Land tenure and land use change

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Which actor holds the right to the land is going to determine how the resources will be used, so it follows that changes in tenure will have an influence on the landscape. This presentation uses various methods to look at the dynamic between land tenure and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon. This presentation was given during CIFOR’s Annual Meeting 2012, which was held on 1–5 October at the headquarters in Bogor, Indonesia.

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Land tenure and land use change

  1. 1. Land tenure and land use change Pablo Pacheco CIFOR, Annual Meeting 2012 October – Bogor, Indonesia THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Main issues on debate Which actor holds the right to the land is going to determine how the resources will be used Changes in tenure structures (or regimes) tend to influence on landscape change as result of land-use associated economic processes For effective policy responses is important not only to know more in-depth how tenure change takes place but also where that change occurs THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Tenure change and deforestation: Reconstructing land tenure change over time Redenção area: Land tenure change Mosaic for land allocation and SUDAM projectsHow previous decisions on landdistribution affect contemporary land 100% 12% 80% 9%tenure configurations? what are their 60% 6% 40% 3%main land-use impacts? 20% 0% 0% 1986 1992 1996 2000 2002 1986-92 1992-96 1996-00 2000-02 Smallholders Medium and large ranchers No identified Smallholders Medium and large ranchers No identified Contribution of agents by Annual rates of deforestationPacheco (2009) Environment and History 15(4):493-520 period in % by agent in % THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Land distribution and deforestation: Linking agricultural census and remote sensing data What are the interactions between state- led land reform and land-use change taking place in the Brazilian Amazon? The implications are heterogeneous since are related to the pre-existing social and economic configuration of the frontiers where land distribution takes place.Actor type derived from IBGE AgriculturalCensus 1995/96. It shows the dominance ofeither smallholders (< 100 ha), medium-scalelandholders (100 to 1,000 ha), or largeholders(> 1,000 ha). That information was overlaidwith INPE deforestation data by 2003.Pacheco (2009) World Development 37(8):1337-1347 Deforestation data obtained from INPE by 2003 THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Tenure and economic change: Looking at two points of time based on census dataWhat are the main tenure change dynamicstaking place—at a regional scale –and how arethey related to land-use decision making?Two simultaneous processes of extensification andintensification. These trends of change are associated toconcentration and fragmentation of landholdingsPacheco and Poccard-Chapuis (2012). Annals of the AAG 102(6) THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Actor and frontier types: Implications from differential interactions Land use in the BLA (2006) What are the land use dynamics related to different actor and frontier types in the agricultural frontiers in Brazilian Amazon? There is a greater accumulated deforestation in landscapes that are dominated by large-scale landholders but deforestation intensity is growing in those where smallholders are the predominant actor.ACTOR TYPE HDI in 2000 by frontier type Agricultural GDP per unit of land by frontier type FRONTIER TYPE THINKING GeoForum.43(4): 864–874, Pacheco (2012).beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Land distribution at national level: Looking at tenure at the property / territorial unit level What is the emerging tenure structure from Land distribution in Para and lowland Bolivialand regularization in a context of competing Thousand hectares In percentsrights claims among diverse social actors? Tenure type Para Lowland Para Lowland Bolivia Bolivia Smallholders 27,329 6,479 22.4 7.8 Medium- and large-scale landholders 34,023 22,998 27.9 27.7 Community lands 8,091 5,973 6.6 7.2 Indigenous territories 27,368 13,424 22.5 16.2 Public land identified 24,954 15,534 20.5 18.7 Forest concessions 4,409 - 5.3 Protected areas 14,096 - 17.0 TOTAL 121,764 82,912 100.0 100.0 Lowland Bolivia Temporal variation in land-cover change by actor type in lowland BoliviaState of Para, Brazil Pacheco and Benatti (in preparation) THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. Potential and limitations Outcomes depend on spatial and temporal resolution of socio-economic and remote sensing data Increasing availability of more disaggregated data over time makes able to produce more accurate assessment of tenure configurations and LUC Census data provides a good understanding of land tenure configurations, and associated processes related to land privatization and commoditization Census or remote sensing data requires to be complemented with analysis of social arrangements and bundles of rights associated to land tenure THINKING beyond the canopy

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