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Sharing experiences in landscape approaches

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Presentation by Cora van Oosten on the concept of ‘landscape’ and the landscape approach

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Sharing experiences in landscape approaches

  1. 1. Sharing experiences in landscape Approaches Yogyakarta, December 2009) Cora van Oosten, Cora.vanoosten@wur.nl
  2. 2. What is a landscape? <ul><li>Imagine a landscape... </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reading landscapes
  4. 4. Reading landscapes
  5. 5. Reading landscapes
  6. 6. Reading landscapes
  7. 7. Reading landscapes
  8. 8. Reading landscapes
  9. 9. Reading landscapes
  10. 11. “ Mind” scape
  11. 12. “ Mind” scape
  12. 13. “ Mind” scape
  13. 14. “ Mind” scape
  14. 15. Definition of a landscape <ul><li>“ scape” or “schap”: </li></ul><ul><li>View, appearance, shape, creation </li></ul><ul><li>Social construct which changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>Property, archaic form of governance </li></ul>
  15. 16. Definition of a landscape <ul><li>Neef (1967): &quot;a landscape is a concrete part of the earth's surface shaped by uniform structure and same process pattern&quot;   </li></ul>
  16. 17. Definition of a landscape <ul><li>Turner (2001): “ spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems, ranging from relatively natural terrestrial and aquatic systems such as forests, grasslands and lakes to human-dominated environments including agricultural, urban    (   and industrial   )   settings&quot; .   </li></ul>
  17. 18. Multi-functional mosaics
  18. 19. <ul><li>Defined by its core, not by its boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Its definition lies in the eyes of the beholder (Maginnis, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of “space” rather than “place” </li></ul><ul><li>Characterised by its internal processes </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by external factors (change drivers) </li></ul><ul><li>Processes steered by stakeholders, and their drivers behind </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily co-incides with administrative boundaries </li></ul>Elements to take into account
  19. 20. Does the landscape approach offer something new? <ul><li>Response to: </li></ul><ul><li>Previous attempts to plan development </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of central states, new scope for local stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Search for stronger regional identities </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change: shorter production chains </li></ul>
  20. 21. Landscape approach <ul><li>Making use of existing experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralised NRM </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory land use planning </li></ul><ul><li>Community forestry </li></ul>
  21. 22. See the bigger picture
  22. 23. Taking a landscape
  23. 24. Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness
  24. 25. Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness What are the claims?
  25. 26. Which are the options? Well forested catchment Rich biodiversity High value timber Attractive scenery, tourism Ancestral homeland Subsistence farm land Commercial farm land Biofuel production Grazing land Human settlement Sub-soil richness What are the claims? Who are the claimants?
  26. 27. What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force
  27. 28. What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force Population growth Climate change Demand for (bio)fuels Increased Interest in biodiversity Growing demand Animal feed Increased mobility Globalisation Need for minerals Commodity prices up Increased exploitation Direct foreign investments Land grabbing Growing food demand
  28. 29. What drives them? District policy Need for money Power relations education Empowerment Need for firewood Local Market prices Food needs Ability to invest Land ownership Land pressure Labour force Population growth Climate change Demand for (bio)fuels Increased Interest in biodiversity Growing demand Animal feed Increased mobility Globalisation Need for minerals Commodity prices up Increased exploitation Direct foreign investments Land grabbing Growing food demand Competing claims
  29. 30. Drivers at multiple levels and multiple scales Giller et al, 2008
  30. 31. Glocalisation
  31. 32. Exercise <ul><li>Go back to your “own” landscape </li></ul><ul><li>What is the major change process? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major drivers behind? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major impacts of this change? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the responses to this change? </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Change – Driver – Response </li></ul>Landscape dynamics From destruction to restoration?
  33. 34. What is the difference?
  34. 35. Simple and complex systems Cooking Simple Predictable Recipe Landscape Complex Not predictable Research Social learning Scenarios Adaptive management Puzzle Simple Predictable Single solution Trial & error Machine Complicated Not predictable Guidelines Problem tree Planning
  35. 36. Complicated Complex Chaotic Simple Source: Cognitive Edge ( www.cognitive -edge.com) Cynefin Framework
  36. 37. Mismatches in levels and scales Bio-geographical scales governance scales juridical scales Individual family Community Country Region Municipality Local provincial National International Province/district department municipal
  37. 38. <ul><li>Not easy to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot easily be controlled or planned </li></ul><ul><li>Can be influenced </li></ul><ul><li>By addressing the entire system </li></ul><ul><li>From planning to emergence </li></ul><ul><li>Co-design </li></ul>A landscape is...
  38. 39. From planning to co-design Planned Co-design Emergent
  39. 40. From planning to co-design <ul><li>participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and adaptive </li></ul><ul><li>Creating synergies across boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for “win-win” options </li></ul><ul><li>Creating positive environment to learn </li></ul>
  40. 41. From planning to co-design Describe Resources, stakeholders, institutions Discover Processes, driving factors, scales, changes, responses Deliver Implement, monitor, learn Design Multi-stakeholder process Mediation, negotiation & trade-offs
  41. 42. Governance Conflict Protection Production From planning to co-design Describe Resources, stakeholders, institutions Discover Processes, driving factors, scales, changes, responses Deliver Implement, monitor, learn Design Multi-stakeholder process Mediation, negotiation & trade-offs
  42. 43. What is new about this? <ul><li>Introducing new understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing new planning perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing new forms of collaborative action </li></ul>
  43. 44. Planning....
  44. 45. Co-design....
  45. 46. Thinking in systems
  46. 47. Thinking in systems
  47. 48. Thinking in systems
  48. 49. Thinking in systems
  49. 50. Thinking in systems – “systems thinking” <ul><li>Flows and feedback loops </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic interventions </li></ul>Dynamic aspects Non-linear aspects Entangled inter-relations Delay
  50. 51. Flows and feedback loops
  51. 52. Perspectives
  52. 53. Inter-relations
  53. 54. Perceptions
  54. 55. P erceptions
  55. 56. Boundaries
  56. 57. Boundaries
  57. 58. Boundaries
  58. 59. Systemic interventions
  59. 60. Systemic interventions Dynamic aspects Non-linear aspects Entangled inter-relations Delay
  60. 61. Expect the unexpected....

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