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Smalltalks2013 nov 1for ss

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Smalltalks2013 nov 1for ss

  1. 1. Learning to learn, learning to code in 21C Cathleen Galas Smalltalks 2013 Rosario, Argentina
  2. 2. What is happening to learning as our world is characterized by constant change and connectivity with almost unlimited access to knowledge resources?
  3. 3. Playing Questioning Imagination
  4. 4. AGENCY Capacity to act in a world Beyond skills and “know how” Ability to form and carry through projects
  5. 5. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world?
  6. 6. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world? Massive information network Bounded and structured environment
  7. 7. What frameworks do we need to make sense of learning in our constantly changing world? Massive information network Bounded and structured environment
  8. 8. New ways of learning HOW do we accommodate new practices?
  9. 9. NO LEARNING OCCURS WITHOUT A RELATIONSHIP  Connections  Relationships
  10. 10. LOGO  show and 2 = 2 3 = 5  false  cg  show and pos = [0 0] heading = 0  true  show (and 2 = 2 5 = 5 6 = 6)  true
  11. 11. Longitudinal Study
  12. 12. New ways of learning  The old ways are UNABLE TO KEEP UP with the changing world  New media makes peer – to – peer learning easier and more natural  Peer to peer is amplified: the new media purports a COLLECTIVE nature of participation
  13. 13. ACM-explaining LOGO
  14. 14. Squeak Etoys Users of LOGO  Squeak Etoys adaptive lessons needed
  15. 15. COMMUNITY—You learn in order to belong COLLECTIVE– You belong in order to learn
  16. 16. Create stories, games, and animations Share with others around the world
  17. 17. Definition of Literacy Literacy can now be broadly defined as including all types of communication interactions that involve speaking, reading, listening, and writing with text both in print and non-print forms. (Hagood, Stevens, & Reinking, 2002)
  18. 18. Three challenges in participatory competencies that need to be addressed in preparing youth for full digital culture participation (Jenkins et. al. 2006)  Participation  Transparency  Ethics
  19. 19. Expand competencies Challenge youth to participate as PRODUCERS As well as CONSUMERS of technology (Peppler & Kafai 2007)
  20. 20. The River City Project A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Learning Scientific Inquiry and 21st Century Skills  http://muve.gse.harvard.edu/rivercityproject/
  21. 21. Whyville is an educational Internet site geared towards children from ages 8–14. •engage its users in learning about a broad range of topics, including science, business, art and geography. •more than 7 million users.Whyville's (Whyvillians) •engage in virtual world simulation based games and role play sponsored by a wide range of governmental, non-profit, and corporate entities. http://www.whyville.net/smmk/nice
  22. 22. The collective  Produces INQUIRY  Meaningful Learning
  23. 23. WHAT are the epistemic mentalities and identities that will enable people to thrive in a complex, changing, and ambiguous world?
  24. 24. Hewlett Foundation 2010  “In one survey after another, business leaders complain that the majority of U.S. job applicants are ill-equipped to solve complex problems, work in teams, or communicate effectively.”  “Hewlett envisions a new generation of schools and community colleges…harness the deeper learning skills of critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication, collaboration, and learning to learn to help students develop a strong foundation in traditional academic subjects.”  http://www.hewlett.org/2010-annual-report
  25. 25. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY LEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  26. 26. Culture of Learning Teaching Based Approach  Learning Based Approach
  27. 27. BIG difference between LEARNING And BEING TAUGHT
  28. 28. “We are preparing students for jobs that do not exist yet, that will use technologies that have not been invented yet, in order to solve problems that are not even problems yet.”  “Shift Happens”  www.shifthappens.wikispaces.com
  29. 29. EMBRACE CHANGE
  30. 30. EMBRACE CHANGE CHANGE MOTIVATES AND CHALLENGES CHANGE FORCES US TO LEARN DIFFERENTLY
  31. 31. How did kids learn about Harry Potter?
  32. 32. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…
  33. 33. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding
  34. 34. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding  PLAY IS A STRATEGY FOR EMBRACING CHANGE, rather than growing out of it.
  35. 35. There is a generic set of skills and dispositions that are characteristic of good learners. If learners can be taught a language for these, they can get better at “learning to learn” across different contexts.
  36. 36. 21C Skills  Critical thinking  Problem solving  Communication  Collaboration  Creativity  innovation
  37. 37. Bill Gates on the future of education, programming “ we are in the “golden age of computer science” thanks to the nearly limitless amounts of power and storage at our fingertips. http://gigaom.com/2013/07/15/bill-gates-on-the-future-of-education-programming-and-just-abouteverything-else/
  38. 38. the world of programming probably has to evolve if we’re going to accomplish some grander goals such as large, complex systems spanning entire industries. There are more programmers and they’re better than they were 10 or 20 years ago, …. Things have changed, ….. but there’s still serious work to do on knowledge representation and logic representation….
  39. 39. The way it was (19th-20th century)
  40. 40. John Dewey American philosopher, psychologist, educational reformer 1859-1952 The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child ……. Thus the teacher becomes a partner in the learning process, guiding students to independently discover meaning within the subject area. (Dewey, 1897)
  41. 41. The way it still is? (20th century education)
  42. 42. The way it could be?
  43. 43. What is the message?
  44. 44. Should computer science be part of formal schooling?
  45. 45.  CS will be part of the EBacc  http://www.education.gov.uk/get-into-teaching/subjects-agegroups/computer-science
  46. 46. April 3, 2012 Computer Science Transitions From Elective to Requirement …..so some colleges are updating mandatory general education courses. http://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/2012/04/03/computer-science-transitions-from-elective-to-requirement-computer-sciencetransitions-from-elective-to-requirement
  47. 47. Australia Learnable.com donates $10M of training to teach Aussie kids to code Melbourne, Monday 19 August 2013: Australian students are today being given $10 million of technical training free from Learnable.com, a global online learning company founded in Melbourne, which believes that every student should have the opportunity to learn to code.
  48. 48. Former US President Bill Clinton At a time when people are saying "I want a good job - I got out of college and I couldn’t find one," every single year in America there is a standing demand for 120,000 people who are training in computer science.
  49. 49. US President Barack Obama "I think it makes sense, I really do,”….. "I want to make sure that (young people) know how to produce stuff using computers and not just consume stuff.” C/NET, February 14, 2013 http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-575695031/obama-endorses-required-high-school-coding- classes/
  50. 50. Mark Zuckerberg There just aren't enough people who are trained and have these skills today.
  51. 51. Is this the WRONG Message?
  52. 52. Instead…
  53. 53. WHAT are the epistemic mentalities and identities that will enable people to thrive in a complex, changing, and ambiguous world?
  54. 54. Bill Gates Learning to write programs stretches your mind, and helps you think better, creates a way of thinking about things that I think is helpful in all domains.
  55. 55. Steve Jobs I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer because it teaches you how to think.
  56. 56. Coding becoming “cool”
  57. 57. Code.org
  58. 58. Code.org Computer Science Education Week December 9-15, 2013 An Hour of Code for every student (US) Computer Science is a foundation for every student. Help introduce it to 10 million. All it takes is one Hour of Code. Ages 6-106 No math needed No computers either
  59. 59. Coding Resolutions  http://www.codeyear.com/  Learn to build something in 2013. It's easier than ever to make something.  In 2012, 450,000+ people started learning to code.
  60. 60. Mark Guzdial Elliot Soloway Computer Science is more important than Calculus: The challenge of living up to our potential
  61. 61. Calculus vs. Computer Science? Calculus  Generally considered part of a liberal education program  Study of rates  Rates are important to many fields Computer Science  Generally considered an “extra” course or skill  Study of process     Specification Execution Compositions limitations  Process is important to EVERYBODY
  62. 62. Changed the software paradigm, BUT the education paradigm stayed the same? WHY
  63. 63. What revolutions made us ask this question? Who started those revolutions?
  64. 64. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  65. 65. Child Development When you teach a child something you take away forever his chance of discovering it for himself.” -Jean Piaget www.LifeLearningMagazine.com
  66. 66. Piaget’s “Child” A young scientist whose purpose is to find stasis in an ever changing world. Like a Robinson Crusoe: curious, inner-driven, independent, solitary conquest. Edith Ackerman, “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference?”
  67. 67. Piaget to Papert Jean Piaget Constructivism Seymour Papert Constructionism
  68. 68. Seymour Papert by growing up with a few very powerful theorems one comes to appreciate how certain ideas can be used as tools to think with over a lifetime. One learns to enjoy and to respect the power of powerful ideas. …the most powerful idea of all is the idea of powerful ideas..
  69. 69. Papert’s Child  Diving into unknown situations is a crucial part of learning
  70. 70. Piaget Stepping back Papert Diving in
  71. 71. Piaget and Papert “A cognitive dance” Diving in reengagement Stepping back Detachment and reflection
  72. 72. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934, Russian Social Constructivist Theory (1) Children construct knowledge (2) Learning can lead development (3)Development cannot be separated from its social context (4) Language plays a central role in mental development. (ZPD) Zone of Proximal Development
  73. 73. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  74. 74. Artificial Intelligence
  75. 75. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  76. 76. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  77. 77. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
  78. 78. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
  79. 79. Seymour Papert  Papert extends Piaget to include diving into experiences  Papert in AI by designing neural nets with Minsky and assisting development of the Society of the Mind  Papert is key in developing LOGO, developing theory of constructionism
  80. 80. From Rethinking Education …constructionism, …. its main feature the fact that it looks more closely than other educational -isms at the idea of mental construction….. and by asking questions about the methods… How can one become an expert at constructing knowledge? What skills are required? And are these skills the same for different kinds of knowledge? (pp. 142-143)
  81. 81. Programming is applied logic  to break a problem into its component parts  to construct those parts from a set of logical building-blocks  to combine those solved parts into a greater whole
  82. 82. Programming is applied logic
  83. 83. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP
  84. 84. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP "At Learning Labs, we've spent hours and hours discussing how we can help students follow their interests and passions, and also help students learn powerful ideas and develop as systematic thinkers.” – Mitchell Resnick
  85. 85. The way it was  School's hierarchical organization is intimately tied to its view of education and in particular to its commitment to hierarchical ways of thinking about knowledge itself. School on the heterarchy-hierarchy scale … depends on the location of one's theory of knowledge on the heterarchy-hierarchy scale of epistemologies. (pp. 61-62)
  86. 86. The way it still is? Video games teach children …. some forms of learning are fast-pased, immensely compelling, and rewarding. …… by comparison School strikes many young people as slow, boring, and frankly out of touch. (p. 5)
  87. 87. The way it could be?  Teachers who give …..radically different theory of knowledge. (p. 63)  What would happen if children who can't do math grew up in Mathland, a place that is to math what France is to French? (p. 64)  ...they [the children] become producers instead of consumers of educational software. (p. 107)
  88. 88. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of “Learning Power” (ELLI) Being Stuck & Static Changing & Learning Data Accumulation Meaning Making Passivity Critical Curiosity Being Rule Bound Isolation & Dependence Being Robotic Fragility & Dependence (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004) Creativity Learning Relationships Strategic Awareness Resilience www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  89. 89. Why Code  Critical thinking skills  Learn to break down and solve complex problems  Programming Jobs  Programming ubiquitous—basic literacy  Programming is a language like any other (will it become the world’s language?)  The semantic web  Programming is Fun! (PAPERT-”HARD FUN!”)
  90. 90. Alan Kay on children and computers The reason, therefore, that many of us want children to understand computing deeply and fluently is that like literature, mathematics, science, music, and art, it carries special ways of thinking about situations that in contrast with other knowledge and other ways of thinking critically boost our ability to understand our world.  Kay, Alan, The Early History of Smalltalk, 1993http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/EarlyHistoryST.html, accessed October 2013.
  91. 91. Douglas Rushkoff “Understanding programming — either as a real programmer or even, as I’m suggesting, as more of a critical thinker — is the only way to truly know what’s going on in a digital environment, and to make willful choices about the roles we play.”
  92. 92. “Programming is debugging. So being wrong is not so much something to be avoided at all costs, but should be seen as a clue to the right way of doing it. That's why it was actually an environment rather than just an instructional program. “
  93. 93. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  94. 94. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  95. 95. How do we teach and learn programming?
  96. 96. Web 3.0 Changes Education? Table by Dr. John Moravec, http://www.edudemic.com/what-is-web-3-0-and-how-will-it-change-education/
  97. 97. The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel III , John Seely Brown , Lang Davison  information now flows like water  must learn how to tap into its stream  Individuals and companies can no longer rely on the stocks of knowledge that they’ve carefully built up and stored away.  we must learn how to tap into the stream.  many of us remain stuck in old practices—practices that could undermine us as we search for success and meaning.
  98. 98. Changing Paradigms: Push to Pull PUSH PULL • Stocks of Information • Flows of Information Via • Social Interaction & Social Media Forums
  99. 99. The Power of Pull Educational system called into QUESTION? "institutions will be shaped to provide platforms to help individual achieve their full potential by connecting with others and better addressing challenging performance needs”( page 8)
  100. 100. Teaching and learning Piaget  Papert “dwelling in” and “stepping back” are equally important in getting such a cognitive dance going. How could people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. ….. translate the experience into a …… model gains a life of its own, and description or a model can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialogue gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectedness and understanding. Edith Ackerman
  101. 101. The skill of coding is no different from the skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a coding illiterate world where the skill of programming computers belongs to a priesthood. John Pavley, The Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johnpavley/learning-to-code_b_3337098.html
  102. 102. The Global Demand for Learning “Projections indicate that the world’s higher education system must accommodate nearly 80 million more students by 2025. To do so in conventional campuses would require the opening of three large (30,000 students) campuses every week for the next 13 years. Some of these campuses will be built but most will not.” http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-0201.aspx
  103. 103. The Global Demand for Learning What are the implications for assessment and learning at massive scale? “Projections indicate that the world’s higher education system must accommodate nearly 80 million more students by 2025. To do so in conventional campuses would require the opening of three large (30,000 students) campuses every week for the next 13 years. Some of these campuses will be built but most will not.” http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-0201.aspx
  104. 104. Heritage and kind of MOOCs matters cMOOCs  “Connectivist” educational theory  Run on Open Source learning platforms  Led by academics as part of their university activity  xMOOCs  Online versions of traditional learning formats on propietary specialist learning platforms owned by private enterprise  Contractual and commercial relationships between Universities who create content, and technology providers  Mostly 3 largest platforms: edX, Udacity, and Coursera
  105. 105. Conflicting perspectives on MOOCs divide education communities  Elite institutions, primarily US are widely engaging  Opportunities for brand enhancement, pedagogical experimentation, recruitment, and business opportunites  Pro-MOOC producing conspicuous literature and positive reports  Smaller or less presigious less engagement, perhaps due to lack of appetite, capacity, or opportunity  See threats of being left behind, losing market share and recruits  The skeptical literature is less visible and less extensive
  106. 106. Learning practioners disagree about the value of MOOCs  Enthusiasts  Skeptics  welcomes the shake-up and  The MOOC format itself suffers energy MOOCs bring to learning, teaching and assessment.  Report positively on access, empowerment, relationship building and community. from weaknesses around access, content, quality of learning, accreditation, pedagogy, poor engagement of weaker learners, exclusion of learners without specific networking skills.
  107. 107. Consensus and Controversy  Importance, popularity, expansion  Engagement reasons: brand extension, recruitment, educational innovation, and revenue opportunity or cost reduction  Learners mostly satisfied, not currently looking for awards  Impacts on HE will be profound and enduring  Disagreement over whether effects will be destructive or creative  Provokes vocal and emotive polemic—can influence its trajectory—universities change tack in face of strong opinions  xMOOC subject of intense comment and speculation in the academic community  Strong commitments from top universities—some say tonic, some say poison for ailing education system
  108. 108. Other headlines about MOOCs  Formal comprehensive analyses of MOOCs mostly concur that they are disruptive and possibly threatening to current HE models  Reporting of MOOC learner experiences is positive  The MOOC is maturing – and engaging with its business and accreditation issues
  109. 109. Connectivism  New Learning theory George Siemens, U of A  Emphasizes how knowledge and skills emerge from making connections between different domains of activity such as experience, learning and knowledge, as well as between individuals in a social network.  Foregrounds learners’ exposure to social and cultural experiences, rather than their exposure to didactic transmission OR self-directed enquiry.  http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
  110. 110.  Women represent 12% of all computer science graduates.  In 1984, they represented 37% of all computer science graduates.  http://www.girlswhocode.com/
  111. 111. Giving women the access code  number of women entering STEM higher education programs higher education and fields is dropping.….52% leave because of macho culture…. the innovative and enormously successful CS program at Harvey Mudd College is a shining example of gender balance. And there’s a rapidly growing movement of women teaching women technology skills: all over the Americas self-starting organizations are running hands-on classes to huge success. Coinciding with a rising tide of newcomer-welcoming efforts, there’s no question that enthusiasm for women doing web technology is growing.
  112. 112. Maria Klawe became president of Harvey Mudd College in 2006, she was dismayed — but not surprised — at how few women were majoring in computer science.
  113. 113. How did she do it?  CS 5, hard-core programming, appealing to young men, already seasoned programmers--- dominated the class. reinforced the women’s sense that computer science was for geeky know-it-alls.  “Most of the female students were unwilling to go on in computer science because of the stereotypes they had grown up with,” “We realized we were helping perpetuate that by teaching such a standard course.”  To reduce intimidation factor, divided course into 2 sections: “gold,” for those with no prior experience, “black” for everyone else.  Java was replaced by Python.  Course focus changed to computational approaches to solving problems across science.
  114. 114. “We wanted them to learn how to write a business plan but also give them the experience of building something by having them learn how to program,”
  115. 115. Working Women: Ruby on Rails Workshops for Women
  116. 116. Recoding Gender  Recoding Gender Women’s Changing Participation in Computing By Janet Abbate how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today’s concerns over women’s underrepresentation in the field.
  117. 117. http://appinventor.mit.edu/ © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  118. 118. East Palo Alto girls create app to clean up graffiti, trash EPA CHICA SQUAD http://appinventor.mit.edu/explore/stories/east-palo-alto-girls-create-app-clean-graffiti-trash.html
  119. 119. http://girlsinict.org/sites/default/files/resources/docs/exec.sum-e.pdf
  120. 120. How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013 The first requirement for programming is a passion for the work, a deep need to probe the mysterious space between human thoughts and what a machine can understand; between human desires and how machines might satisfy them. The second requirement is a high tolerance for failure. Programming is the art of algorithm design and the craft of debugging errant code. In the words of the great John Backus, inventor of the Fortran programming language: “You need the willingness to fail all the time. You have to generate many ideas and then you have to work very hard only to discover that they don’t work. And you keep doing that over and over until you find one that does work.” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/how-to-be-a-womanprogrammer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
  121. 121.  Over the 20 years that followed, I found that being a woman put me at one remove from the general society of programmers. I resented that distance, but I liked to think that it was in some way fortunate — that my standing back gave me a clearer view of our profession and its effects on society at large.  I looked around and wondered, “Where are all the other women?” We women found ourselves nearly alone, outsiders in a culture that was sometimes boyishly puerile, sometimes rigorously hierarchical, occasionally friendly and welcoming. This strange illness meanwhile left the female survivors with an odd glow that made them too visible, scrutinized too closely, held to higher standards. It placed upon them the terrible burden of being not only good but the best.
  122. 122. The question is how we react to this great prejudice against women. The rule of law and social activism certainly are crucial. But no matter how strong the social structure, there is always that cheek-slapped moment when you are alone with the anti-woman prejudice: the joke, the leer, the disregard, the invisibility, the inescapable fact that the moment you walk through the door you are seen as lesser, no matter what your credentials.””
  123. 123. How do we teach and learn programming?
  124. 124. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it.
  125. 125. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC
  126. 126. Now…
  127. 127. We can take the understandings we have and BUILD THINGS
  128. 128. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC Now… We can take the understandings we have And BUILD THINGS (points often made by Dan Ingalls!)
  129. 129. How Knowledge is constructed through the active engagement of a learner within an active community of practice
  130. 130. For those of you who aspire to understand technology — and if you’re reading this then that’s most of you — there’s no better way to do that then to build things. ….. those of you who do not aspire to make things for a living will come away with a more critical understanding of the way the world works……. as a programmer you learn to think about problems both objectively and by taking into account all outcomes. There are only positive outcomes that can come from learning a new skill, and programming is the skill of our future.
  131. 131. Constructivism is the idea that knowledge is something you build in your head. Constructionism reminds us that the best way to do that is to build something tangible—outside of your head—that is personally meaningful. (Papert, 1990)
  132. 132. If you can use technology to make things you can make a lot more interesting things. And you can learn a lot more by making them. (Papert, 1999)
  133. 133. Constructionism is not a spectator sport
  134. 134. "Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  135. 135. References  Hagood, M.C., Stevens, L. P. & Reinking, D. (2002) What do THEY Have to Teach US? Talkin’ ‘Cross Generations! In D. E. Alvermann (Ed.) Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.  Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotm, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006) “confronting the challenges of participation culture: Media eduation for the 21st century.” White paper. Chicago, IL: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Peppler, K.A. & Kafai, Y.B. “What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory culture,” in Akira Bab (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association. (DiGRA) (Tokyo, Japan, September 2007) The University of Tokyo, pp. 369-376.  Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. Rules of Play: Game design Fundamentals. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004. MIT  John Hagel III, John Seely Brown: Lang Davison, The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things In Motion, Basic Books 2010.
  136. 136.  Ackerman, E. , “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?”, IDC, 2013, NYC.  Fry, Spencer, Should You Learn to Program?, accessed October 21, 2013, http://blog.teamtreehouse.com/shouldyou-learn-to-program, May 25, 2013.  How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013, accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/howto-be-a-woman-programmer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&.
  137. 137.  Kafai, Y., and Resnick, M., eds. (1996) Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Papert, Seymour. (1990) “A Critique of Technocentrism in Thinking About the School of the Future,” MIT Epistemology and Learning Memo No. 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory.  Papert, Seymour (1981) Mindstorms: Computers, Children and Powerful Ideas. NY: Basic Books.  Papert, Seymour (1993) The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York:Basic Books.
  138. 138.  Stager, Gary. (2001) "Computationally-Rich Constructionism and At-Risk Learners." In Computers in Education 2001: Australian Topics – Selected Papers from the Seventh World Conference on Computers in Education. McDougall, Murnane & Chambers editors. Volume 8. Sydney: Australian Computer Society.  Stager, Gary. (2002) “Papertian Constructionism and At-Risk Learners” In the Proceedings of the 2002 National Educational Computing Conference. Eugene, OR: ISTE
  139. 139. Seymour Papert Tribute at IDC 2013 High resolution video of the entire session: http://vimeo.com/69471812
  140. 140. Contact Information Cathleen Galas cgalas@comcast.net Cathleengalas.com LinkedIn: Cathleen Galas

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