Smalltalks2013 nov 1for ss

302 views

Published on

smalltalks, coding, squeak, education, dispositions, learning to learn

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
302
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • THANK YOU FOR INVITING ME! I’m honored to be here with such an esteemed group of thinkers.I hope to convey some historical perspectives on educaion and learning using technologies, how their time has really come with the convergence of thoughts on school reform, the spread of the priesthood of programming to the masses, and the height of our technological innovations, and give information about some new theories of learning and culture and technological innovations for learning.How does this affect programmers, developers?
  • Children embrace play as part of how they experience the worldQuestioning-one of the ways to understand their worldImagination– why game???
  • “reactive,” “initiative,” “perseverance, stamina, steadfastness, and resilience,” “access to resources,” “an ability to identify and overcome hurdles,” and “being quick to act early.”AGENCY IN ACTION--less to do with generic empowerment, and more to do with contextual issues, such as an ability to overcome obstacles, persevere in the face of uncertainty, and an almost cunning ability to seize opportunities and navigate complex waters.
  • MASSIVE INFORMATION NETWORK providing almost unlimited access and resources to learn about ANYTHINGBounded and structured environment that allows for unlimited AGENCY to build and experiment within those boundaries
  • MASSIVE INFORMATION NETWORK providing almost unlimited access and resources to learn about ANYTHINGBounded and structured environment that allows for unlimited AGENCY to build and experiment within those boundaries
  • MASSIVE INFORMATION NETWORK providing almost unlimited access and resources to learn about ANYTHING—in the 90’s I used the idea of Kinkos and the library—now it is our internet worldBounded and structured environment that allows for unlimited AGENCY to build and experiment within those boundaries
  • Love etoysWhy is scratch suddenly more successful--
  • Five year studyApprenticeship learningDesign learningcame to understand their own learning experience and performance, as well as gender differences and gender-related choices in design. Team composition structures changed in order to evaluate gender influences and old-timer and apprentice models.
  • New culture– people learn through INTERACTION AND PARTICIPATION in fluid relationships and shared interestsLearning from others NOT NEW—but often ignored in formal educational settingsCollege living– example– learning is governed by classroom, being in study groups, learning more from their environment 24/7COLLECTIVE—one can consume much informaiton, and able to add one’s own – the collective— teachers not always needing to scramble for latest infor– students active in creating and molding, esp. SOCIAL InformationCOLLECTIVE is a community—an ACTIVE not passive ONEYOU BELONG IN ORDER TO LEARN IN a communityCollective– YOU BELONG IN ORDER TO LEARN
  • Personal story—passion and followed itHow you help kids to do the same thingI could see that kids would get engaged and learn from it—began developing curr and piloting it
  • Disney ImagineeringViewpoints
  • Give a man a fish and feed him for a day.Teach a man to fish, and feed him as long as there are fish.Create a collective and every man and woman will learn how to feed him or herself for a LIFETIME.
  • Teacher, no teacher non-mediated
  • Applied to systems you are buildingParticipattion– collaborative software and applicationsTransparency– want users to be able to see what their software is doing and why—eg invoice mgmt pro. Asking for signature—want to be able to see the options that your boss can sign it, or secretary, but you need to know why—need to know the next stage—you can call someone and checkEthics—an analagous focus in software design is security– certain things you can guarantee and why and howSecurity—partly from outside threats-defensive—but, also involved in INTEGRITY—rigorousness of the design-with logic and with current computer systems we are starting to ap[roach that.game making is gaining popularity as a learning activity directly employed by schools [Salen, 2009
  • MAKERS MOVEMENTS– amaking programs—learning to code quickly in a dayIMPORTANT- the recent direction in our culture toward consumption—producing products that are increasingly monolithic but also not transparent (like cars) soA really important thing to teach people is HOW THINGS WORKComplicated problems can be broken down and solvedThe maker movement is about an opportunity to build things from scratch and see how all the parts work together to make the whole.Eg. Relevant—why teaching CS is relevant
  • Brian in Japan
  • Harvard is in BostonI was in Los Angeles at UCLABrian Nelson, PHD student and ActiveWorlds server were in JAPAN
  • HistoryScience Cal Tech
  • No core or center in a collectiveDesign based learning, project based learning Collectives generally share BELIEFS and VALUES about the world, their placeValue PARTICIPATION over BELONGINGENGAGE in set of shared practicesDesign based learning– learning by design my background– many projects with LOGO and with SQUEAK ETOYS as basic TOOL for creating artifacts of inquiry
  • LEARNING is an invironment– school environment must blend, or it will fail to blend with the freedom and the wealth of the digital network learning is ORGANIC,
  • 1.Teaching based– culture is the environment, Learning based-culture EMERGES from the environment—it GROWS along with it— digital medias provide access to rich sources of information and PLAY2. Teaching based-teaches ABOUT the worldLearning based– focuses on learning through engagement WITHIN the world3. teaching- students PROVE they “GET IT”Learning– EMBRACE what we DON’T YET KNOW, ask questions, learn more and more—take the world and make it part of ourselves
  • SCRATCH---digital citizenship through immersion—being kind, giving credit, remixing only if 3 big things change—teaching CITIZENSHIP
  • School culturepromote innovation and excellence in education through research, outreach, and teaching and learning. We are dedicated to addressing the needs of children from diverse backgrounds. We value teaching and learning environments that honor each child's natural joy of learning. We encourage creativity and support a disciplined approach to intellectual inquiry. We are a caring community of learners--students, teachers, staff, and families. We are committed to educating the whole child.
  • Educator daysResearchManaging information
  • Education—traditional– information is transferred from teacher to student-Existence of knowledge that is worth communicating and DOESN’T CHANGE OVER TIME give a man a fish---assumes an endless supply of fishSOME IDEAS< FACTS< CONCEPTS that this is true for BUT—tell story of new neurons in teaching Neuroscience— nature of science itself fewer and fewer things that are fish anymoreTECHNOLOGY- Bell Labs first color signal for tv in 1929– 70 years for widespread adoption (by 1999, 68% of US house had a tv—all you had to do is buy a tv Internet— 1997-18% home access, 2001—50%, 2006-65%, 2008– 73% 10 years—diff comp, OS, different email clients, infrastructure changes
  • Education—traditional– information is transferred from teacher to student-Existence of knowledge that is worth communicating and DOESN’T CHANGE OVER TIME give a man a fish---assumes an endless supply of fishSOME IDEAS< FACTS< CONCEPTS that this is true for BUT—tell story of new neurons in teaching Neuroscience— nature of science itself fewer and fewer things that are fish anymoreTECHNOLOGY- Bell Labs first color signal for tv in 1929– 70 years for widespread adoption (by 1999, 68% of US house had a tv—all you had to do is buy a tv Internet— 1997-18% home access, 2001—50%, 2006-65%, 2008– 73% 10 years—diff comp, OS, different email clients, infrastructure changes
  • 7 books over 10 yearsHarry Potter fans join an online community engaged in ongoing conversations to connect with like-minded enthusiasts and experts. Through contributions to wikis, blogs, and online forums, readers change the culture by participating in it. Readers learn the stories via the books and explore the meaning of the novels through active engagement with others online in rich, participatory cultural contexts.They organized meetings, conventions, formed discussion and reading groupsREAL LEARNING??– not WHAT but HOW– no teacher, yet engaged in deep, sustained learning from one another—Each new book—LEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  • PIAGET—play was the means children learned from
  • PIAGET—play was the means children learned from
  • Traditional approaches to learning can no longer cope with a constantly changing world.Balance between structure that edinstitutioons provide and freedom afforded by new mediaWITHOUT LOSING A SENSE OF PURPOSE AND DIRECTIONSIMPLY UNLEASHING STUDENTS ON THE INTERNET doesn’t solve the problem any more than lecturing and testing them more doesMarry the structure and freedoms to CREATE SOMETHING NEW
  • WANT TO TALK BRIEFLY ABOUT SOME OF THE SKILLS AND DISPOSITIONS FOR THIS NEW LEARNER, then well come back to the principles of learning
  • http://www.p21.org/Many different lists
  • Everything he talked about, from MOOCs to climate models to personal assistants, is benefiting from this and will continue to do so.”invested a lot of money into the education field (to the chagrin of some experts), including strong support of Massive Open Online Course, or MOOC, startups such as the Khan Academy.Gates acknlowedged during the session that some of his work might have unintended, negative consequences, but not this one. “In the education space,” he responded to a question from the audience, “I frankly don’t see that much of a downside.”
  • Free, public education was a revolutionary idea that changed our cultures.The habits of mind required and cultivated by the 19th c curriculum of mass schoolingDEFERENCE, UNQUESTIONING ACCEPTANCE OF AUTHORITY, NEATNESS, PUNCTUALITY, ACCURATE RECAPITULATION, AND SEQUESTERED PROBLEM SOLVING.
  • education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning. hands-on learning or experiential education, which is related to, but not synonymous with experiential learning. Problem-Based Learning (PBL),teacher's role should be that of facilitator and guide. This philosophy has become an increasingly popular idea within present-day teacher preparatory programs.
  • LIFE CYCLE MODEL A MYTH?---through education of the young, for work during the middle years with, for the lucky few who survive, rest in oldage. …..model still dominates today. ls knowledge obtained in initial education no longer adequately prepare the youngfor the whole of their lives because changes in work and life generally mean many arerapidly outdated and new skills and updated knowledge needed. Confucius lived in asociety that changed little from generation to generation but we have moved fromworldcharacterised by Charles Dicken's novel "Dombey and Son", where childrenfollowed their parents into the same career, to the "Generation Gap" of the twentiethcentury, where children entered very different areas of work, to the sequential careerof the twenty-first, in which individuals move from job to job learning new skills asthey go. 20th Century - the technology, science, and inventions of the 10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80, and 90s.
  • Genuine life-long learning– 21C classrooms full offuturists have long argued the case for greater acknowledgement of the future inthe curriculum at all levels of education and at a number of occasions in the last halfcentury at least there seemed to be hope that a breakthrough might occur. A few examples of Futures programmes have endured but many have come and gone with theindividual enthusiasts that developed them. At the time of writing there are againsome new initiatives including a Masters degree at the Free University in Berlin andgrowing interest in business as indicated by the developments on Shaping tomorrow.com. Is it too much to hope that recognition may come at last?
  • Computer science is going to become part of the English Baccalaureate (EBacc), THE APPROACH TO rigorous computer science teaching in schools is supported by The British Computing Society (BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT), along with Microsoft, Google and Facebook.
  • 1. At UC—Irvine, students choose three courses from computer science, public health, economics, physics, biology, chemistry, earth science, philosophy, or international studies to meet their general education requirement in science and technology. 2.Each of the nearly 2,000 freshmen entering Georgia Institute of Technologyeach year must take a computer science course regardless of their major, says Charles Isbell, associate dean for academic affairs at the school's College of Computing.3. every student at Montclair State University in New Jersey must complete a computer science in order to graduate.
  • The president suggested that with the high interest in digital technology among young people it makes sense to teach skills like programming and graphic design in high school so that students can go on to pursue a career, with or without a four-year college degree.
  • Many stories in the news now about people pushing for coding.The skill of coding is no different from the skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a coding illiterate world where the skill of programming computers belongs to a priesthood.
  • FINALLY– the time has come--
  • Event withy code.org- US Based, but why not everywhere? One hour of coding—spread the word, be a missionary for the quest!
  • cultural sensations like the movie “The Social Network,” coders are hip and computer science is hot.
  • Movie about coding at code.org. To spread it around, you can download the 1 min, 5 min or 9 min version
  • http://www.codeyear.com/
  • In 1961, Alan Perlis made the argument that computer science should be considered part of a liberal education, and that everyone should learn to program M. Mitchell Waldrop in his book The Dream Machine (Viking: 2001) says that he made the argument that programming was a fundamental intellectual skill, like mathematics. He argued that computers “will participate in almost every intellectual transaction that goes on in the university.” Calculus is generally considered part of a liberal education—truly educated people know something significant about calculus. Calculus is the study of rates, and rates are important to many fields. Perlis argued that computer science is about process: Its specification, its execution, its composition, and its limitations. And process is important to everybody.
  • AbsolutelyNobody I know uses the calculus– a small number of physicists—Be careful about what we mean by programmingCAUTION--Several different forms of programming– not have bill gates teaching everyone to program in C
  • The ultimate goal of his adventure is not the exploration as such, but the joy of stepping back and beingable to build maps and other useful tools in order to better master and control theterritory under exploration.His theory emphasizes all thosethings needed to maintain the internal structure and organization of the cognitivesystem.
  • TIMELINE directly from Piaget to Papert.What is the difference between Piaget's constructivism and Papert’s “constructionism”? Piaget and Papert are also both developmentalists in that they share an incremental view of knowledge construction. common objective is to highlight the processes by which people outgrow their current views of the world,and construct deeper understandings about themselves and their environmentBOTH STUDY– processes which learners are likely to maintain or change their theories of a givenphenomenon through interacting with it during a significant period of time.
  • POWERFUL IDEAS– USE TECHNOLOGY TO HELP THINK ABOUT THOSE IDEASHe is stillcompetely relevant
  • Completely engaged--people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. --one needs to translate the experience into a description or a model.-------the model gains a life of its own, and can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialog gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectednessand understanding.
  • separateness can be seen as a provisory means of gainingcloser relatedness and understanding. It does not preclude the value of beingembedded in one's own experience.diving into unknown situations, at thecost of experiencing a momentary sense of loss, is also a crucial part of learning.Only when a learner has actually traveled through a world, by adopting differentperspectives, or putting on different “glasses,” can a dialogue begin between localand initially incompatible experiences.
  • How could people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. There comes a time whenone needs to translate the experience into a description or a model. Once built, themodel gains a life of its own, and can be addressed as if it were “not me.” Fromthen on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialog gets started(between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectednessand understanding. IMMERSION AND ENGAGEMENT
  • Theories introduced in the west in the 1930’s—remained unknown until the 1970’s— new paradigms of developmental and educational psychologyZPD--the acquisition of new knowledge is dependent on previous learning, as well as the availability of instruction.In computing education, we think a lot about students’ first experience programming, but we don’t think much about how a student first sees code and first sees programming. How can you even consider studying a domain whose main activity you have never even seen? What is the role of that coding generating music, with cultural and creative overtones? The social experience introducing computing is important, and that may be something that live code can offer.
  • AI Artificial intelligence
  • Marvin Minsky ---one of the Fathers of modern Artificial Intelligence. His inventions, writings, and theories have been a powerful voice in the development of AI from its early years to today.1951: Built the very first neural network simulator. 1955: Invented a confocal scanning microscope, which zooms in on objects to create high-contrast 3D images 1975: Invented the concept of “frames”, which help computers find data with which they can make basic intelligent decisions1985: Published The Society of Mind, which pioneers a theory that combines child psychology and Artificial Intelligence research. Basically, it states that intelligence does not come from any one source, but several forces interacting with each other. This allows an intelligent being to do different things. It also implies that there is no “key” to finding the source of intelligence, as there is no specific source.
  • a historian were to draw a line connecting Jean Piaget’s work on developmental psychology to today’s trends in educational technology, the line would simply be labeled “Papert.” And perhaps the most remarkable thing about that line would be the other points it intersects along its course of more than fifty years
  • SEYMOUR PAPERTPapert extends Piaget to include diving into experiencesPapert in AI by designing neural nets with Minsky and assisting development of the Society of the MindPapert is key in developing LOGO, developing theory of constructionism…constructionism, …. its main feature the fact that it looks more closely than other educational -isms at the idea of mental construction….. and by asking questions about the methods…How can one become an expert at constructing knowledge? What skills are required? And are these skills the same for different kinds of knowledge?
  • . It attaches special importance to the role of constructions in the world as a support for those in the head, thereby becoming less of a purely mentalist doctrine. It also takes the idea of constructing in the head more seriously by recognizing more than one kind of construction (some of them as far removed from simple building as cultivating a garden),
  • Programming is probably the greatest, and most criminally untapped teaching tool we have developed in the last century. At its heart, programming is applied logic, a discipline that requires you:
  • Programming is probably the greatest, and most criminally untapped teaching tool we have developed in the last century. At its heart, programming is applied logic, a discipline that requires you:•to break a problem into its component parts•to construct those parts from a set of logical building-blocks•to combine those solved parts into a greater whole
  • EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES launched by Papert– LOGO, SQUEAK– a language, a tool, an environment to CHANGE the way learning happensalankay – history background- Smalltalk object oriented programming language– first developed in 1972, many iterations, then in 1996- Squeak programming language– and then the tile based Etoys Squeak was developedEvery summer, Alan hosted a Learning Lab at a music camp in New Hampshire–(one or two a year-sometimes at UCLA) it was a camp for we adults.---- collection of people who cared about new ways of learning– timgallwey,(Inner Game of Tennis) betty edwards, (Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain) Group from the west coast– and MIT group- Mitchell Resnick and grad students– Mitch invited John to MIT—and they developed Scratch in 2003
  • Old school
  • Avron Barr --- exploration and engineering of knowledge -- learning how it is acquired by humans or machines, how it is represented in the mind or in software, how it is communicated between humans and computers and disseminated throughout a culture -- was a central problem in philosophy, psychology and artificial intelligence that might well be answered in surprising ways by the new discipline created by the builders of expert systems.Ty Cobb
  • a new state of web skills when we reinvent technology tools to better enhance our personal learning. We’ll be at 3.0 when schools are everywhere and not viewed as daycare.Tech change drives social change—impacts accelerating exponentially.
  • PARADIGM SHIFT– PUSH TO PULLan effective survey of the effect of more interactive, ubiquitous and on-demand communication, it already feels dated; the essential messages that Hagel, Brown, and Davison derive-networking is key, you should pursue your passions, many traditional ways of doing business are over-are old news in the business self-help section. authors help us to understand where and how pull will change our lives and our work given the new digital infrastructures re-shaping our landscape. It offers us a roadmap that we neglect at our peril.”
  • about the theory of the individual, their value and the impact of that value on companies. central premise is that "institutions will be shaped to provide platforms to help individual achieve their full potential by connecting with others and better addressing challenging performance needs" page 8. This is a distinctively different view form others who see the future of social computing as one of communities or collectives taking action. Hagel, Seely Brown and Davison then go on to discuss such an environment as one of "pull" with three basic principles* Finding and accessing people and resources we need* Having the ability to attach people and resources to yourself that are relevant and valuable* Pull from within ourselves the indicate and performance required to achieve our potential
  • Because so many of you are at universities, I want to bring up a bit of recent changes in the systems –which are worth your dialogue and perhaps debate over the consequences or benefits for your universities and education.
  • One solution has been the MOOCsMassive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) isthe term which emerged in 2008 for a particular type of open online course format.MOOCs have quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolvedWhat a MOOC actually is, as a learning format, provides a challenge for definition•Descriptivelya typical MOOC course of 2013 might take place over 4 to 10 weeks, of which most are given to learning and a final weekor fortnight to production of a piece of work, sometimes a video.
  • Historically, it is an evolution of previousexperiments in open education and online learning. Other antecedents include the movement for Open Education Resources (OER), and earlier pioneering experiments in distance learning technology. IT MATTERS FOR 3REASONS:These origins may reveal that the MOOC is, or is not, a genuine educational innovation.2. if the innovations emerging fromMOOCs are connected to the other recent learning practices, the benefits of MOOC formatswill be widely shared. 3. he history of distance learning shows earlier cyclesof online innovation and popularity which have not ended happily: the dotcom boom saw optimistic commercial ventures such as Fathom, AllLearn, Universitas 21 andothers promising provision and quality of education. These have either folded,or stepped back from their original aims. MOOCs may be subject to the same factors and could be, like these, a flash in the pan.
  • This survey of MOOC and ODL literature aims to capture the state of knowledge and opinion about MOOCs and ODL, how they are evolving, and to identify issues that are important, whether consensual or controversial. The prevalent opinion is that, whatever their faults, MOOCs herald an unstoppable “Napster moment” which will break the old business model of Higher Education in the same way that the Napster downloading site provoked the collapse of the traditional music industry business based on copyrights.
  • Learning practitioners have engaged by contributing extensive critical review literature in peer-reviewed journals, the specialist educational press, blogs, and the general media. Two conflicting strands of opinion run inthe critical practitioner literature.
  • George—University of AlthabascaThe Maturing of the MOOC: LITERATURE REVIEW OF MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES AND OTHER FORMS OF ONLINE DISTANCE LEARNING UK, Department for Business Innovation & SkillsResearch Paper Number 130, September 2013https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/240193/13-1173-maturing-of-the-mooc.pdf
  • Girls Who Code works to educate, inspire, and equip young women with the skills and resources to pursue academic and career opportunities in computing fields.Girls Who Code aims to provide computer science education and exposure to 1 million young women by 2020.
  • Maria Klawe became president of Harvey Mudd College in 2006, she was dismayed — but not surprised — at how few women were majoring in computer science. NOW– 20 CS graduates a year– every one a gem
  • Java, a notoriously opaque programming language, PYTHON more accessible“We realized that we needed to show students computer science is not all about programming,” said Ran Libeskind-Hadas, chairman of the department. “It has intellectual depth and connections to other disciplines.”
  • teaches computer science to girls from underserved communities, starting in middle-school. We partner with schools and programs serving low-income girls and provide them with volunteer teachers, computer science course offerings, and computers.
  • Iridescent Learning is a Los Angeles-based mentorship organization that teaches mobile app development to teenagers in preparation for a business plan competition. turned to App Inventor for Android. “By the second day of class, students have written something that they download and run on their phone. Creating something that’s part of their normal realm of interaction speaks to their attachment to mobile — it isn’t video games that these girls are hooked on,”
  • Attendees of the quarterly, two-day Ruby on Rails workshops for women in San Francisco and New York are asked about their programming experience when registering and split into beginner, intermediate, back end, front end, and Windows developer groups. Instructors and teaching assistants volunteer their weekends. Participants range from interns to CTOs. The San Francisco workshops are free thanks to corporate sponsorships and Pivotal Labs donating its office space.
  • Abbate describes the experiences of women who worked with the earliest electronic digital computers: Colossus, the wartime codebreaking computer at Bletchley Park outside London, and the American ENIAC,postwar methods for recruiting programmers1960s redefinition of programming as the more masculine “software engineering.” She describes the social and business innovations of two early software entrepreneurs, Elsie Shutt and Stephanie Shirley; and she examines the career paths of women in academic computer science.Abbate’s account of the bold and creative strategies of women who loved computing work, excelled at it, and forged successful careers will provide inspiration for those working to change gendered computing culture.
  • The EPA Chica Squad members, from left, Margarita Tenisi, Rosie Valencia, Ashley Davis and Vanessa Tostado created an app called "Tag It!" that not only records the location of graffiti but helps create an event to get it cleaned up. Their app placed in the top 20 worldwide in the Technovation competition.The girls competed in the third and largest Technovation Challenge competition against 114 applicants from Mountain View High School and Castilleja School in Palo Alto as well as China, Yemen, Jordan, Brazil, Indonesia, India, Nigeria, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. They placed in the top 20 worldwide and in the top five out of 36 entries in the San Francisco region.The four girls created their app in 12 weeks, working on two borrowed laptops for just four hours each week at Bayshore Christian Ministries in East Palo Alto. They were guided by two tech professionals: Selina Martinez, a Bayshore volunteer who used to work at a Facebook apps startup, and Sarah Clatterbuck, a LinkedIn web developer.
  • Digital Inclusion 2012
  • Descritpion of any programmer– and of the skill of tenacity that we want to nurture in our new generations
  • Think about how this is part of the ideas of the PULL vs. PUSH and MOOCS?Uncertain futures creates “ increasing uncertainty  informed bewilderment—Uncertainty– authority is questioned, Digital revolution makes change the only predictable patternSocietal and global challenges require new ways of thinkingLIFEWIDE and LIFELONG LEARNING require new ways of thinking
  • Papert—knowledge is best constructed in a social context where the participatnts make something sharable.lConstructionism particularly applies to learning with digital technology.
  • This is NOT what a constructionist classroom looks like—it is noisy, people moving around, asking questions, talking to each other, working to solve problems
  • Tthenk you!I hope you’ve gotten some food for thought, discussion and heated debate from this presentation.Any questions?
  • October is breast cancer awareness month in the US.
  • Smalltalks2013 nov 1for ss

    1. 1. Learning to learn, learning to code in 21C Cathleen Galas Smalltalks 2013 Rosario, Argentina
    2. 2. What is happening to learning as our world is characterized by constant change and connectivity with almost unlimited access to knowledge resources?
    3. 3. Playing Questioning Imagination
    4. 4. AGENCY Capacity to act in a world Beyond skills and “know how” Ability to form and carry through projects
    5. 5. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world?
    6. 6. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world? Massive information network Bounded and structured environment
    7. 7. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world? Massive information network Bounded and structured environment
    8. 8. New ways of learning HOW do we accommodate new practices?
    9. 9. NO LEARNING OCCURS WITHOUT A RELATIONSHIP  Connections  Relationships
    10. 10. LOGO  show and 2 = 2 3 = 5  false  cg  show and pos = [0 0] heading = 0  true  show (and 2 = 2 5 = 5 6 = 6)  true
    11. 11. Longitudinal Study
    12. 12. New ways of learning  The old ways are UNABLE TO KEEP UP with the changing world  New media makes peer – to – peer learning easier and more natural  Peer to peer is amplified: the new media purports a COLLECTIVE nature of participation
    13. 13. ACM-explaining LOGO
    14. 14. Squeak Etoys Users of LOGO  Squeak Etoys adaptive lessons needed
    15. 15. COMMUNITY—You learn in order to belong COLLECTIVE– You belong in order to learn
    16. 16. Create stories, games, and animations Share with others around the world
    17. 17. Definition of Literacy Literacy can now be broadly defined as including all types of communication interactions that involve speaking, reading, listening, and writing with text both in print and non-print forms. (Hagood, Stevens, & Reinking, 2002)
    18. 18. Three challenges in participatory competencies that need to be addressed in preparing youth for full digital culture participation (Jenkins et. al. 2006)  Participation  Transparency  Ethics
    19. 19. Expand competencies Challenge youth to participate as PRODUCERS As well as CONSUMERS of technology (Peppler & Kafai 2007)
    20. 20. The River City Project A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Learning Scientific Inquiry and 21st Century Skills  http://muve.gse.harvard.edu/rivercityproject/
    21. 21. Whyville is an educational Internet site geared towards children from ages 8–14. •engage its users in learning about a broad range of topics, including science, business, art and geography. •more than 7 million users.Whyville's (Whyvillians) •engage in virtual world simulation based games and role play sponsored by a wide range of governmental, non-profit, and corporate entities. http://www.whyville.net/smmk/nice
    22. 22. The collective  Produces INQUIRY  Meaningful Learning
    23. 23. WHAT are the epistemic mentalities and identities that will enable people to thrive in a complex, changing, and ambiguous world?
    24. 24. Hewlett Foundation 2010  “In one survey after another, business leaders complain that the majority of U.S. job applicants are ill-equipped to solve complex problems, work in teams, or communicate effectively.”  “Hewlett envisions a new generation of schools and community colleges…harness the deeper learning skills of critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication, collaboration, and learning to learn to help students develop a strong foundation in traditional academic subjects.”  http://www.hewlett.org/2010-annual-report
    25. 25. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY LEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
    26. 26. Culture of Learning Teaching Based Approach  Learning Based Approach
    27. 27. BIG difference between LEARNING And BEING TAUGHT
    28. 28. “We are preparing students for jobs that do not exist yet, that will use technologies that have not been invented yet, in order to solve problems that are not even problems yet.”  “Shift Happens”  www.shifthappens.wikispaces.com
    29. 29. EMBRACE CHANGE
    30. 30. EMBRACE CHANGE CHANGE MOTIVATES AND CHALLENGES CHANGE FORCES US TO LEARN DIFFERENTLY
    31. 31. How did kids learn about Harry Potter?
    32. 32. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…
    33. 33. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding
    34. 34. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding  PLAY IS A STRATEGY FOR EMBRACING CHANGE, rather than growing out of it.
    35. 35. There is a generic set of skills and dispositions that are characteristic of good learners. If learners can be taught a language for these, they can get better at “learning to learn” across different contexts.
    36. 36. 21C Skills  Critical thinking  Problem solving  Communication  Collaboration  Creativity  innovation
    37. 37. Bill Gates on the future of education, programming “ we are in the “golden age of computer science” thanks to the nearly limitless amounts of power and storage at our fingertips. http://gigaom.com/2013/07/15/bill-gates-on-the-future-of-education-programming-and-just-abouteverything-else/
    38. 38. the world of programming probably has to evolve if we’re going to accomplish some grander goals such as large, complex systems spanning entire industries. There are more programmers and they’re better than they were 10 or 20 years ago, …. Things have changed, ….. but there’s still serious work to do on knowledge representation and logic representation….
    39. 39. The way it was (19th-20th century)
    40. 40. John Dewey American philosopher, psychologist, educational reformer 1859-1952 The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child ……. Thus the teacher becomes a partner in the learning process, guiding students to independently discover meaning within the subject area. (Dewey, 1897)
    41. 41. The way it still is? (20th century education)
    42. 42. The way it could be?
    43. 43. What is the message?
    44. 44. Should computer science be part of formal schooling?
    45. 45.  CS will be part of the EBacc  http://www.education.gov.uk/get-into-teaching/subjects-agegroups/computer-science
    46. 46. April 3, 2012 Computer Science Transitions From Elective to Requirement …..so some colleges are updating mandatory general education courses. http://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/2012/04/03/computer-science-transitions-from-elective-to-requirement-computer-sciencetransitions-from-elective-to-requirement
    47. 47. Australia Learnable.com donates $10M of training to teach Aussie kids to code Melbourne, Monday 19 August 2013: Australian students are today being given $10 million of technical training free from Learnable.com, a global online learning company founded in Melbourne, which believes that every student should have the opportunity to learn to code.
    48. 48. Former US President Bill Clinton At a time when people are saying "I want a good job - I got out of college and I couldn’t find one," every single year in America there is a standing demand for 120,000 people who are training in computer science.
    49. 49. US President Barack Obama "I think it makes sense, I really do,”….. "I want to make sure that (young people) know how to produce stuff using computers and not just consume stuff.” C/NET, February 14, 2013 http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-575695031/obama-endorses-required-high-school-coding- classes/
    50. 50. Mark Zuckerberg There just aren't enough people who are trained and have these skills today.
    51. 51. Is this the WRONG Message?
    52. 52. Instead…
    53. 53. WHAT are the epistemic mentalities and identities that will enable people to thrive in a complex, changing, and ambiguous world?
    54. 54. Bill Gates Learning to write programs stretches your mind, and helps you think better, creates a way of thinking about things that I think is helpful in all domains.
    55. 55. Steve Jobs I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer because it teaches you how to think.
    56. 56. Coding becoming “cool”
    57. 57. Code.org
    58. 58. Code.org Computer Science Education Week December 9-15, 2013 An Hour of Code for every student (US) Computer Science is a foundation for every student. Help introduce it to 10 million. All it takes is one Hour of Code. Ages 6-106 No math needed No computers either
    59. 59. Coding Resolutions  http://www.codeyear.com/  Learn to build something in 2013. It's easier than ever to make something.  In 2012, 450,000+ people started learning to code.
    60. 60. Mark Guzdial Elliot Soloway Computer Science is more important than Calculus: The challenge of living up to our potential
    61. 61. Calculus vs. Computer Science? Calculus  Generally considered part of a liberal education program  Study of rates  Rates are important to many fields Computer Science  Generally considered an “extra” course or skill  Study of process     Specification Execution Compositions limitations  Process is important to EVERYBODY
    62. 62. Changed the software paradigm, BUT the education paradigm stayed the same? WHY
    63. 63. What revolutions made us ask this question? Who started those revolutions?
    64. 64. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
    65. 65. Child Development When you teach a child something you take away forever his chance of discovering it for himself.” -Jean Piaget www.LifeLearningMagazine.com
    66. 66. Piaget’s “Child” A young scientist whose purpose is to find stasis in an ever changing world. Like a Robinson Crusoe: curious, inner-driven, independent, solitary conquest. Edith Ackerman, “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference?”
    67. 67. Piaget to Papert Jean Piaget Constructivism Seymour Papert Constructionism
    68. 68. Seymour Papert by growing up with a few very powerful theorems one comes to appreciate how certain ideas can be used as tools to think with over a lifetime. One learns to enjoy and to respect the power of powerful ideas. …the most powerful idea of all is the idea of powerful ideas..
    69. 69. Papert’s Child  Diving into unknown situations is a crucial part of learning
    70. 70. Piaget Stepping back Papert Diving in
    71. 71. Piaget and Papert “A cognitive dance” Diving in reengagement Stepping back Detachment and reflection
    72. 72. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934, Russian Social Constructivist Theory (1) Children construct knowledge (2) Learning can lead development (3)Development cannot be separated from its social context (4) Language plays a central role in mental development. (ZPD) Zone of Proximal Development
    73. 73. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
    74. 74. Artificial Intelligence
    75. 75. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
    76. 76. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
    77. 77. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
    78. 78. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
    79. 79. Seymour Papert  Papert extends Piaget to include diving into experiences  Papert in AI by designing neural nets with Minsky and assisting development of the Society of the Mind  Papert is key in developing LOGO, developing theory of constructionism
    80. 80. From Rethinking Education …constructionism, …. its main feature the fact that it looks more closely than other educational -isms at the idea of mental construction….. and by asking questions about the methods… How can one become an expert at constructing knowledge? What skills are required? And are these skills the same for different kinds of knowledge? (pp. 142-143)
    81. 81. Programming is applied logic  to break a problem into its component parts  to construct those parts from a set of logical building-blocks  to combine those solved parts into a greater whole
    82. 82. Programming is applied logic
    83. 83. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP
    84. 84. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP "At Learning Labs, we've spent hours and hours discussing how we can help students follow their interests and passions, and also help students learn powerful ideas and develop as systematic thinkers.” – Mitchell Resnick
    85. 85. The way it was  School's hierarchical organization is intimately tied to its view of education and in particular to its commitment to hierarchical ways of thinking about knowledge itself. School on the heterarchy-hierarchy scale … depends on the location of one's theory of knowledge on the heterarchy-hierarchy scale of epistemologies. (pp. 61-62)
    86. 86. The way it still is? Video games teach children …. some forms of learning are fast-pased, immensely compelling, and rewarding. …… by comparison School strikes many young people as slow, boring, and frankly out of touch. (p. 5)
    87. 87. The way it could be?  Teachers who give …..radically different theory of knowledge. (p. 63)  What would happen if children who can't do math grew up in Mathland, a place that is to math what France is to French? (p. 64)  ...they [the children] become producers instead of consumers of educational software. (p. 107)
    88. 88. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of “Learning Power” (ELLI) Being Stuck & Static Changing & Learning Data Accumulation Meaning Making Passivity Critical Curiosity Being Rule Bound Isolation & Dependence Being Robotic Fragility & Dependence (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004) Creativity Learning Relationships Strategic Awareness Resilience www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    89. 89. Why Code  Critical thinking skills  Learn to break down and solve complex problems  Programming Jobs  Programming ubiquitous—basic literacy  Programming is a language like any other (will it become the world’s language?)  The semantic web  Programming is Fun! (PAPERT-”HARD FUN!”)
    90. 90. Alan Kay on children and computers The reason, therefore, that many of us want children to understand computing deeply and fluently is that like literature, mathematics, science, music, and art, it carries special ways of thinking about situations that in contrast with other knowledge and other ways of thinking critically boost our ability to understand our world.  Kay, Alan, The Early History of Smalltalk, 1993http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/EarlyHistoryST.html, accessed October 2013.
    91. 91. Douglas Rushkoff “Understanding programming — either as a real programmer or even, as I’m suggesting, as more of a critical thinker — is the only way to truly know what’s going on in a digital environment, and to make willful choices about the roles we play.”
    92. 92. “Programming is debugging. So being wrong is not so much something to be avoided at all costs, but should be seen as a clue to the right way of doing it. That's why it was actually an environment rather than just an instructional program. “
    93. 93. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    94. 94. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    95. 95. How do we teach and learn programming?
    96. 96. Web 3.0 Changes Education? Table by Dr. John Moravec, http://www.edudemic.com/what-is-web-3-0-and-how-will-it-change-education/
    97. 97. The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel III , John Seely Brown , Lang Davison  information now flows like water  must learn how to tap into its stream  Individuals and companies can no longer rely on the stocks of knowledge that they’ve carefully built up and stored away.  we must learn how to tap into the stream.  many of us remain stuck in old practices—practices that could undermine us as we search for success and meaning.
    98. 98. Changing Paradigms: Push to Pull PUSH PULL • Stocks of Information • Flows of Information Via • Social Interaction & Social Media Forums
    99. 99. The Power of Pull Educational system called into QUESTION? "institutions will be shaped to provide platforms to help individual achieve their full potential by connecting with others and better addressing challenging performance needs”( page 8)
    100. 100. Teaching and learning Piaget  Papert “dwelling in” and “stepping back” are equally important in getting such a cognitive dance going. How could people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. ….. translate the experience into a …… model gains a life of its own, and description or a model can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialogue gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectedness and understanding. Edith Ackerman
    101. 101. The skill of coding is no different from the skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a coding illiterate world where the skill of programming computers belongs to a priesthood. John Pavley, The Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johnpavley/learning-to-code_b_3337098.html
    102. 102. The Global Demand for Learning “Projections indicate that the world’s higher education system must accommodate nearly 80 million more students by 2025. To do so in conventional campuses would require the opening of three large (30,000 students) campuses every week for the next 13 years. Some of these campuses will be built but most will not.” http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-0201.aspx
    103. 103. The Global Demand for Learning What are the implications for assessment and learning at massive scale? “Projections indicate that the world’s higher education system must accommodate nearly 80 million more students by 2025. To do so in conventional campuses would require the opening of three large (30,000 students) campuses every week for the next 13 years. Some of these campuses will be built but most will not.” http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-0201.aspx
    104. 104. Heritage and kind of MOOCs matters cMOOCs  “Connectivist” educational theory  Run on Open Source learning platforms  Led by academics as part of their university activity  xMOOCs  Online versions of traditional learning formats on propietary specialist learning platforms owned by private enterprise  Contractual and commercial relationships between Universities who create content, and technology providers  Mostly 3 largest platforms: edX, Udacity, and Coursera
    105. 105. Conflicting perspectives on MOOCs divide education communities  Elite institutions, primarily US are widely engaging  Opportunities for brand enhancement, pedagogical experimentation, recruitment, and business opportunites  Pro-MOOC producing conspicuous literature and positive reports  Smaller or less presigious less engagement, perhaps due to lack of appetite, capacity, or opportunity  See threats of being left behind, losing market share and recruits  The skeptical literature is less visible and less extensive
    106. 106. Learning practioners disagree about the value of MOOCs  Enthusiasts  Skeptics  welcomes the shake-up and  The MOOC format itself suffers energy MOOCs bring to learning, teaching and assessment.  Report positively on access, empowerment, relationship building and community. from weaknesses around access, content, quality of learning, accreditation, pedagogy, poor engagement of weaker learners, exclusion of learners without specific networking skills.
    107. 107. Consensus and Controversy  Importance, popularity, expansion  Engagement reasons: brand extension, recruitment, educational innovation, and revenue opportunity or cost reduction  Learners mostly satisfied, not currently looking for awards  Impacts on HE will be profound and enduring  Disagreement over whether effects will be destructive or creative  Provokes vocal and emotive polemic—can influence its trajectory—universities change tack in face of strong opinions  xMOOC subject of intense comment and speculation in the academic community  Strong commitments from top universities—some say tonic, some say poison for ailing education system
    108. 108. Other headlines about MOOCs  Formal comprehensive analyses of MOOCs mostly concur that they are disruptive and possibly threatening to current HE models  Reporting of MOOC learner experiences is positive  The MOOC is maturing – and engaging with its business and accreditation issues
    109. 109. Connectivism  New Learning theory George Siemens, U of A  Emphasizes how knowledge and skills emerge from making connections between different domains of activity such as experience, learning and knowledge, as well as between individuals in a social network.  Foregrounds learners’ exposure to social and cultural experiences, rather than their exposure to didactic transmission OR self-directed enquiry.  http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
    110. 110.  Women represent 12% of all computer science graduates.  In 1984, they represented 37% of all computer science graduates.  http://www.girlswhocode.com/
    111. 111. Giving women the access code  number of women entering STEM higher education programs higher education and fields is dropping.….52% leave because of macho culture…. the innovative and enormously successful CS program at Harvey Mudd College is a shining example of gender balance. And there’s a rapidly growing movement of women teaching women technology skills: all over the Americas self-starting organizations are running hands-on classes to huge success. Coinciding with a rising tide of newcomer-welcoming efforts, there’s no question that enthusiasm for women doing web technology is growing.
    112. 112. Maria Klawe became president of Harvey Mudd College in 2006, she was dismayed — but not surprised — at how few women were majoring in computer science.
    113. 113. How did she do it?  CS 5, hard-core programming, appealing to young men, already seasoned programmers--- dominated the class. reinforced the women’s sense that computer science was for geeky know-it-alls.  “Most of the female students were unwilling to go on in computer science because of the stereotypes they had grown up with,” “We realized we were helping perpetuate that by teaching such a standard course.”  To reduce intimidation factor, divided course into 2 sections: “gold,” for those with no prior experience, “black” for everyone else.  Java was replaced by Python.  Course focus changed to computational approaches to solving problems across science.
    114. 114. “We wanted them to learn how to write a business plan but also give them the experience of building something by having them learn how to program,”
    115. 115. Working Women: Ruby on Rails Workshops for Women
    116. 116. Recoding Gender  Recoding Gender Women’s Changing Participation in Computing By Janet Abbate how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today’s concerns over women’s underrepresentation in the field.
    117. 117. http://appinventor.mit.edu/ © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    118. 118. East Palo Alto girls create app to clean up graffiti, trash EPA CHICA SQUAD http://appinventor.mit.edu/explore/stories/east-palo-alto-girls-create-app-clean-graffiti-trash.html
    119. 119. http://girlsinict.org/sites/default/files/resources/docs/exec.sum-e.pdf
    120. 120. How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013 The first requirement for programming is a passion for the work, a deep need to probe the mysterious space between human thoughts and what a machine can understand; between human desires and how machines might satisfy them. The second requirement is a high tolerance for failure. Programming is the art of algorithm design and the craft of debugging errant code. In the words of the great John Backus, inventor of the Fortran programming language: “You need the willingness to fail all the time. You have to generate many ideas and then you have to work very hard only to discover that they don’t work. And you keep doing that over and over until you find one that does work.” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/how-to-be-a-womanprogrammer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
    121. 121.  Over the 20 years that followed, I found that being a woman put me at one remove from the general society of programmers. I resented that distance, but I liked to think that it was in some way fortunate — that my standing back gave me a clearer view of our profession and its effects on society at large.  I looked around and wondered, “Where are all the other women?” We women found ourselves nearly alone, outsiders in a culture that was sometimes boyishly puerile, sometimes rigorously hierarchical, occasionally friendly and welcoming. This strange illness meanwhile left the female survivors with an odd glow that made them too visible, scrutinized too closely, held to higher standards. It placed upon them the terrible burden of being not only good but the best.
    122. 122. The question is how we react to this great prejudice against women. The rule of law and social activism certainly are crucial. But no matter how strong the social structure, there is always that cheek-slapped moment when you are alone with the anti-woman prejudice: the joke, the leer, the disregard, the invisibility, the inescapable fact that the moment you walk through the door you are seen as lesser, no matter what your credentials.””
    123. 123. How do we teach and learn programming?
    124. 124. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it.
    125. 125. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC
    126. 126. Now…
    127. 127. We can take the understandings we have and BUILD THINGS
    128. 128. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC Now… We can take the understandings we have And BUILD THINGS (points often made by Dan Ingalls!)
    129. 129. How Knowledge is constructed through the active engagement of a learner within an active community of practice
    130. 130. For those of you who aspire to understand technology — and if you’re reading this then that’s most of you — there’s no better way to do that then to build things. ….. those of you who do not aspire to make things for a living will come away with a more critical understanding of the way the world works……. as a programmer you learn to think about problems both objectively and by taking into account all outcomes. There are only positive outcomes that can come from learning a new skill, and programming is the skill of our future.
    131. 131. Constructivism is the idea that knowledge is something you build in your head. Constructionism reminds us that the best way to do that is to build something tangible—outside of your head—that is personally meaningful. (Papert, 1990)
    132. 132. If you can use technology to make things you can make a lot more interesting things. And you can learn a lot more by making them. (Papert, 1999)
    133. 133. Constructionism is not a spectator sport
    134. 134. "Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    135. 135. References  Hagood, M.C., Stevens, L. P. & Reinking, D. (2002) What do THEY Have to Teach US? Talkin’ ‘Cross Generations! In D. E. Alvermann (Ed.) Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.  Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotm, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006) “confronting the challenges of participation culture: Media eduation for the 21st century.” White paper. Chicago, IL: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Peppler, K.A. & Kafai, Y.B. “What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory culture,” in Akira Bab (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association. (DiGRA) (Tokyo, Japan, September 2007) The University of Tokyo, pp. 369-376.  Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. Rules of Play: Game design Fundamentals. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004. MIT  John Hagel III, John Seely Brown: Lang Davison, The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things In Motion, Basic Books 2010.
    136. 136.  Ackerman, E. , “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?”, IDC, 2013, NYC.  Fry, Spencer, Should You Learn to Program?, accessed October 21, 2013, http://blog.teamtreehouse.com/shouldyou-learn-to-program, May 25, 2013.  How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013, accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/howto-be-a-woman-programmer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&.
    137. 137.  Kafai, Y., and Resnick, M., eds. (1996) Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Papert, Seymour. (1990) “A Critique of Technocentrism in Thinking About the School of the Future,” MIT Epistemology and Learning Memo No. 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory.  Papert, Seymour (1981) Mindstorms: Computers, Children and Powerful Ideas. NY: Basic Books.  Papert, Seymour (1993) The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York:Basic Books.
    138. 138.  Stager, Gary. (2001) "Computationally-Rich Constructionism and At-Risk Learners." In Computers in Education 2001: Australian Topics – Selected Papers from the Seventh World Conference on Computers in Education. McDougall, Murnane & Chambers editors. Volume 8. Sydney: Australian Computer Society.  Stager, Gary. (2002) “Papertian Constructionism and At-Risk Learners” In the Proceedings of the 2002 National Educational Computing Conference. Eugene, OR: ISTE
    139. 139. Seymour Papert Tribute at IDC 2013 High resolution video of the entire session: http://vimeo.com/69471812
    140. 140. Contact Information Cathleen Galas cgalas@comcast.net Cathleengalas.com LinkedIn: Cathleen Galas

    ×