2
  5. 5. Parties give citizens the capacity to act together
  6. 6. Enables people from diverse backgrounds with diverse interests to unite behind a single alternative
  7. 7. “It is the competition of [parties] that provides the people with an opportunity to make a choice. Without this opportunity popular sovereignty amounts to nothing.” - E.E. Schattschneider
  8. 8. Party Coalition the groups and interests that support a party
  9. 9. The Necessity of Coalitions
  10. 10. Democratic coalition tends to draw from society’s “underdogs”
  11. 11. Democratic Party Coalition • Blacks • Jews • union members • Gays and • the poor Lesbians • Urban dwellers • and other • Hispanics minorities
  12. 12. Republican Party Coalition • White, less-educated working- class (mostly male) • Upper-class Protestants • Southern evangelicals • Socially-conservative Catholics •
  13. 13. Image (c) 2007 Young America Foundation
  14. 14. Republican Party Coalition • GOP tends to do better in the suburbs, the South and Midwest, and among white fundamentalist Christians.
  15. 15. The Reagan Coalition Social Conservatives Fiscal Neo- Conservatives Conservatives
  16. 16. Party Organization the formal organizational apparatus of a political party
  17. 17. Roles and Functions of Party Organizations • Primary purpose of a party organization is to run candidates for election. • Aggregate Interests • Facilitate Participation • Simplify Alternatives • Stimulate Interest in Politics and Government
  18. 18. Some of these functions are being taken over by 527 groups
  19. 19. Nomination selection of individual who will run as the party’s candidate in the general election.
  20. 20. VS.
  21. 21. Change in Nomination Process + Decline in Patronage __________________________ Decline in Party Organizations
  22. 22. VS.
  23. 23. Republicans: Ahead of the Game?
  24. 24. Democrats: Lagging Behind but Catching Up
  25. 25. Blogs & the Emerging “Netroots”
  26. 26. 3 Types of Party Systems
  27. 27. One-party system A political system in which representatives of one political party hold all or almost all the major offices in government.
  28. 28. Two-party system A political system in which only two political parties have a realistic chance of controlling the major offices of government.
  29. 29. Multi-party system A political system in which three or more political parties effectively compete for political office and no one party can win control of all offices.
  30. 30. Why does the US have a two party system? • Electoral Rules • Restrictions on Minor Parties • Attitudes of the American Public
  31. 31. Most democratic nations use a proportional representation system.
  32. 32. United States uses a Plurality, Single-Member District system
  33. 33. “Winner Takes All”
  34. 34. US system discourages rise of Third Parties (cc) 2005 Grant Neufeld - Creative Commons, Some Rights
  35. 35. Why does the US have a two party system? • Electoral Rules • Restrictions on Minor Parties • Attitudes of the American Public
  36. 36. The major parties often establish rules that make it difficult for other parties to get on the ballot. (cc) 2006 Adrian Liem - Creative Commons Some Rights Reserved
  37. 37. Qualification rules for third-party presidential candidates can create financial difficulties… (cc) 2006 Steven Hoang - Some Rights Reserved
  38. 38. Suspension of the FCC’s “equal time” and “fairness doctrine” requirements creates difficulties for third party candidates to get invited to the debates. (cc) 2000 Ruby Sinreich - Some Rights Reserved
  39. 39. Why does the US have a two party system? • Electoral Rules • Restrictions on Minor Parties • Attitudes of the American Public
  40. 40. The broad belief in The American Creed leaves little room for parties outside the mainstream. (cc) 2006 Samuel Eichner - Some Rights Reserved
  41. 41. People grow comfortable with the system they are used to… (cc) 2006 Mattias Berg - Some Rights Reserved
  42. 42. “Human institutions have an impressive capacity to perpetuate themselves, or at least to preserve their form.” ~V.O. Key
  43. 43. Minor parties in the two-party system
  44. 44. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL Types of Minor Parties SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER
  45. 45. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL Types of Minor Parties SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER
  46. 46. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL Types of Minor Parties SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER
  47. 47. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL Types of Minor Parties SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER
  48. 48. PROTEST IDEOLOGICAL Types of Minor Parties SINGLE-ISSUE SPLINTER
  49. 49. The Role of Minor Parties
  50. 50. Articulate and popularize new ideas
  51. 51. Allow people with grievances to express themselves in a way not possible within the major parties.
  52. 52. Minor parties are usually not as cautious as the major parties • Tend to be loud, unambiguous about policies, ideologically committed. • Expand the scope of conflict in American politics. • Increase interest and attention among at least some segments of the public. • Bring a few more Americans into the political process.
  53. 53. Realignment When a new party system has taken the place of the old system because of a fundamental shift in the types of groups that support the parties.
  54. 54. Realignment Why are they caused?
  55. 55. Realignment When do they tend to occur?
  56. 56. Critical elections?
  57. 57. 1932

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