Kramer land use

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Kramer land use

  1. 1. Land Use Change: Impacts on Ecosystem Services(or why we need to plan)<br />Liz Kramer<br />Director- Natural Resources Spatial Analysis Laboratory<br />
  2. 2. What is Green Space?<br />It Depends on Who You Ask!<br />To a Conservationist<br />To a Recreation Director<br />
  3. 3. What is Green Space?<br />Agriculture<br />Forest<br /> MANY TYPES OF GREEN SPACE<br />Active &<br />Passive Recreation<br />Critical Habitat<br />Buffers<br />
  4. 4. What is Green Space?<br />As there are many types of Green Space,<br />when planning for it or purchasing it, be <br />clear as to its intended use and management<br />Farm Preservation?<br />Buffer Areas<br /> Habitat Protection<br />
  5. 5. What is Green Space?<br />“Green Space” must therefore be clearly defined for public discussions<br />Natural Corridor<br />Recreation Trail<br />or<br />
  6. 6. Conservation<br />The act or process of conserving<br />Preservation or restoration from loss, damage or neglect.<br />The protection, preservation, management or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources, such as forest soil or water.<br />The maintenance of a physical quantity such as energy or mass during a physical or chemical change.<br />American Heritage Dictionary of the English language 4thedition<br />Conservation = Environmental Protection <br />
  7. 7. Conservation is not a new Concept<br />Conservation is a state of harmony between men and nature Aldo Leopold<br />Conservation means the wise use of the earth and its resources for the lasting good of men Gifford Pinchot<br />The conservation of natural resources is the fundamental problem. Unless we solve that problem it will avail us little to solve all others Theodore Roosevelt - 1906<br />
  8. 8. Environmental Protection: Do our current tools meet the needs for the future?<br />Land Acquisition – <br /><ul><li>How much is enough?
  9. 9. Area = environmental quality?</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Protection: Do our current tools meet the needs for the future?<br />Regulation – What we do with or on the land<br /><ul><li>Regulation sets basements not ceilings
  10. 10. Most environmental degradation is due to population and choices
  11. 11. Blunt tool and heavy handed</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Protection: do our current tools meet the needs of the future?<br />New ideas<br />Incentives, markets, and education<br />New players, new tools, different scales<br />Devolved responsibility from fed, to state, to local governments<br />Process based, public input is critical<br />Must make economic sense for land owner, government, and community<br />
  12. 12. Ecosystem Services<br />Benefits people obtain from ecosystems<br />Provisioning services<br />Food, water, fuel, and fiber<br />Regulating and supporting services<br />Climate, water, disease regulation, and pollination<br />Soil formation, nutrient cycling, and decomposition<br />Cultural services<br />Educational, aesthetic, cultural heritage, recreation and tourism<br />
  13. 13. Green Infrastructure<br />“the substructure or underlying foundation, especially the basic installations and facilities on which the continuation and growth of a community depend” <br />gray infrastructure - roads, sewers, utility lines, hospitals, schools, prisons, etc<br />Green infrastructure – waterways, wetlands, woodlands, wildlife habitats, natural areas, greenways, working farms, ranches and forests, wilderness, etc.<br />
  14. 14. Positive Impacts of Green Space<br />Environmental Impacts<br />Decrease stormwater runoff & improved water quality<br />Protection of wildlife habitat and wildlife<br /> Keeping working landscapes (forest & farm)<br />Improved air quality<br />Reduces contributes to climate change<br />Economic Impacts<br />Social Impacts<br />
  15. 15. Positive Impacts of Green Space<br />Environmental Impacts<br />Economic Impacts<br />Increase property values & tax base in cities<br />Lower taxes for community services in suburbs<br />Lower construction and maintenance cost<br />Lower health care costs <br />Social Impacts<br />
  16. 16. Positive Impacts of Green Space<br />Environmental Impacts<br />Economic Impacts<br />Social Impacts<br />Increase in economic opportunity<br />Improved feeling of sense of place and community<br />More access to open space<br />Increased social interaction (“public life”)<br />Less traffic and shorter commutes<br />Inner-city redevelopment<br />
  17. 17. Why Manage Growth?<br />Some growth will come to your city or county whether you want it or not.<br />Some growth won’t come to your city or county no matter what you do.<br />Then there is a middle ground you can impact<br />This part will decide your fate<br />
  18. 18. Economic Benefits of Farm and Forest Lands<br />These lands produce valuable products for consumers, generate jobs and tax revenues<br />1/6 of all jobs and gross state product in GA<br />These lands attract businesses and families<br />These lands also provide a net surplus to local government finances<br />
  19. 19. Economic Benefits of Green Space<br />Green spaces increase property values of surrounding land<br />Green and open spaces can provide environmental amenities for free<br />If green spaces contribute to quality of life, you attract people and jobs to community<br />
  20. 20. Development by Type<br />Many counties and cities think that growth and development mean an increasingtaxbase and better financial health for the local government.<br />Unfortunately a growing tax base is not enough to guarantee financial health, you must get revenue to grow faster than expenditures.<br />
  21. 21. Revenues to Cost by Land Use<br />Using results compiled by AFT, the national averages are:<br />Residential: $0.87<br />Commercial/Industrial: $3.45<br />Farm/Forest/Open: $2.70<br />These figures are $’s of revenue for each $1 of expenditures.<br />
  22. 22. Some Southeastern US ResultsRevenue:Expenditure Ratios<br />
  23. 23. Manufactured Housing<br />
  24. 24. Break-even Home Values<br />
  25. 25. Development Patterns<br />Development patterns have an impact on the cost of service delivery: sprawl is expensive to service.<br />The same growth done more densely and contiguously saves both money, farmland, and provides environmental amenities.<br />New Jersey, South Carolina, California studies<br />
  26. 26. How to Change the Numbers<br />Cost of service goes down by 50% of land savings (use half the land, save 25%).<br />Avoid leapfrog development.<br />Build where infrastructure already exists (infill is much cheaper than extensive growth).<br />Multifamily is less expensive per unit until density gets very high.<br />Design so service costs are low.<br />
  27. 27. Jobs, Commuting, and Home<br />31% if workers in Rural South work in a different county than where they live.<br />52% of employment growth in metro areas was from in-commuters.<br />27% of employment growth in rural areas was from in-commuters.<br />jobs ≠ housing growth<br />Source: Mitch Renkow, NC State<br />
  28. 28. Changing the Numbers<br />The ways to change the numbers sure sound a lot like the LCI concept <br />Commutes would be short<br />Density would be higher<br />Sometimes done as infill or redevelopment<br />
  29. 29. Knowing where not to build is as important as where to build<br />Green space planning identifies where not to build and allows us to take advantage of nature in providing key services<br />
  30. 30. 1734 Georgia Colony<br />
  31. 31. Circa 1732<br />
  32. 32. Circa 1831<br />
  33. 33. Railroad and<br />County Map <br />Of Georgia<br />1920<br />
  34. 34. State Highway<br />Map 1939<br />
  35. 35. Thomas County<br />1895<br />Gwinnett County 1912<br />Franklin County 1956<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Land Cover Change 1974 - 2008<br />
  40. 40. 1974 -2005 Ag Change Statewide<br />
  41. 41. Distribution of Converted Ag Lands<br />
  42. 42. Tree Canopy Change<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Results from Ben Map Models(EPA)<br />
  47. 47. Forest Fragmentation <br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Impervious Change: Top 10 Counties in Acres Per Day<br />1991 – 2001<br />Gwinnett (6)<br />Fulton (5)<br />Cobb (4)<br />DeKalb (2)<br />Forsyth (1)<br />Clayton (1)<br />Henry (1)<br />Chatham (1)<br />Cherokee (1)<br />Richmond (1)<br />2001 – 2005<br />Gwinnett (9)<br />Fulton (8)<br />Cobb (6)<br />DeKalb (5)<br />Henry (4)<br />Clayton (3)<br />Chatham (3)<br />Paulding (3)<br />Cherokee (3)<br />Muscogee (2)<br />
  52. 52. Top 10 Impervious Surface as Percent of County<br />
  53. 53. Water Balance<br />Pre-development<br />Post-development<br />
  54. 54. Urban Hydrograph<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Urban Growth Modeling<br />SLEUTH - Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban-extent, Transportation, Hillshade<br />Brute-force simulations<br />Types of growth – spontaneous growth, new spreading centers, edge growth, and road-influenced growth<br />Growth coefficients – dispersion, breed, spread, slope, and road gravity<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Scenarios<br />Current Trends<br />Future Land Use Alternative<br />Service Delivery - Cluster Alternative<br />
  59. 59. Current Trends Scenario Exclusion<br />
  60. 60. Future Land Use Scenario Exclusion<br />
  61. 61. Service Delivery – Clustered Scenario Exclusion<br />
  62. 62. Scenario Results<br />(1)<br />(2)<br />(3)<br />
  63. 63. Scenario Comparison<br />Current Trends Scenario<br />2001: 13% urban, 4.3% impervious<br />2025: 33% urban, 6.7 % impervious<br />Future Land Use Scenario<br />2001: 13% urban, 4.3% impervious<br />2025: 31% urban, 6.4% impervious<br />Service Delivery Cluster Scenario<br />2001: 13% urban, 4.3% impervious<br />2025: 26% urban, 5.8% impervious<br />
  64. 64. Pettit Creek Simulated Hydrograph<br />
  65. 65. 1<br />2<br />3<br />
  66. 66. Is all land the same? <br />
  67. 67. Georgia encompasses 37 million acres of land<br />
  68. 68.
  69. 69. If you can read this you’re pretty much screwed<br />
  70. 70. Where are the forests, farms, and wetlands that:<br /><ul><li>have the highest values related to water quality, habitat, economy, and culture?
  71. 71. are most vulnerable to loss?</li></ul>Based on the above, what are the highest priority areas to preserve?<br />Resource Lands Assessment<br />
  72. 72. Habitat Preservation & Connectivity <br /> (“Critical Habitats”)<br />Habitat fragmentation is a serious threat to biological diversity and is the primary cause of the present extinction crisis.<br />Watershed Protection (“Water quality”)<br />Our watersheds not only provide us with quality drinking water, but also provide healthy streams for fishing and swimming. <br /> Why are we doing this?<br />
  73. 73. ?<br />Economic Sustainability of Forests <br />Protecting the best forests helps maintain a strong, resource-based economy.<br />Preservation of Quality Farm Land <br /> (“Economic Viability”)<br />Protecting the best farm land enables crop production for many generations to come.<br />Why are we doing this?<br />
  74. 74. Cultural Viability<br />Preserving heritage and traditional values, cultural lands often define a sense of place.<br />Understanding Development Pressures<br />Large tracts of forests, wetlands, and farmlands are threatened with fragmentation and parcelization due to urban development pressures.<br />Why are we doing this?<br />
  75. 75. Declining Environmental Quality<br />Polluted air and drinking water can lead to devastating health problems and degrades overall quality of life.<br />Nutrient Cap Maintenance<br />Nutrient reductions will have to be capped despite expected growth in the region.<br />Why are we doing this?<br />
  76. 76. Green Infrastructure Approach<br />Southeastern<br />Ecological<br />Framework<br />
  77. 77. Introduction to Resource Land Assessment<br />What is it?<br />Where are the lands that:<br />Have the highest values related to water quality, habitat, economy, culture, etc.?<br />Are most vulnerable to loss<br />Based on the above, what are the highest priority areas to preserve?<br />
  78. 78. Landscape Models<br /><ul><li>Ecological Network (hubs and corridors)
  79. 79. Water Quality/Quantity
  80. 80. Forest Economics
  81. 81. Air Quality
  82. 82. Biodiversity/Wildlife
  83. 83. Cultural Assets
  84. 84. Prime Farmland
  85. 85. Vulnerability</li></li></ul><li>Can define many different types of nodes (cores) and hubs<br />
  86. 86. Model Overview<br /><ul><li>Goal
  87. 87. Assumptions
  88. 88. Data
  89. 89. Approach
  90. 90. Results</li></li></ul><li>Ecological Network<br />(Hubs and Corridors)<br />Goal<br />Identify, evaluate, and prioritize an interconnected network of the best remaining examples of forest and wetland habitat. <br />
  91. 91. Ecological Network<br />(Hubs and Corridors)<br />Data Layers<br /><ul><li>Land Cover
  92. 92. Streams
  93. 93. Wetlands
  94. 94. Roads
  95. 95. Protected Lands
  96. 96. Biological Conservation Database (element occurrence points)</li></li></ul><li>Ecological Network<br />(Hubs and Corridors)<br />Results<br />
  97. 97. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Goal<br />Identify those forests and wetlands that, if lost, would have the greatest potential to compromise or degrade watershed and water quality. <br />
  98. 98. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Local or Site Factors<br />(“Content”)<br />Regional/Watershed Factors<br />(“Context”)<br />Assumptions<br />
  99. 99. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Approach<br />Assemble Data Layers<br />
  100. 100. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Approach<br />Assemble Data Layers<br />Assign Score to Values within Each Data Layer<br />
  101. 101. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Approach<br />Assemble Data Layers<br />Assign Score to Values within Each Data Layer<br />Assign Weights to Each Data Layer<br />
  102. 102. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Approach<br />Assemble Data Layers<br />Assign Score to Values within Each Data Layer<br />Assign Weights to Each Data Layer<br />Calculate Composite Score<br />
  103. 103. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Data Layers<br />Local Parameters<br />Proximity to Water<br />Erodible Soils <br />Net Primary Productivity <br />Slope <br />Wetland Function <br />Forest Fragmentation <br />100 Year Floodplains <br />Hydrogeomorphic Regions<br />Regional Parameters(summarized by HUC 11 watershed)<br />Stream Density (m/sq km) <br />Percent Forested <br />Percent Impervious <br />Water Quality Rank<br />Municipal Water Supplies<br />
  104. 104. Water Quality <br />Model<br />Loch Raven<br />Reservoir<br />Liberty<br />Reservoir<br />Baltimore <br />City<br />Results<br />
  105. 105. A green space planning process<br />A Model 12-Step Process<br />Creating a Draft Plan<br />1. Take charge<br />2. Conduct a Community Resource Inventory<br />3. Categorize green space areas by function<br />4. Review previous plans & documents<br />5. Develop clear objectives<br />6. Take an initial stab at priority areas for preservation<br />
  106. 106. A green space planning process<br />A Model 12-Step Process<br />Fine Tuning & Selling the Plan<br />7. Contact landowners that might be affected<br />8. Prioritize areas for conservation based on inventory, objectives, & landowner considerations<br />9. Create an inventory of priority parcels<br />10. Develop an implementation scheme, including fiscal plan, regulatory aspects, and procedures<br />11. Pepper the community with education<br />12. Fold the plan into appropriate plans and regulations<br />
  107. 107. A green space planning process<br />1. Take charge!!<br />Someone has to start a discussion<br />Someone has to take charge<br />Planning Commission<br />Develop a team<br />?<br />Greenspace Commission<br />Chamber of<br />Commerce<br />
  108. 108. A green space planning process<br />2. Conduct a Community Resource Inventory<br /><ul><li> committed open land
  109. 109. priority natural resource areas
  110. 110. areas that might be protected through regulation
  111. 111. unique historic, archeological, or aesthetic sites
  112. 112. areas suitable/desirable for future active recreational use</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />3. Categorize green space areas by function<br />1. Clean and abundant water<br />2. Clean air<br />3. Biodiversity protection<br />4. Cultural Identity<br />5. Outdoor recreation and education<br />
  113. 113. A green space planning process<br />4. Review Previous Plans & Documents<br /><ul><li> don’t waste time recreating the wheel
  114. 114. there is probably more out there than you think!</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />5. Develop clear goals & objectives<br /><ul><li> why is the plan being developed?
  115. 115. What type of green space does it address?
  116. 116. What will be the end result?</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />6. Take an initial stab at priority areas for conservation<br />objectives<br />inventory<br />Local political and fiscal realities<br />
  117. 117. A green space planning process<br />7. Contact landowners that might be affected<br /><ul><li> this should be done prior to any public discussion!
  118. 118. point out that their property has been identified as being important, after a careful study
  119. 119. explain that this is NOT a land grab!
  120. 120. determine their interest (or lack thereof) in preservation</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />8. Prioritize areas for conservation based on inventory, objectives, & landowner considerations<br />
  121. 121. A green space planning process<br />9. Create an Inventory of Priority Parcels<br /><ul><li> I.d. number
  122. 122. owner
  123. 123. reason for priority listing
  124. 124. assessed value</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />10. Develop an implementation scheme<br /><ul><li> what is the role of each “player”?
  125. 125. how will green space protection be funded?
  126. 126. what changes to regulations are needed?
  127. 127. what are the management needs of acquired properties?
  128. 128. what mechanisms are needed to keep implementation moving?</li></li></ul><li>10. Develop an implementation scheme<br />Preservation Techniques<br /><ul><li> fee simple purchase
  129. 129. fair market value sale
  130. 130. “bargain” sale
  131. 131. purchase of conservation restrictions (easements)
  132. 132. donation
  133. 133. outright
  134. 134. upon death by owner
  135. 135. with lifetime use
  136. 136. land exchange/foreclosure/eminent domain
  137. 137. regulation (zoning, subdivision dedication, etc.)</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />11. Pepper the community with education<br /><ul><li> Develop outreach materials
  138. 138. Hold proactive public meetings
  139. 139. Listen! Review & revise, if needed</li></li></ul><li>A green space planning process<br />12. Fold the plan into appropriate plans and regulations<br />Green Space Plan<br />Comprehensive Development Plan<br />Wetlands regs?<br />Zoning regs?<br />Sudivision regs?<br />
  140. 140. The Ideal Planning Process<br />Inventory<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />
  141. 141. Inventory<br />A Simple Example…<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />1. Inventory<br />Base Map<br />Land Cover<br />Wetlands<br />Water Resources<br />Unique/Fragile<br />Committed<br />
  142. 142. Inventory<br />A Simple Example…<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />1. Inventory<br />2. Analysis<br /><ul><li>Developed
  143. 143. Regulated
  144. 144. Committed OS</li></ul>Areas available to be developed inGRAY<br />
  145. 145. Developed, regulated, committed<br />Available<br />Inventory<br />A Simple Example…<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />1. Inventory<br />2. Analysis<br />3. Develop the Plan<br /><ul><li> ID Resources at Risk
  146. 146. Linkages
  147. 147. Windows/Additions</li></li></ul><li>Developed, regulated, committed<br />Available<br />Inventory<br />A Simple Example…<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />1. Inventory<br />2. Analysis<br />3. Develop the Plan<br /><ul><li> ID Resources at Risk
  148. 148. Linkages
  149. 149. Windows/Additions
  150. 150. ID Parcels
  151. 151. Prioritize</li></li></ul><li>Addition<br />Link Large Tracts<br /> Fill in windows<br />Inventory<br />A Simple Example…<br />Implementation<br />Analysis<br />Plan<br />1. Inventory<br />2. Analysis<br />3. Develop the Plan<br />4. Implementation<br /> Available<br /> Committed OS<br />
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  159. 159.
  160. 160.
  161. 161.
  162. 162. Questions?<br />

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