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Problems and new trends of land ownership and tenure ( ppt for cau 11 j une 2010)


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Problems and new trends of land ownership and tenure ( ppt for cau 11 j une 2010)

  1. 1. Problems and New Trends of Land Ownership and Tenure Across the World An Analysis from a Multidisciplinary Perspective Jim Riddell
  2. 2. Private Property: Magic answer? <ul><li>“ Dead Capital” </li></ul><ul><li>All OECD “rich” countries have it. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with ideas of “freedom”, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One corner of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social history and rise of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applicable everywhere? </li></ul> 2000
  3. 3. The same or different paths? <ul><li>Same goal, which route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing who has the rights to how much, for how long and for which purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: Range as common property resource, fishing, wood lots, irrigation As pooled resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current economic situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What new uses of rural space is available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Travel Source:
  4. 4. Whose problem are we solving? <ul><li>Identifying constraints </li></ul><ul><li>What do those with the problem propose? </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting our technical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>One size seldom fits all </li></ul>
  5. 5. Land market or investment <ul><li>Do we really want an active rural land market? </li></ul><ul><li>Stable, productive rural sector </li></ul><ul><li>Does new investment strengthen security or weaken it? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why do we create land rights? <ul><li>Three main reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions: new crops, new uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions: new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions: Rural living improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who uses the data on your rights? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planners/local government </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Security of tenure <ul><li>Who defines rights? </li></ul><ul><li>More than passing a law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who does the protecting? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rights for what purpose? <ul><li>How do we want the land used? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Village re-organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does everybody want to do the same thing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing v. production land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Investment potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer led </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert led </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market led </li></ul></ul>Source: FAO
  9. 9. Land Tenure Transactions <ul><li>What is “owned” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What rights do you have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partial interests: The dimensions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Area: easement, prescriptive and proscriptive uses, pooled resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time: sell, lease, use, seasonal, temporary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thirty years or how long? (market in remainders) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share: condominium, corporate, common, pooled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depth/height: trees, orchards, vines, solar, wind, wells, minerals, storage, utilities, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sticks in a bundle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Partial Interests in Land: The “Bundle of Rights” <ul><li>Development rights </li></ul><ul><li>Soil right </li></ul><ul><li>Air rights </li></ul><ul><li>Water rights </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral rights </li></ul><ul><li>Tree right </li></ul><ul><li>Fructus rights </li></ul><ul><li>Usus rights </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Residual </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal </li></ul><ul><li>Easements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Wind/Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Residual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Yet to be discovered </li></ul>Source: property Appraisal News
  11. 11. Partial interests normally reserved by society <ul><li>Taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Police Power </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency uses (flood, fire, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Eminent Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescriptive & Proscriptive uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setbacks, sidewalks, fire lanes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building permits, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TDR – PDR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coasts and waterways </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rights : how do we use them <ul><li>Must be used to be of value </li></ul><ul><li>“If you sit on your rights you are likely to lose them.” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from the Philippines and Romania </li></ul>
  13. 13. Land Policy <ul><li>Land policy deals with the rights that we put into each person’s bundle </li></ul><ul><li>What uses do we want to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage/discourage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Social/cultural </li></ul>Source: Jornal o Expresso
  14. 14. Land Policy is Expensive: high administrative costs <ul><li>Increasing number of players </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand for government action </li></ul><ul><li>Use constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of sticks in the bundle </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical power, information, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized / decentralized </li></ul>
  15. 15. Keeping them on the farm <ul><li>Many countries have tried </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote with feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt: guaranteed income for degree holding farm families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia: larger industrial farms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Red Line” of 1.8b mu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household registration system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distortion of land values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consignment to poverty? </li></ul></ul>Egypt: land reclamation village FEDERAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (FELDA): Malaysia
  16. 16. Preserving Agricultural land <ul><li>Holland, Sweden, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandated planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict land use controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory purchase agricultural value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with zoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to abuse in variances, bribery, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive to enforce </li></ul></ul>Village renewal in Germany. Juhnde
  17. 17. Land Conservation Source: Source: IFAD
  18. 18. Land Reclamation: Creating new rights Source:
  19. 19. Brownfield Redevelopment Source: Iowa DNR
  20. 20. Rethinking a Rural Future Who wants to be a farmer? <ul><li>Access to Information and research </li></ul><ul><li>Public environment that encourages entrepreneurial activities </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of a critical mass of SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>Networks for the exchange of experience and know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and geographical isolation, real or perceived. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sequence <ul><li>LIS (what is where, where is what) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic adjudication/Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use Plan (local) </li></ul><ul><li>Land use framework/zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Land consolidation and reorganization </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Cadastre (physical description) </li></ul><ul><li>Registration (description of rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Land reclamation/conservation </li></ul><ul><li>New planning and investment </li></ul><ul><li>New kinds of rights? </li></ul>