ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts


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ISLAM Its Foundation And Concepts

  1. 1. ISLA]UI Its Foundation And Concepts Js Dr, Muhammed bin Abdullah As-Suhaym daarulated fo Abdur-Raafi Adewale lmaam
  2. 2. @Muhammad Abdullah AhSuhaym, 2OOs K ng Fahad NationalLibrary Catalogi ng-in-PublicationData AIS uh aym, Muham mad Abdul lah. lslam:lts Foundation And Concepts./Muhammad Abdullah Al-Suhaym.- Riyadh,2005 224p 14x21cm ISBN:996047-538-7 1- lslam-General Principles l-Title 210dc 142611239 LegalDepositNo. 1426/1239 ISBN:9960-47-538-7 lst, Edition - 1426A,H.200sA.c. All Rlghlr Rererved 4ilrr,9 etr6)l i.t- i Crri .l;e 3. Cr')l*ltf e.ttt lA!5 ;r;J.rjJl9;3r.c'.tllfiial a:J,t tt, -2,idJ197..4jd1A;e
  3. 3. lslaam: Its Foundationsand Concepts 9y Dr. Muhammadbin AbdullaahAs-Suhaym Translated by Abdur-Raafi Adewale lmaam Translationand PublicationDivision, lslaamic Propagation And Education Committee, Al-MadeenahAl-Munawwarah www.alharamai
  4. 4. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts I n t h e N a m eo f A l l a a h ,th e Gra ci o us, the M er ciful Translator'snote: All praiseis due to AllaahlMay peaceand blessings upon tne be Messenger, household companions. his and This book is undoubtedly commendable a attempt showing at the beauties lslaamto mankind, of drawing comparison a between this great religionand other world religions spiritual, in moral,social and intellectual aspectsand acquainting mankind with rts principles and fundamentals a logical, in unambiguous, convincing, frankbut gracious manner. We would howeverlike to call the attention the readerto some of pointsas regards translation someof the quotesand foreign the of names in this book.The authorquotedsome passages from the Bibleand otherbooks, whichare not originally Arabic. Thoughwe believethat the proper academicmethod in translating these passages to referto theiroriginal is sourcessincemost of them are in English, we could not however do so because of therr unavailability the translator. is therefore to lt hopedthat,translation of the passages rendered here are as close as possible in meaning, the original to texts. As for the namesof someauthors mentioned the Bookin Arabic in letters,we exertedefforts to know the correct spellingof these names in their originallanguages. But due to the fact that the ' In transliterating Arabic words, the translator choseto use the double vowel 'aa', 'ee'and'oo' to indicatemadd [stretching] with fathah, kasr, a n d d a n t mr e s p e c t i v e la s i t i s i n ' A l l a a h ' , ' l s l a a m ' , ' T a w h e e d ' , ' s o o r a h ' , y etc., because; usingthis methodrnakes easierfor non-Arabicspeaking it readersto pronounce the words as closely as possibleto the way the Arabic speakers This way has becomestandard do. way of transliteration by nranyfamousMuslim writersand translators Iike Dr Bilal Philipsand others.
  5. 5. Islsam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts authorquotedexcerptsfrom their booksfrom secondary sources, which are in Arabic, we could not have access to the original books;hencethe nameswere transliteratedfrom Arabic. Equally,the namesof foreignreferences mentioned this book in in Englishmay not be the exactnamesgivenby theirvariousauthors. from Arabic. Mostof theseare translated ln translating meanings the versesof the Glorious the of Qur'aan, I completely done by Al-Hilali reliedon the translation and M. M. Khan and printedby King Fahd Complexfor the Printing the of HolyQur'an. quoted I any addition the translation it is without as or omission. As for the hadeeths, largely I reliedon M. M. Khan'stranslationif the hadeeth is reported by Al-Bukhaareeand Muslim or Al- Bukhaaree alone.lf the hadeethis reported Muslim,I quoted by from Siddiqi'stranslation. Otherwise, the hadeethsare translated by my humble self. In the footnotehowever,I deem it enough to mentiononly the collector the hadeefhin the footnote.I add the of 'AA' at the end of the footnotesadded by me to distinguish initials betweenthem and thoseof the author. May Allaah make this book beneficial all and reward its author for abundantly this in worldand the Hereafter. Abd ur-RaafiAdewale lmaam lslaamicPropagationAnd Education Committee, Al-Madeenah Al-Munawwarah
  6. 6. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Author's preface All praise is due to Allaah.We praise Him and seek for His assistance and forgiveness. seek refugewith Him from evilsof We our souls and our misdeeds.No one can misleadwhosoever Allaahguidesand nonecan guidewhosoever Allaahcausesto go astray. I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah alone. He has no partner.I also testifythat Muhammadblessings and peacebe uponhim,is Hisslaveand Messenqer. Allaahsent Messengers mankindin orderthat peoplemay not to have any plea againstHim after He has sent these Messengers. He alsorevealedBooksas guidance, mercy,lightand healing. In the past, Messengers were especially sent to their peopleand entrustedwith the preservation their book. That was why their of writingsbecameforgotten and their laws becamealtered,because they were sent tot a specificnationon a limitedperiod. Thereafter, Allaah chose His ProphetMuhammad,blessingsand peace be upon him, and made him the last of all prophetsand Messengers. says, He t - ( '"3' ' ' ' J;3 Fi- i . -"t6i u * t: , 2,,'- ' rr L; F - 4 1 . z ^JL>q 4Il + l ; _ ') . = J l r "Muhammadis not the father of anyone among you, but he is the Messengerof Allaah and the last(end) of the Prophets.',1 rAl-Ahzaab 33:40
  7. 7. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Allaahhonouredhim wtth the best RevealedBook which is the gloriousQur'aan;He took it upon Himselfto preserve and did not it assignthe obligation its preservation any of His creatures. of to He SAVS. / .z<'. t . .r ti 6 c t t #fit,'l^h6t<)4) vi-r'v/ / ulr -) tU' "Verily,We it is Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e., Qur'aan)and surely, We wilt guard it (from corruption)."1 He also makes the Law of Muhammad, blessingsand peace be uponhim,the lasting one tillthe Day of Resurrection. explained He that the perpetuity his Law necessitates belief in it, calling of the unto it and being patientwith it. Hencethe path of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, and his followers that of is calling the way of Allaah to withsureknowledge. Whilemaking this way clear,Allaahsays, of ,;a;l -> ,'ra j I t-r 0 /'.a-) Je 4r Jr rje)r ,F':t- LIJF do' . =r' - , ( . ;.; - . 1 ,!_; v-l! r) r;^atr ,1c bl l-i t aYl ,:r;,^3 - l). v "Say (O Muhammad).Ihls is my way; I invite unto Allaah with sure knowledge,I and whosoeverfollowsme. And Glorifiedand Exalted And I am not of the polytheists.'" be AIlaah. Altaahcommanded Prophet, the blessings peacebe uponhim, and to bear whatever harm he sufferedin the cause of Allaah with patience says, and ' A l - H i . ;lr5 : 9 I Y o o s u l1 2 . 0 8 ' 1
  8. 8. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 4.,t;1ib;iiilri;; si+" y "Thereforebe patient (O Muhammad) as did the Messengersof strong will."' patience Muslims, He alsoenjoins on ./ .|i ,'t(-' ' .Jt-+r L(+u+ f' ./ I 'f .3'- l -- 1,,-:-'irJ.>..l.o-l "O you who believe!Endure and be more patient and guard (your territory by stationingarmy units permanenily at the places from where the enemy can attackyou) and fear Allaah,so fhat you may be successful."' In accordance with this graciousDivineWay, I write this book to invitepeopleto the religion Allaah,deriving of guidance doing in so, from the Book of Allaahand the Sunnahof His Messenger. I brieflyexplainedhereinthe story of the creationof the Universe, the creation of man and how he was favoured by sending Messengers him and acquainting with the situations past to him of religions.Afterwards, made an introduction lslaam as per its I to meaningand pillars In this book, I have provided evidences tor those who are lookingfor guidance,explainedthe way for those who are lookingfor salvation, showedthe pathto thosewho desire to follow the track of the Prophets,Messengersand righteous people. As for those who turn away from their path, such only befoolthemselves and take to the erroneousoath. rAl-Ahqaaf46:35 2 Aal 'lrnraan :200 3
  9. 9. Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts It is a matterof fact that adherents each religioncall othersto it of and they believe that truthonly abidesin theirreligion. is also a lt fact that adherentsof each beliefcall othersto follow their leader and extolhim.As for the Muslim, does not call peopleto follow he his own ideology. religion the religion Allaah His is of withwhichHe is pleased. Allaahsays, 4 )rri ^i "+ 3)"Aiilb "Truly,the religionwith Allaah is lslaam"' He also does not call people to glorifya human being, for all human beings are equal in the Religion of Allaah; nothing distinguishes from another one exceptpiety.A Muslimrathercalls people to follow the path of their Lord, to believe in His Messengers and follow His Law which He revealedto the last of His Messengers Muhammad blessings and peace be upon him, and whichHe commanded to convev all mankind. him to It's on this accountthat I wrote this book in order to call peopleto the Religion AllaahwhichHe is pleased of with and with whichHe sent His Last Messenger orderto guidethosewho are looking in for guidance and happiness. AllaahlNo humanbeingcan have By real happiness exceptthrough this religionand nonecan haverest of mind exceptby believing that Allaahis the only Lord (worthy of worship), that Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him, is His Messenger and that lslaamis the only acceptable religionof Allaah. Thousandsof those who embracedlslaam have testified that they did not knowreallifeuntilaftertheyembraced lslaamand thatthey did never tasted happiness except under the shade of lslaam. Since it is a fact that every human being looks for happiness, peaceof mind and truth,I prepare this work to helpthem achieve I 'lmraan :19 Aal 3
  10. 10. 8 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts that. I pray that Allaahmakesthis work purelyfor His sake and let it be well-accepted make it one of those righteous and deeds that will benefitits doer in this worldand the next. I givepermission translate publish to and thisbookin any language to whoevermay want to do so with a conditionthat the personact honestlyin translating and to do me a favourby sendinga copy it to me to avoidunnecessaryrepetition efforts. of I equallyrequestfrom whoeverhas any observation correction or either on the Arabic text of this Book or any of its translateo versions to kindly send it to me through the below-mentioned address. All praiseis due to Allaahfirstly and lasfly, outwardly and inwardry. All praiseis due to Him publicly and secrefly. praiseis due to All Him in the beginning the end.All praiseis due to him as much and as can fill the heavensand the earth and whateverelse that Our Lord may wish. May Allaahbestowpeaceand much blessing on our Prophet Muhammad, companions all thosewho follow his and his pathtillthe day of reckoning The author, Dr.Muhammad Abdullaah Saalih bin bin As-suhaym Riyadh, Shawwaal 13,1420 P. O. Box 1032Riyadh1342, O. Box6249 Riyadh1r1442 P
  11. 11. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Where is the Way? When man growsand startsunderstanding things,many questions come to his mind like: Where am I from? Why did I come (to What will be my end?Who createdme and createdthe existence)? universearoundme? Who owns and controls this universe? And like otherouestions these. However,he is unable to providehimselfwith answersto these questions.Even modern science is not capable of providing answers to them because these issues fall within religious domains That is why there are numerousnarrations and different superstitionsand tales about them that only add to man's confusion and is impossible man to get a satisfying for answer thesequestions to unless is guidedby Allaahto the true he religion that is capableof providing final decisionon these and similarissues; for, theseissuesare amongthe divinesecrets that onlythe true religion can givecorrectand accurate answers and to that is the only religion that Allaahrevealed His Prophets to and Messengerslt is then incumbentupon man to learn the true religion and have beliefin it in order to have his confusion and doubtsremoved and in orderto be guided the Straight to Path. In the followingpages,I inviteyou to followthe StraightPath of Allaah and I presentto you some evidencesand proofsthat you may carefullyand patiently reflect on.
  12. 12. Islsam: Its Foundations And Conc Existenceof Allaah, His Lordship (over alt creation), His Onenessand His being the only God worthy of worship 0Manypeopledo worshipman-made deitiesliketrees,stonesano even humanbeings; that is why the Jews and idolaters askedthe Messenger Allaah, of blessingsand peacebe upon him, aboutthe characteristics his Lord.In replyto this question of Allaahrevealed, dy,-D lt 1'l g; L.zti Xni "Li ni i 'A y ii O {€:3;i Gh";j< "Say (O Muhammad).He r's Altaah, (the) One, Attaah, the Self_ sufficient Master (whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not nor is He begotten.And there is none co_ equal or comparableunto Him."1 He alsosavs. ti tri -t .ti t-. i t 2t, /,t n' jUt y-: JJl la ei-Ul f-., . rl Jr ,4.' ttl,'. -,,<,7 l'? 't ry :4)b -t|+t ,-Ht G:* i'- q,.Pl L-Y Gfit t .la i:- r< ,-.?-i ;t3 $rr 4 y1 :1r '6 ..l ' 'l t, - tt. Q'J;4 P c>T-J Iq *-Q.J Iq l- ,/ ..=4, 'ryutiL, 8 ) ( - ) l se-/. ' A l - l k h l a a s 1 2 :l - 4 1
  13. 13. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts ll "lndeed your Lord is Allaah Who created the heavens and the earih in Sx Days and then He lstawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner thaf suifs His Majesty).He bringsnight as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly,and (He created)the sun, the moon, the starssubjectedto His Command.S/essedbe Allaah, the Lord of all the world!"' He alsosays, t' . - -',7 6,;ttAi y i' .' .'i z ,fF' ,)e 6Yt I , w";lr';'i J3 ,; 6?r,F*.fr9;Ai.fu3 'U ,bS e'.,'.lt ,s;fr @t*;'E; ,q,rJ,ieJ$ i: .:i) L.)- ,b g$i ,5 ,r:',1*is e3i W L ....1. { jqlr JJr "Allaah is He, Who raised the heaven without pillarsthat you can see. Then He lstawa (rose above) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).He has subjectedthe sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed.He regulates all affairs, explainingthe Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, /essons,slgns, revelations,etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. And it is He who spread out the earth, and placed therein firm mountains and riversand of every kind of fruits He made in pairs.He brings the nightas a coverover the day..."untilHe says, I A l - A ' r a a f7 r 5 4 .
  14. 14. t2 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts r,..' t.. l:.: 'l t t 'i rtr;r ,t-j fL-rYl e+ u'r Gt lp W L; , . 1 . , ,Aii F . tt a. & '*z:i r/,lr {tali, , =ii * f,A )t31r; ,i'*o 2,J ,p-, { rCJt;lii "Allaahknows what every female bearsand how much the womb falls short (of their time or number) or exceed. Everything with Him is in due proportion.AII-Knowerof the unseenand the- seen, the Most Great,the Most-High."1 Allaahalsosays, {e-tri "Say (O Muhammad): Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: (lt is) Allaah. Say: Have you then taken (for worship) protectorsother than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves? Say. ts the btind equat to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign A)taah parrners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation ' A r - R a ' d3 : 2 ,j , 8 , 9 l
  15. 15. Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts 13 (which they made and His creation)seemed alike to them? Say: Atlaahis the Creatorof altthings.He is the One, the trresistibte."l Whileestablishing mankind for and proofs, His signsas evidences He says, ' ' t -' . , J t.'.i-i. t .a.,1, tr'ti .r. rr"-*rt) jptr ))t t+ti Ui y ,,,2r7, IJJ--.1j ) pti ".^^r^tl- ."ia.,tt-7. .gtlr 14tr#.t)Fu- ij .i- t.'lt. I lr )-^Jlq UJLJ J I J V' '-'^-i7 _ .1: < r- . - €..i .l .i.i JPr .# - r', ,-.i. L^ti-'- I cS+lt o! c'-'s9,->j,-al;t^Jl t?e ali '}i { (A ".,-r i.k 'i) ,)s "And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostratenot to the sun or the moon, but prostrate to Allaah who created them, if you really worship Him. But if they are too proud (to do so), then those who are with your Lord (angels) glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired. And among His s4lns (in this), that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth (of vegetations). Verily, He Who gives it life, sure is Able to give life to the dead (on the Day of Resurrection). lndeed He is Able to do all things.'' He alsosays, ' A r - R a ' dI 3 :I 6 2 F u s s i l a4 l : 3 7 - 3 9 t
  16. 16. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts urtlt: ,2'3-:li i q'f.> t vl 17, t -'t^Jr-l "And among His signs is the creationof the heavens and the eafth, and the differences of your languages and colours. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge. And among His slgnsls your sleepby nightand by day..."' While describingHimselfwith Attributesof beauty and perfection He says, ' 'r'v ' / ( t''.'.i:'i't r t '1 -'112 t'-if !'7't .g t- ,oi Ct YJ ij* ,o-rit-,Y (Pl GJt -* i] "J] Y ;frty t (r, -r.. t: ?. .oi ,., . o -9ri. , )] ,.rrt .= g;-tll lr g-. ,.f-,,yt . r . . ,>,'3>"11 . .iil Cl-i- C Ui - . t -)+)t G ".& itbo. , i j,*.,:i, r.. r-6-.- -s 4-*i 3; clr " r:.,{r L _, / .1. ( cL"1 "Allaah!None has the right fo be worshippedbut He. The Ever- Living, the One Who sustainsand protectsall that exisfs. Neither slumber nor sleep oveftakes Him. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoeveris in the earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures)in this world and what wiil happen ' Ar-Room 30'.22-23
  17. 17. Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conce. to them in the Hereafter.And they will never compassanythingof Hisknowtedge exceptthat whichHe wills."' He alsosays, 4) .,^{1n 7- ,;'rut,s: v$i *+ vFi gst -":i ;6 Y 'ii t .1- ! & ;) /'.2^)l "The Forgiver of sins, the Acceptor of repentance' the Sfern ln punishmeht,the Bestower(of favours)-Ld ilAha illa Huwa None has theright to be worshippedbut He.To Him is thefinat retttrn.'2 He - may His praisebe exalted- also says, ' 't. ' ' < v---s- 6i*y ' "2" lt ii 4Jl ",'ii .r:tN' .-Jl iJi'l i-b )l a"LA.;' 4,:V) ;',ii;:-,; ti iYAii-1i He is Ail6h besldes whom L6 itaha illaHuwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He) the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defecfs, the Giver of security,the Watcherover His creatures,the Atl-Mighty,the Competter, the Supreme.Glory be to All^hl (High is '' He) a-Ooie that atl they associate partnerswith Him as This Wise and omnipotentLord who made Himself knownto His slaves and established for them His signs and proofs and described Himself with attributes of perfectionhad prophetic ordainments,humanwisdomand naturetestifyto His existence,to His Lordship and being the only one having the right to be I Al-Baqarah:255 2 r Ghaafir 0:34 I A l - H a s h5 9 : 2 3 r
  18. 18. Islaam: Its Foundations And worshipped. wiil -God wiiling-show that to you in the I foilowinq pages. As for proofsof His existence and Lordship, they are: One: Creation of this universe and its wonderful design O man! All this universethat surrounds you, the heavens,tne stars,the galaxiesand the earth that is spread in which there are neighbouring tracts out of which differentprantsgrow bearinoail fruits,and on which you find ail creaturesin pairsl.. tni, *iuEr"u did not createitselfand could must then have a creator.who then is that creatorwho createdit in this wonderful design and perfection and made it a sign for those wno can se" save Allaahthe one, the subduerwhom there is no Lord oi o"ity worthyof worshipbesideHim. He says, ' ,,- . ,. t. ,,.),_,.;ili iit (i :i: 3;Ai j ii ,n * o Eu ?iy (,O.,*i { "! "Were they created by nothing or were they themsetvesthe c.reators? did they create the heavens and t'heearth? Or Nay,but they have no firm betief."l Thesetwo versesimplythreequestions: 1- Were they createdfrom nothing? 2- Did they createthemselves? 3- Did they createthe heavensand the earth? lf their creation was not accidentar and they had not created themselves createdthe heavens or and the earth;it shourdthen be affirmed that thereexistsa creator who createdthem as weil as the ' At-Toor 52:35-36
  19. 19. Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Conc heavens and the earth. That Creator is Allaah, the One, the Subduer. Two: The nature All creatures naturally are inclined believein the existence the to of creator; to affirm that He rs greaterand mightierthan all things. This inclination more well-rooted the naturethan elementary is in mathematics and does not need to be proved by any evidence except for him who has an abnormalnature; a nature that has been exposed to circumstances that turn it away from what it should admit.'AllaahsaYs, .t)A- "t ll cti+: J"6i }u"a: ;ri /P"G-+ u.-rY. 4i3Y 4:7>oitl)'t oai ;ei 5;;t3 4i tli -!).5'$i So sef you (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him))your face towards the religion (of pure tstdmicMonotheism) Hanif (worship none but Attah itone). Attdh's Fitrah (i.e. Attdh'slsl1mic Monotheism)with which He h'as createdmankind. No change let there be in Khalq- iilah (i.e. the religion of All6h - lsllmic Monotheism):that is the straightretigion,but mostof men know not'* The Messenger Allaah, of blessings and peacebe upon him, said' ,,Every child is born with naturalinclination lslaamicMonotheism to and it is his parentswho make him a Jew, a christianor a Magian3 young whole,whereinyou find fust as the animalgives birthto its no mutilation." Then Aboo Hurayrah(who is the narratorof this hadeeth) said:"Recite you like(Allaah's if words): ' Majmoo' FatawaIbn Taymiyahl'.41-49,'73 I Ar-Room 0:30 J I AA phenomena. Magians thosewho worshipfire and othernatural are
  20. 20. Isloam: Its Foundations And Conc .ibJ- i "lr+! r{:.} ge.1ii r-Ai Ai g^1 -r; <U;'*i "All6h'sFitrah (i.e. Attah'ststamicMonotheism) with which He has created mankind. No change ret there be in Kharq-irtdh(i.e. the religionof Attah - lstamicMonotheism). that is the siraight'retigrcn, but most of men know not "'1 He also said, "Verily,my Lord commandedme to teach you what you do not know of that which He has taughtme today:,Art rnon"y that I endoweda slavewith, is raMur(for n-iry.t createomy slaves naturallyinclinedto lslaamic Monotheismand it were thL devils wno came to them, led them away from their religion, made -on forbiddenfor them what I made lawiul and enjoineo inem to asso,cj?lepartnerswith Me in worshipof whichi diOnot send any oroof.'"' Three: Consensus of all people All past and modernnationsare in consensus that this universe has a creatorwho is Allaahthe Lord of all the worrds, that He is the creator of the heavensand the earth and that He has no partner among His creatures as He does not have a partner in His Sovereignty. No beliefhas ever been reported from any of the past nationsthat their false deities took part with Allaah in the creation of the neavensand the earth.Rather,they all believedthat it was Allaan who createdthem and their goos, that there was no creator or sustainer besides Him and that He aloneowns the powerto brino ' A I - B u k h a a r ea n d M u s l i n r e 2A h r l a d a n dM u s i i m .
  21. 21. Islaom: Its FoundationsAnd C, benefit inflict or us versesof harm.tAllaahinforms in the following the idolaters' of and guardianship, affirmation His Lordship o,i1 . i:- ..,1 .',. .. t.',i' .i ,t.-.1 i. *, J*: : . i . . r-': . PI ..i1 ,^-3 rJb)ltc)9-At,lt i fFU- ,*l-l I : 'u;. 'Jri -t v t / l}J , " , ' l cljl , tl ;i )+: -DV ,rt l;;- t o:li ,.1.,' iK';:- SIJ .:- .i -1'I'zti z .r1 . a:ii- ..i.-..-:ilt'- 4 q-t ?u 'L-Jt -:--r Jt O^ ,4:JL-.41J :r)l ** zg et -r-,it ! . - ' 1..,1 -tt:4^,'oo,"i1 Y i-,r=-t Jq 4J r^!l att't ! : - { r:!i'oy'+ f " - t ' 1 ' i J>ai , ' - .W;' ' "lf you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subiectedthe sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "NEh." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbetievers)? AIIAhenlargesthe provisionfor whom He willsof His s/aves,and straitens for whom (He wills). Verily,Alldh is the All- it Knower of everything.If you were to ask them: "Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and gives life therewith to the eafth after its death?" They will surely reply: "All6h."Say: "All the praisesand thanks to Altdh!" be Nav! Mostof themhave no sense''" ; .. i-rrii,;li:#)> i* Ut$tt,-'';ai'4> J -ea {rV "And indeedif you ask them, 'Who has createdthe heavensand 'The All-Mighty' the All-Knower the earth?' They will surely say: 'u createdthem.' ' M a . l n r o o ' a t a w a4 : 3 8 0 - 3 8 i F l t A l - 'A n k a b o t 2 9: 6 1- 6 3 j A z - z u k h r u f9
  22. 22. Islaam: Its Foundations And Ct Four: The reason Human reasoninevitably confirms that this universehas a great creator;for the sound reasonagreesthat this universe a creited is thing that did not bring itself to being, hence, it must have an originator. Also, man knowsthat he falls into crisesand afflictionsand when he is unable to prevent them or remove them, he faces the heavenswith his heart and seeksfor His Lord'said to removehis distress even thoughhe may denounce Lord and worshiohis his idols in his normaldays. This is an undisputable fact. Even tne animal raises his head up and looks at the sky wheneverit is visited by an affliction. The AlmightyAllah informs us that man, wheneverhe is afflictedwith harm, hastensto his Lord and asks Him to removethe harm.Allaahsays, . . .t ,i ,2,, i e 1., ,t..- -i,,, . ./-: , ? d' :"-.1-rt' , -tr-* - ,.. 5- "P Je -Lj4J l:l-rrl *. J.?i Ji ,y 4) tp4 jg {,,1!1;6i-:ef ;UfW "And when some hurt touches man, he cries to his Lord (Altah Alone), turningto Him in repentance.But when He bestowsa favor upon him from Himself, he forgets that for which he cried for before,and he sefs up rivals to NEh.'r He alsosaysaboutthe idolaters, I Az-Zunar 39:8
  23. 23. Islaam: Its Foundations And 6 &, 9K ,f c t{i r^;t;r!4c bt ltv r:i"** t ;-P -b.-l c:1oui (a .V') u"f*ri , 'i-". ;-E t; 64-6+; u;tt*,a3tit4i y A*"irr Jte / ,;=) -. / . ; ' i": & ,-'.) vJ r.l.p "He it is Who enablesyou to travel throughland and sea, till when you are in the ships, and they sail with them with a favorable wind, and they are gtad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein. Then they invoke All6h, making their Faith pure for Him Atone, (saying): "lf You (Neh) deliver us from this, we shall trutybe of the grateful."But when He deliveredthem, behold! They rebet (disobey All6h) in the eafth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebetlion (disobedienceto AIl6h) is only against your own se/ves, - a brief enjoyment of this worldly life, then (in the end) unto Us. is your return,and We shaltinformyou that whichyou used to do."' He alsosays, ;.t v:'3 ,^':'i 4.:1': ]1i JEit u* .n 2F "And when a wave covers them like shades (i.e. like clouds or the mountains of seawater), they invoke Aileh, making their ' Yoonus l0:22-23
  24. 24. 22 Isluum: Its Foundations And Concepts invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to tand, there are among them those that stop in between (Betief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs except every perfidious ingrate."' This Lord who broughtthis universeto existence, createdman In the bestform,embedded his natureservitude submission in and to Him, subjected humanreason the beliefin His Lordshio to and His exclusiveworthinessof being worshipped. is Allaah whom all lt nationsunanimously testifyto His guardianship... He should as inevitably be One in His Lordship and worthiness to be worshipped. He has no partnerin creatingHis creatures,He As shouldalso have no partnerin His worthiness beingworshipped. of Thereare numerous evidences this,-some of whichare: for 1- Thereis only in this universe one God Who is the creator and the sustainers all. None bringsharm or benefitexceptHim. Had of there been any other god besidesHim, that god would have had his own work, creationand commandand none of bothwould have allowedanotherto sharethe creation with him. Hence,one of them must have overpowered and subduedthe other. In that case, the subduedcould not have been a god and the Subduershouldbe the real God with whom none can sharethe rightto be worshipped just as noneshareswith Him His guardianship lordship. and Allaah says, iJ- q ll S.-;'i,il'El; ,:^;: Jrt; t -r n Ai ii Cy lb 4 :l' J)r,-a,_& ii :i*'uzl jo -fi; ,1,;, "M son (or offspring)did AlEh beget, nor is there any il6h (god) along with Him; (it there had been many gods), then each god I Luqmaanl:32 3 *For rnoreof theseevidences, Kitaabut-Tawheed Muharnrnad see by lbn AbdulWahhaab.
  25. 25. Isluam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 23 woutd have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others!Glorifiedis Allah above all that they attributeto Him!"1 2- None deservesto be worshipped but AllaahWho createdthe heavensand the earths;for, man seeks to gain the favourof the Lord Who brings him benefit and prevents harm, evils and calamitiesfrom him and none but the One Who owns the heavens and the earth is capableof doing all these. Had there been any other lords as the idolaters claim, human would have taken do ways that leadto the worshipof AllaahWho is the True Sovereign. This is because,all false deitiesthat are worshippedbesidesthe True Lord, they themselves,used to worship Allaah and seek nearness Him alone. to Therefore, those who want to seek nearnessto Allaah,Who has the power to give benefitsand bestow harm, should worshipthe True LordWhom all that is in the heavensand the earth-including the false deities-do worship.Let those who are searching the for truthread (thefollowingverse): O"it e:i -tsy 'lt| .-' < L^e+ ui.r)r 4 )j '':jp-:Jt r.* o: re 'l Yi {i "r J - ' 't r t" ,<ti -.i 'iJ ,i.r:c a'lJl 4 ,"J:r)1,--l ti:: Say:(O Muhammad (peacebe upon him) to those polytheists, pagans) (fo "Caltupon thosewhomyou assert be associate gods) beiraes Attah,theypossessnot evenan atom's (or a small ant's) eitherin the heavens on the earth,nor have they any weight, or sharein either,nor there is for Him any supporterfrom among ' A l - M u ' m i n o o2 3 : 9 1 n
  26. 26. 24 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts them. lntercesslon with Him profits not except for him whom He permits."l These verses and others keep the heart from incliningtowards otherthingsbesides Allaahthroughfour factors. One: That those whom the polytheists worshippossessnot even the weight of an atom with Allaah, and he who possessesnot a weight of an atom cannot benefitnor harm and therefore,is not worthyof beingworshipped beingtakenas Allaah's or associatein worship lt is AllaahaloneWho ownsthemand controls them. Two: That they possessnothingin the heavensand the earth ano they do not even havean atom weightof sharein them. Three:Allaahhas no helperamong His creatures. Rather,He is the one who helps them in what is of benefitfor them and drives away from them what harms them. For, He completelyhas no need of them; it is they who are ratherwho are in absoluteneed of Him. Four: That these so-called associates are not capable of interceding with Allaahon behalfof theirfollowersand thev will not even be given permissionto do so. Allaah does not qtve permission intercede to exceptto His friends,and His friends Slso cannot intercede except on behalf of the one whom Allaah is pleasedwith his sayings, deedsand belief 2 3- systematic arrangement and preciseexecution the affairsof of this universeis the strongestindicationthat its controlleris one Lord, one (King),besideWhom there is no other creator.As it is impossible this universe havetwo creators, it is impossibre for to so for it to havetwo Lords.Allaahsavs. ' saba'34:22-23 r Sec 'uyoonil-muwalihideen Qurratu p.100
  27. 27. Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 25 . ,'t.'. -'i r77 e cii 4,i# U,L-.-oJ 4tJl r "lt; ;A. "t "Had there been therein (in the heavens and the earth) alihah (gods)besrdesAttah,then verilyboth wouldhave been ruined."' Had it been assumedthat there was in the heavenand the earth another god besides Allaah, they would have been ruined. Because;had there been anothergod besidesAllaah,both [Allaah and the other godl would need to be autocrattc and have the right of free disoosal.That would have then lead to contentionand fightingand the ruin of the heaven and the earth would have occurredas a result. lt is impossiblefor the body to have two controllingsouls;if that happens - the bodywill be destroyed how then can it be imagined which is greater,should that this universe, havetwo lords? 4- Consensus the Prophetsand Messengers: nationsagree of All that the Prophets and Messengers the wisest,most intelligent, are most sincere,most knowledgeable what Allaah best in morality, of wants and the most rightlyguided of all people,because,they receivedrevelation from Allaahand conveyedit to people.And all - Prophetsand Messengers right from Adam to the last Prophet who is Muhammad, peacebe uponthem all - haveall calledthelr peoplesto the belief in Allaah and abstentionfrom worshipping anythingbesidesHim and that He is the only True Lord.Allaah says, ,a/ Y ,arl f;Jl - ,>9 ; ll Jl t J a ,lr* - r .'-r /t r-t. zrr.i --2JJJ .' .'.e v' ur4i c; y {,.. 93i5ti ' A l - A n b i y a2 l : : 2 a
  28. 28. Islaam: Its Foundations And Conc And We did not send any Messengerbefore you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) but We revealed to him (saying): La itahaitta Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but | (NEh)) so worship Me (Aloneand none else)' He also says aboutNoah- Peacebe upon him - that he told his peopre, {tg- i,7 ' ,tn "64;ovi;17r sti;i5 { ,ri} "T.hatyou worshipnone but Allah;surely, I fear for you the torment of a painfulDay.'' Allaah - may He be glorified- says about the last of all Messengers, Muhammad, -raiil r-i jl r :jr Jj>:l-; ;i 3A"L iUl ,g i r^rlA y "Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "tt is revealed to me that your ll6h (God) is onty one ttdh (God - NEh) Wiil you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop worshipping others besidesNEH?'S This God ,, ,n" On" who wonderfully createdthe universefrom naught;He createdman in the bestform and perfected creation his and impressed his naturethe affirmation His Lordship in of and His exclusiverightto be worshrpped. lets him have peace of mind He throughhis submission Him and followingHis path and He to ordainedit on his soul not to be at rest until it surrenders its to creator and be in continuous contact with Him. He also makes rt impossible contact to with Him exceptthroughHis straightpath, I Al-Anbiyaal:25 2 I Hoo<i l:26 I t A I - A n b i y a2 l : 1 0 8 a
  29. 29. )'7 Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts which the honourable Prophets conveyed. He gave man which only becomesuprightand functionsproperly intelligence, when he believes Allaah, in Glorvbe to Him' When one has an upright nature, peaceful a soul and a believing heart, one achieveshappiness, securityand peace in this world and the Hereafter. when man refusesall that, he will live in the But alleys of this world disorganised and dividedamong its gods, ignorantas to who can benefithim or preventharm from him. lt is in order that true faith may be established the heart and the in ugliness disbelief of may be exposedthat Allaahmakesa parable - for parablesbring meaningscloserto understanding. makes He a parableof a man whoseaffairis dividedbetweennumerous gods and a man who worshipshis Lord alone.He, may He be glorified, says, 'J:'4; i:Li+* "All6h puts fofth a similitude: a (slave) man belonging to many partners (like those who worship others along with All6h) disputing with one another, and a (slave) man belonging entirely to one master(like those who worshipAll6h Alone). Are those two equal in comparison?Allthe praisesand thanks are to All6h! But most of them know not."' Allaahlikensthe slavewho is a polytheist a slavewho is owned to by differentassociatesand over whom they all contendwith each other.He is dividedamongthem and everyone of them directshim and assigns responsibilities him. He is confusedamong them to and rs always unstable.He is unableto satisfytheir differentand contradicting apart. desiresthat tear his energyand directions ' Az-7,tntar 39:29
  30. 30. 28 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts He also likens the slave who is a monotheistto a slave who rs owned by a single master.He knows what his masterwants and the assignments gives him. He is therebycomfortable he and settledon a clear path. Both of these two slavescannotbe equal. For, one submitsto a single master and enjoys the pleasureof uprightness, knowledge certainty and and the otherone submits to differentand disputingmasters and is thereby punishedano distressed. is not stableon a condition He and cannotpleaseeven one of them let aloneall of them. After proofs on the existenceof Allaah, His Lordship and His exclusiveright to be worshippedhave become clear, we should then acquaintourselveswith His creation the universe of and man and knowHis wisdombehind that
  31. 31. And Concepts Islaam: ItsFoundations 29 Creationof the Universe This universe, earth,stars,galaxies, with its heavens, seas,trees and all livingthingsare createdfrom non-existence Allaah- the by Glorified and ExaltedHe savs, ',,,'.t, :..; i-:. i:- ..'rl'.'!2:r.?r(-rt"' ..:-fJ ril-ul ,"J ,4)'ct w-y- a.f-,it;L 15.-1?l o F ) " .S-ilt?,rrfu u '^-)i L1 A +'*iW ,'ui W !;t t{i ,,: e'i) W fi L.:;';tiAi 't ,rr:iti ,:rtt"ov3 r-uii J){t'yti ,ei q" A,>rr-- {- "fr*i {-;, *IJt ',.Jt "Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) "Do you verily disbelievein Him Who createdthe earlh in two Days? And you set 'Alamin up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the (mankind, |nn and attthat exisfs,). placed therein(i.e. the earth) He firm mountains from above it, and He blessedit, and measured therein lfs susfenance(for its dwellers)in four Days equal (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation) Then He (rose over) lstaw€ttowards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earlh: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly " They both said: "We come, wittingty."Then He completedand finishedfrom their creation(as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest(lowest)heaven with lamps (stars)to be an adornment as welt as to guard (from the devils by using
  32. 32. 30 Islasm: Its Foundations And Concepts them as miss/es against the devils).Such is the Decreeof Him the All-Mighty. the All-Knower."1 He alsosavs. . ";i;{i; - 'r t,-r. -lJ>q r^., u:t+ r45 ,:,'+^:li Li ir; Uitt; ;:li y *i-; ,u" ,F ,t;i eiri'nt tu-a; :;-ti ut;;; I) .r-r-ui.fet-l lt^: aW uAu-t;.; ,, ttl"t* 4.'.V't: Qyl; Oo Have not those who disbelieveknown that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them? And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have placed on the eafth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided. And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well guarded. yet they turn away fromits srgrns (i.e. sun,moon, winds, clouds,etc.).'2 Allaahcreated the universe manygreatpurposes. for Thereare tn everypartof it greatwisdomand dazzling srgns. you ponder lf over a singlesign thereof,you wrllsee wonders. Beholdthe wonders of the creation Allaahin the plantsin whichalmosteveryleaf,stem of and fruit is full of benefit that human intellectcannot fully comprehend and understand details. its Beholdthe watercourses of thosetenderand weak stems, whicheyescan hardlysee except by carefulobservation, how they are able to draw water from tne bottom to the top and the water then moves in those courses according their acceptability capacitieslt then breaksinro to and particlesthat cannotbe perceived human eyes. Then behold by ' F u s s i l a4 l : 9 - 1 2 t ' Al-Anbiyaal:30-32 2
  33. 33. Isluam: Its Foundations And Concepts 31 the fruit of a tree and how it movesfrom a stageto anotherlike the invincible movementof the conditions a foetus.You see a tree of growingfrom a mere naked wood with no coveringon it, then its Lord and Creator covers it with leaves in the most beautiful manner.He then bringsout its fruit tenderand weak after He has broughtout its leaf in order to preserveit and make it like ctothing for that weak fruit so as to protectit againstheat, cold and other harmfulphenomena. then providessustenance these fruits He for through their stems and watercourses that that can nourish so them, as an infantis nourished the milk of its mother.He then by nurtures fruitsand develops the them untilthey becomecompletely ripe. He therebybroughtout that delicious fruit out of that lifeless wooden-like particle. When you look at the earth and how it was created,you will see that it is one of the greatestsigns of its Creator.Allaahmakes it a resting place and as a bed, and subjectedit to His slaves. He makes their sustenance, provision and sourcesof livelihood there and created therein for them ways and paths so that they can move about to meet their needs.He fixed it firmlywith mountains and makesthem as pillarsin orderto protectit againstshaking.He flattensit, extendsit and spreadsit, makes it a receptacle the for living that brings them together on its surface and makes it a receptacle the dead that bringthem togetherin its interior for after theirdeath. lts surfaceis a placeof dwelling the livingand its for interior the placeof abodefor the dead. is Then look at its revolvingorbit, with its sun, moon, stars and zodiacs and beholdhow it continuously revolvesaroundthis world till the end of time in thisorderand proper succession see the and differencesin the night, day, seasons,heat and cold which are resultsof these wonderfulmovements, and the benefitsthey give to all kindsof animals and plantsand all thatexists the earth. on Then reflectover the creationof the heavenand take anotherlook at it; you will see that it is one of the greatestsigns of Allaah in altitude.exDansiveness stabilitv. and Thereis no pillarunderneath
  34. 34. 32 Isluum: Its Foundations And Concepts it and there is no suspender over it but held by the infinitepowerof Allaahwhich holdsthe heavenand the earth lestthey fall asunder. When you also look at this universe, the composition its parts of - and its best arrangement that show the perfectomnipotence of their Creatorand His perfectknowledge, wisdom and grace - you will find that it is like a constructededificein which all rtstools ano requirements provided.The heavenwas erectedwith its roof are raisedabove it; the earth made like a placeof rest and a carpetfor its dwellers; the sun and moon which are like lamps illuminate the earth; and the stars which are its lanternsand adornmentgive directions the travellerin the paths of the universe. to The iewels and mineralsthat are hiddenin the earth like preparedtreisures are all made for the purposethat best suits them. All kinds of plantsand animalsare also preparedfor what they are good for. Some animalsare good for riding,some are good for milking; some are good for food and some are betterused as guards.And He made man theircontroller and like an authorised king above all of them. lf you also ponderover this universe eitherin every respector in a partof it, you will see a lot of wonders.lf you deeplyreflectand you are sincere with yourself and free yourself from the noose of whims, capricesand blind imitation, you will know with certainty that this universe was createdby the All-Wise, All-powerfuland All- Knower,Who measuredit in the best manner and arrangedit in the best form. You will atso know with certaintythat it is simply impossible that the Creatorshould be two; He is only One Lord besideWhom there is none other worthy of worshipand that hao therebeen any othergod in the heavensand the earth,theiraffarrs would have been corrupted, theirorder disruptedand theirwelfare brokendown. lf you howeverinsiston attributing creatron othersbesidetne the to Creator, whatwillyou say of the mechanism revolves that arounda river whose tools and composrtionhave been perfected and excellently measuredthat the observerdoes not see any defectin it or its picture. This riveris situated the middleof a longgarden in
  35. 35. Islaam: Its Foandations And Concepts 33 in whichthereare different kindsof fruitsthatget theirwaterfrom this river,and thereis in this garden caretaker a who bringsits disunited parts together and perfectly takes care of it so that nothing it becomes of defected and nothing its fruitsbecomes of decayed. This caretakerthen portions its partsto the outlets out according man'sneeds to and necessities, giving eachgroup what it deserves portioningoutin thiswaycontinuously. and it Will you thensay that all this happened without handof any the creator, hasfreedom choice who of and is a planner? yousay Will thatthe existence thatmechanism garden just accidental of and is without creator planner? youimagine any or Can whatyourreason will tell you if all thesewereto cometo beingaccidentally? Can you imagine to whereyourreason directyou and counsel as will youabout?' Theunderlying reasons: Afterall thesereflections over the creation the universe, of we deemit fit to mention someof the reasons which for Allaah created thesehuge beings astounding and signs. 1. To subject them to man: WhenAllaahdecreed createa to successor thisearth would worshipping andinhabit on that be Him the earth;He created thesethings him,thathe mighthave all for an upright and havematters his present and thatof his life of life final put abode right him. for Allaah says, I This section expunged is from differentplacesfionr the book, "Miftaahu d a a r i s - s a ' a a d o t2 5 1 2 6 9 . a . -
  36. 36. 34 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts And has subjectedto you all that is in the heavens and allthat is in the eafth; it is atlas a favor and kindnessfrom Him.n He also says, '6_?G',c ,y -, ,:c-ai3: Jlis u..,{ri o"iAi * ,sfr i'i y E ;i"-t.;=i ii a &e. <ffin e;i"E Grty'Ai /"' 'gt :A,FIJ JJI t *i" itit';:1 ;Ai ;i,A'A3'tl ,.i,f . jrj)l z -_t! t6t;! J - . i q . . ji'l{--.4 t i . , ls-i; OIt ;}:,:JL , , .Lt "=. r i i..-_i2. .Lt tti(, r 2: vll^ Ot ftul;i - - .. a / D t. / ( r'g)it"=- lrt'hJ 'All6his He Whohascreated heavens theeafthandsends the and down water(rain)from the sky,and therebybroughtforth fruitsas provisionfor you; and He has made the shrpsto be of serviceto you, thattheymay sailthrough sea by His Command; He fhe and hasmaderivers (also)to be of serviceto you. And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuingtheir courses,fo be of serviceto you; and He hasmadethe nightand the day, to be of serviceto you. And He gaveyou of all thatyou askedfor, and if you countthe Blessings All6h,neverwill you be able to count of them. Verily!Man is indeedan extremewrong-doer, disbeliever a (an extreme ingrate, whodeniesAll6h's 8/essrngs disbelief, by and by worshipping othersbesrdes All6h,and by di2obeyingAlldhand HisProphet Muhammad (peace uponhim)).'" be 2. To make the heavens and the earth and all that is in the universeproofsof Allaah'sLordship and signsof His Oneness. Because, greatest the thingin thislife,is to affirm Lordship the of Allaahand His Oneness. And because the fact that. it is the of ' A l - J a a t h i y a4 5 :l 3 h 2 lbraaheem 14.32-34
  37. 37. Islaam: Its FoundotionsAnd Concepts 35 greatest matter, Allaah has establishedin its support greatest evidences and signsand provedit with the most convincing proofs. So, Allaah createdthe heavens,the earth and all other beingsto make them evidences that.That is why statements for like, "Among His srgns"are mentionedin the abundancelike in the following verses. ar- 4u.l{i ?';-ui Jtt -:;-t; us ) "And among Hls SrErns fhe creationof the heavensand the ls eafth." 4 zQi;,FV*c '*'r; a: "And among Hrs Srgns is the sleep that you take by night and by day." '') ',- ' . , rr l - i . , 1 . , , -a:+te glJ f t t'4JaJ tif OrCt e=.t-t "And among His Signs is that He shows you the lightning,for fear and for hope." | .a a-J ', t. a . 4 ':rJ6tr:Cat f* 6t '1;'l; asb and the earth stand "AndamongHis Srgrns fhaf the heavens ls by HisCommand."' 3. To make them evidences the existence the Day of of of since Resurrection, thelifeis two lives, lifeof thisworldanda life a ' Ar-Roorn 30:22-25
  38. 38. 36 Islaam: Its Foundations,And Concepts of the Hereafter thoughthe life of the Hereafter the real.Allaah is says, 't .a t ,. -.i'i 'r;-ti .v i'll c--tl .l s.P {r Wi1 :+- c 5 Y ,t..- / 'i" ittJu- lt. ( ,':r: .-r., "And this life of the world is only amusement and ptay! Verily, the home of the Hereafter - that is the life indeed (i.e., the eternat life that will never end), if they but knew."I This is because the home of the Hereafter is the home of recompenseand reckoningand there is there eternal bliss for those who deserveit and eternaltormentfor thosewho deserveit. Since man cannot reach that home except after he dies and is resurrected; existenceis denied by those whose relationship its with their Lord has been cut, whose naturehas suffereda relapse and whosesenseof reasoning has is because of this that Allaah establishedproofs and evidencesin order that souls might believe and hearts might have conviction; for reproduction the soul is much easier than its first creationand of the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the reproduction man.Allaahsavs, of '+' t j!.i ,^t ,1.;-I ,tt;Ji s. *i y i"+ "AndHe it is Whooriginates creation, the repeatit (afterit therywill hasbeenperished) thisr's and easier Him.'" for Healsosays, ' Al-Ankaboot2g:64 2 A r - R o o m3 0 : 2 7
  39. 39. Islaam: Its Foundotions And Concepts 37 ! r6i ;oi ,*S *L:J | ,'.i,; ,'Ai O.t{i.2,'e-:ti ,p V . t-.,. t::l ).}.!l "Thecreationof the heavensand the eafth is indeedgreaterthan thecreation mankind. most mankind of vet of knownot."l He alsosays, -:. .ti ,47 , 4irr f CJ t9+r ',ziit*Ai ;i<ji w. ;tri';'j' ,# Ft 6A?5 ,-4 SG, ttl 4':t>'o*;'&t "All6h is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He rose above (lstawd) the Throne (really in a manner fhat suifs His Majesty).He has subjectedthe sun and the moon (to continue going round), each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs; explaining the Ay6t (proofs, evidences, yerses, /essons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail,^thatyou may believe with ceftainty in the meeting with your Lord.'* After all this O man! lf this entire universehas been subjectedto you and all its signs and proofshave been shown to you, you will testifythat there is no Lord worthy of worshipexceptAllaahAlone Who has no partner. When you have knownthat your resurrection and life after death is easierthan the creationof the heavensand the earth, that you shall meet your Lord Who will call you to accountfor your deeds and you have known that all this universe I Ghaafir 0:574 t A r - R a ' dl 3 : 2
  40. 40. 38 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts worships its Lord that all His creatures glorify their Lord with praisesas confirmed Allaah, by .i :t7 ! ,i.: ,,1: i :r . . t / ,-, z.i .- z rl ,. { :,t.-=!cl-t J;)t ,J-J|A1 .:-ttli;,r)i 4 t4 ,>''931 C Y * &;-y "Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the eafth glorifies Allah, the King (of everything), the Holy, the All-Mighty, the Att-Wise."1 That,they all prostrate His Majestyas He says, for ';a1 3Ai, u.r'lt g;p3,->,'9^ai n ,:"i ..J'-f-fii ,r ,i y a :rri "crii *:; -si o1i G"i4,L. rittii';uii Jaji i$ii ' 'i,-:,41 -. )t ' -," t '. ,.r, ral L+J a! | .' * .. J tI z v. vr-v "Seeyou not that whoeveris in the heavens and whoeveris on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawab (moving (iving) creatures, beasfs,),and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah. But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is iustified. And whomsoeverAll6h^disgraces, none can honor him. Verily!Allahdoes what He wills.'' Even these beingsworshiptheir Lord in a way that suits them as explained Allaahin this verse, by I Al-Jumu'ah 2:l 6 '
  41. 41. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 39 '4"^i lii ii lL i "S-;-i* fuii *r{tr,.r"*ai a c*n ; V "See you not (O Muhammad(peacebe upon him)) that All6h, He it is Whom glorify whosoeveris in the heavens and the eafth, and the birds with wings out-spread (in their flight). Ot each one He (AlEh) knows indeed hls Sa/df (prayer) and his glorification, (or everyoneknows hls Sa/df(prayer)and his glorification)."' lf your entire body does actuallywork in order accordingto the decreeof Allaahand His regulation: heart,the lungs,the liver the and all otherpartsof the bodysubmitand surrenderto theirLord... Will your optionaldecisionafter all this be betweenbelief in your Lord and disbeliefin Him? Will your decisionbe antipathytowards and deviationfrom this blessedpath of the world aroundyou and even of your body? Actually,the completelysane man will considerhimselffar above choosing antipathyand deviationin the vastness of this great universe. I A n - N o o r2 4 : 4 1
  42. 42. 40 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts Creatingand Honouring Man It was a decisionof Allaah to createa creaturethat could inhabit this universe and His choicefell on man. lt is also in accordance with His Divine Wisdom that the matter from which man was createdwas the earth. He originatedhis creationfrom clay and then moulded him on this beautiful shapethat he has now.When he has becomecompletely perfectin that shape,He breathedlife Into him through His Spirit (Angel Jibreel-Gabriel)and He made him becomeman in the best form; providedhim with the abilitvto hear, see, move and speak. Then his Lord made him live rn Paradise, taught him all that he neededto know, made lawfulfor him all that was in Paradiseand forbadehim from a sinqletree - as a test for him. Allaah wanted to show man's positionand standing;so He commandedHis Angels to prostratefor him. All of the Angels prostrated but Satan arroganfly and obstinately refused to prostrate. Allaah became angry with him for his disobedience So and expelledhim from His Mercy becauseof his arrogance. Satan asked Allaahto extend his life and give him respitetill the Day of Resurrection.So, Allaah extended his life till the Dav of Resurrection Satanbecameenviousof Adam becauseof the preference and he his childrenwere given over him. He swore by His Lord that he would mislead all the childrenof Adam, that he would come to them from their front and rear, and from their left and from their rightexceptthe sincere,piousand truthfulslavesof Allaahamong them,for suchAllaahhas protected againstthe evil plansof Satan. AllaahwarnedAdam of the evil plan of Satan,but Satan tempted Adam and his wife Hawwain orderto get them out of paradiseano to uncoverfor them that that was hiddenfrom them of their orivate parts. He swore by Allaah to them that he was a srncerewell- wisher for them and that Allaah had not forbidden them from that tree savethey shouldbecomeangelsor becomeof the immortals.
  43. 43. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 4l Having been influencedby the deceptionof Satan, Adam and Hawwa ate of the forbiddentree and the first punishmentthat afflictedthem for theirdisobedience Allaah'scommandwas that, of which that was hidden from them of their private parts became exposedand Allaahreminded them of His warningaboutthe tricks of Satan. Adam then sought for the forgivenessof his Lord. So Allaah forgaveHim, acceptedhis repentance, chose him and guidedhim. He then orderedhim to descendfrom the Paradise where he was living,to the earthwhereintherewas his abode and his enjoyment for a time. He also told him that it was from earth that he was created,that on it he would live and die and that !t is from it that he would be resurrected. Adam and his wife Hawwa then descendedto the earth and their childrenprocreated and they all used to worshipAllaah, because their father Adam was a Prophet.Allaah tells us this story in the glorious Qur'aanwhereHe says, -i '-t t t '-.'r: i! r]r*--3 p:) l.e.r*;t"ll- ,t- iB rtt , "frf- s ' r* i t , -"e t .7 ;-:,",, t- o " 2: ""i. "!i F 1.i.,.:".,'-'i:. . t -: t,t .,. . .. ...'. -- -i l,rlJtr JX;l 5l r--J ll..:1't t- Jt-ii!) a_t-)-:!Ati d/._,fu ) z 2- H) i.,ir 1.,.i,." r.".,.' , t.-.',. ,t -".i. t.'r- Ol .rU otsv L.r qy L."r'UJLi ':ltt,* J. 'a;Art * s: ,tsil- ^'a -;; ....' . . ,..: - . c-[] Ju '.t", 6;-la-rr2JIU], Jti :D rt"],-Aie,tL) i;u W ;5i .: t'ia .: ,1 . . t1'11 -. - t: ,"1 e :!.' 6:;;'.:*lt gL'/" p trr;) e?t Li9 Jt i:!) cp-lh:Jl ; " w t** & Lt; us"t1r-i tiri.- q, tli J6 r31 3.6i '1,t^r; * '*;i ; <K'tei eLi:t .t"i ki ii6J; r1'3) :.<.
  44. 44. 42 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts cl A#., Ct a*i ;D',gLsij, vr<tt';Ai y- p 6i-'j1i**j :y u" ti?i tka u Js'r4r* o, c+-e ( G,j ;Ab rt;,+ u+i ui',* Ci a- rvAi st:tJ'/+ siii 'ol 6 ,*ii ;ei ,;* * k;i if 1; c+tui"-4-i4:i or u^;;, a '*; i obu-:Lir* t,J:lr! ,?=)"q.3iL jJ:hi ,:K e.t.. ,,.,. - . i. 1: L.i . ",r ,2t. i i ".,! ,r) c F3 Je ud.>4r, ". lqb^.al JU :,;fi g_74;Jl - UF U , .J- . - . I t. -a { ::!)i;} q4ii;* t<+:i't+ wJ6;!) J) yi"";u f And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being); then We told the angels, "Prostrate yourselves to Adam", and they prostrated themselves,except lblis (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrated themselves.(NEh) said: "What preventedyou (O lblis) that you did not prostrateyourself, when I commandedyou?" lbtis said: "l am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." (NIeh) said. "(O lblis) get down from this (Paradise),it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." (lblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. the Day of Resurrectrbn)."(All6h) said: "You are of those resplted." (tbtis) said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankfut ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You) " (Neh) said (to tbtis) "Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surety I wiil fiil Heil with you att." "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof
  45. 45. Islaam: Its FoundationsAnd Concepts 43 as you both wish, but approach not this tree othervvise you both will be of the Zdtim1n (unjustand wrong-doers)." Then Shaitdn(Satan) whispered suggesflons to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their privafe parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals."Andhe (Shaitdn(Satan))swore by All6h to them both (saying):"Verily,I am one of the sincerewell-wishers for you both." So he misledthem with deception. Then when they tasfed of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts)became manifestto them and they began to cover fhemse/ves with the leaves of Paradise (in order to cover their shame).And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaitdn (Satan) is an open enemy -unto you?" They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves.lf You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall ' certainty be of the /osers. (Aileh) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e.Adam, HawwA'(Eve), and Shaltdn(Satan)) On earth witl be a dwelling-place for you and an enioyment for a time." He said: "Thereinyou shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shallbe broughtout (i.e. resurrected)."' Consider greatness Allaah'swork in man. He createdhim in the of the best form, clothed him with traits of honour like intellect, knowledge, eloquence, of speaking,beautiful art figure,moderate body, ability to acquire knowledgethrough analogicaldeduction and thinking and ability to acquire noble characteristics like, righteousness, acts of obedience and submission Allaah.Far is to his conditionwhile he was just a drop of spermkept in the womb of his motherfrom his creation whilethe Angel will enter upon him in the Paradise. (,'C cn-r,ri ;;i'Ai tr(','l I A l - A ' r a a7 : l l - 2 5 f
  46. 46. Islaam: Its Foundations And C, "So b/essedbe Atl6h,the Bestof Creators."l This world is a villageand man is its inhabitant. is preoccupied All becauseof him and all is made to work for his interests. oiher All creaturesare made to serve him and providefor his needs. The angels are chargedto protecthim duringday and night.Those of them.who are chargedwith provisionof rain and pllnts strive to providehim with his sustenance; orbits are made to surrenderto him and revolvein his services; the sun, moon and stars are all subjectedto move in line with his time reckoningand for the betterment his food arrangement. aerialworto of The witn its winds, clouds,birds and all that it containsis also subjected him. so is to the lower world with all its seas and rivers,its trees and fruits.its plants and animals and allthatis in it. Allaahsays, '" l: '-' -'rri 'r..t. .. -i;i- ', ,l*, - .. - zi -i- .'i,t- ,y (_Pv',t' 4 oJ'J.f)tr1 9"2:^JJl dI; cj+Jl tii ) '?i 'L' .^* -:fV ^''r. : -ii <-u;rr r - i;i, . . - * - i 1 ,u.,;,r'Ai - 1 t z -, - r-. d.r F-i 4t O 64 E iKl . = . n- v r r i - i'11 '2i .'. - -o -. ,- . -'-if. .1,-t t)i ,. . - :T itillj JJr -<t r-_, eH.t) r4-artr r-*-.Jt E *i (:D ifry1 . l ' / ir-"), ,_r! l^raa j ,iJtj^^! ts^i; olj ;;jL t_ J4 n 6i,ri . - ../ { ;1E,} ik=- t!-hJ "Alldhis He who has createdthe heavensand the earth and sends down water (rain) from the sky, and thereby brought forth fruits as provision for you; and He has made the shrps to be of service to you, that they may sail through fhe sea by His Command; and He has made rivers (also) to be of serviceto you. And He h?s ffiade the sun and the moon, both constanttypursuing their courses, to be of seruiceto you; and He has made the night and the day, to be of service to you. And He gave you of att that you askedfor, and if you count the Blessingsof All6h, never will you be abte to count ' Al-Mu'minoon23:14
  47. 47. Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts 45 them. Verily! Man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, a disbeliever (an extremeingrate,who denies Allah's8/esslngsby disbelief,and by worshippingothers besides All6h,and by disobeyingAll6h and His ProphetMuhammad(peacebe upon him))."' To completeHis honour on man, He createdfor him all that he needsin his worldlylife and all that he needsthat can make him attainthe highestpositionsin the Hereafter. as such, revealed He to him His Books and sent to him His Messengers to explaining him the Law of Allaahand calling him untoit. Then Allaah created for him from his own self - meaningfrom Adam himself- a wife,so that he mightenjoythe pleasure living of with her, in responseto his natural needs, be it psychological, intellectual and physical. He then found with her comfort, tranquillityand stability and both of them found in their togetherness peace, contentedness, love and mercy; becauseof their physical, psychologicaland nervous composition,both of them are made to respondto the desiresof each other and both are made to be in harmony in the process of producingnew generations. The soulsof both are enriched with thesefeelingsand their relationship filled with comfort for the soul and nerves, is peace for the body and mind, stability the life and subsistence, for familiarity souls and conscience for and a tranquillity the man for and womanon an equalbasis. Allaahthen chosethe believers among mankindand made them his frrends. madethem obey Him and work for Him according He to his Laws in order to make them qualifyto live in His Paradise. He choseamong them Prophets, Messengers, saintsand martyrsand blessedthen in this world with the best favourthat human souls can enjoy:worshipping Allaah,obeyingHim and supplicating to him. He also distinguished them with great favours- that others cannotget - amongwhich are: peace,tranquillity happiness, and and greaterthan all this is the fact that they know the truththat was brought the Messengers believe it. Allaahthen keepsfor by and in I l4:32-34 Ibraaheern
  48. 48. 46 Islaam: Its Foundations And Concepts them - in the Hereafter the everlasting - bliss and great success that befit His generosity, glory be to Him. He will atso rewardtheir beliefin Him and theirsincerity Him and willgive them moreout to of His Bounty. The position of woman: In lslaam,the womanis accorded high position, a whichshe was not accordedin any of the previousreligionsand which no nation will accordher but lslaam.This is because,both man and woman on equalbasissharethe honourthat lslaamconferred mankind. on Humansare equal beforerulesof Allaah in this world as they will be equalas regardsHis rewardand recompense the Last Day. on Allaahsays, 4.i:r; A, Lf tdt o y "And indeed, We have honouredthe chitdrenof Adam."1 He alsosays, 914'ii!'; ti L+i ,s;ts; o]j.fii 9t4-;,i 6 e.ei Jt;1).y !; / ' 'il'- (/ i-,:,jjlj "Thereis a share for men and a sharefor women from what is teft by parentsand those nearestretated.'2 6ii t" 33y ' A I - l s r a al 7 : 7 0 . 2 An-Nisaa : 7 4