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CALCULATING
COOLING REQUIREMENTS
FOR DATA CENTER
Mrinal Kanti Mondal
mrinal@amberit.com.bd
1
What we need to focus?
■ Estimate heat output from information technology (IT) equipment and other
devices in a data center such as UPS, Light etc.
■ A number of common conversion factors
■ Design guideline values
■ Sizing air conditioning systems.
2
Cooling Requirements for Data Centers
■ Equipment in Data Center produces heat, should have a better way
to remove.
■ Most IT Product in a data center or network room should be air-
cooled.
■ Need better understanding of the amount of heat produced by the
equipment contained in the enclosed space, along with the heat
produced by the other heat sources.
3
Google data center in Hamina, Finland
Sea water cooling system.
4
Facebook’s Second European Data Center
in Clonee, Ireland
For cooling, Clonee will use a system to filter the air more thoroughly than in other places
before it can be used inside the building because there’s too much salt in the air.
5
Measuring heat output
■ Joules
■ BTU,
■ Tons,
■ Calories
6
Unit Conversions
7
Given Value Multiply By To Get
BTU/hour 0.293 Watts
Watts 3.41 BTU/hour
Tons 3,530 Watts
Watts 0.000283 Tons
Components of Heating Load
8
How to Find Heat Output?
𝐻 ≈ ℎ1 + ℎ2 + ℎ3 + ℎ4 + ⋯
H=Total Heat Output.
Heat Output of all components includes:
 IT Equipment
 UPS
 PDU
 AC
 Lighting
 People
9
Determining heat output of a complete
system
■ The heat output of UPS and power distribution systems consists of a fixed loss and a
loss proportional to operating power.
■ Lighting and people can also be readily estimated using standard values.
■ Air conditioning units create a significant amount of heat from fans and compressors.
This heat is exhausted to the outside and does not create a thermal load inside the
data center.
10
Humidification
11
 Humidity describes the amount of water vapor in air
 To removing heat, an air conditioner system for a data
center is designed to control humidity.
 When the desired humidity is attained, the system would
operate with a constant amount of water in the air.
 Most air conditioning systems the air-cooling function of the
air conditioning system causes significant condensation of
water vapor and consequent humidity loss.
Humidification in the computer centers
12
Clean Steam & HumidificationAir Humidification
Case Study: Heat Output Calculation
Item Data required Heat output calculation
Heat output
subtotal
IT equipment
Total IT load power in
Watts
Same as total IT load power in
watts
_____________ Watts
UPS with battery
Power system rated power
in Watts
(0.04 x Power system rating) +
(0.05 x Total IT load power)
_____________ Watts
Power distribution
Power system rated power
in Watts
(0.01 x Power system rating) +
(0.02 x Total IT load power)
_____________ Watts
Lighting
Floor area in square feet,
or Floor area in square
meters
1.33 x floor area (sq ft)3, or
14.32 x floor area (sq m)
_____________ Watts
People
Max # of personnel in data
center
100 x Max # of personnel _____________ Watts
Total Subtotals from above Sum of heat output subtotals _____________ Watts
13
Case Study : Heat Output Calculation
Item Data required
Heat output
calculation
Heat output
subtotal
IT equipment
Total IT load power in Kilo
Watts
50KW 50000 Watts
UPS with battery
Power system rated power
in Kilo Watts
(0.04 x 160) + (0.05 x 50)
=(6.4+2.5)=8.9KW
8900 Watts
Power distribution
Power system rated power
in Kilo Watts
(0.01 x 160) + (0.02 x 50)
=(1.6+1)=2.6KW
2600 Watts
Lighting Floor area in square feet 1.33 x 3000/1000 3990 Watts
People
Max # of personnel in data
center
100 x 5 500 Watts
Total Subtotals from above
Sum of heat output
subtotals
65990 Watts or
66 Kilo Watts
14
Case Study :Heat Output Ratio
15
The thermal output
of a typical system
is described. A
3,000 SFT, (279
m2) 250 kW rated
data center with
20 racks and a
maximum staff of
5 is used as an
example.
76%
13%
4%
6%
1%
Graph View of Heat Output
IT Equipment
UPS with Battery
PDS
Lighting
People
Sizing of Air Conditioning
16
■ Concepts and fundamentals of air conditioner sizing is
based on heat gain, and/or losses in a building.
■ It is obvious that you will need to remove the amount of heat
gain - if it is hot outside. Similarly, you'll need to add in the
heat loss from your space - if outside temperature is cold.
■ In short, heat gain and loss, must be equally balanced by
heat removal, and addition, to get the desired room comfort
that we want.
Sizing of Air Conditioning(Contd.)
17
■ The Watt loads of each of these factors can be summed to determine the total
thermal load.
■ Expressing all measures of power and cooling in Watts simplifies the process.
■ To cool a room or building its output must be greater than the heat gain.
■ Cooling Load or Air Conditioning Size ≥ Heat or Thermal Load
■ A general rule is that a CRAC(Computer Room Air Conditioning) system rating should
be 1.3 times the anticipated IT load rating plus any capacity added for redundancy.
■ Approximate cooling size of the mentioned Data Center is not less than 66 KW or 19
Ton
Summary
Once the cooling requirements are determined, it is possible
to size an air conditioning system. The following factors
should be considered:
 The size of the cooling load of the equipment (including
power equipment)
 The size of the cooling load of the entire Data Center
 Oversizing to account for humidification effects
 Oversizing to create redundancy
 Oversizing for future requirements The Watt loads of
each of these factors can be summed to determine the
total thermal load.
18
References
■ http://www.apc.com
■ http://www.p3-inc.com
■ http://www.tombling.com/cooling/heat-load-calculations.htm
■ https://www.cedengineering.com
■ https://www.condair-systems.eu/applications/other/computer-centre
19
THANK YOU!
Any questions?
20

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Calculating Cooling Requirements for Data Centers

  • 1. CALCULATING COOLING REQUIREMENTS FOR DATA CENTER Mrinal Kanti Mondal mrinal@amberit.com.bd 1
  • 2. What we need to focus? ■ Estimate heat output from information technology (IT) equipment and other devices in a data center such as UPS, Light etc. ■ A number of common conversion factors ■ Design guideline values ■ Sizing air conditioning systems. 2
  • 3. Cooling Requirements for Data Centers ■ Equipment in Data Center produces heat, should have a better way to remove. ■ Most IT Product in a data center or network room should be air- cooled. ■ Need better understanding of the amount of heat produced by the equipment contained in the enclosed space, along with the heat produced by the other heat sources. 3
  • 4. Google data center in Hamina, Finland Sea water cooling system. 4
  • 5. Facebook’s Second European Data Center in Clonee, Ireland For cooling, Clonee will use a system to filter the air more thoroughly than in other places before it can be used inside the building because there’s too much salt in the air. 5
  • 6. Measuring heat output ■ Joules ■ BTU, ■ Tons, ■ Calories 6
  • 7. Unit Conversions 7 Given Value Multiply By To Get BTU/hour 0.293 Watts Watts 3.41 BTU/hour Tons 3,530 Watts Watts 0.000283 Tons
  • 9. How to Find Heat Output? 𝐻 ≈ ℎ1 + ℎ2 + ℎ3 + ℎ4 + ⋯ H=Total Heat Output. Heat Output of all components includes:  IT Equipment  UPS  PDU  AC  Lighting  People 9
  • 10. Determining heat output of a complete system ■ The heat output of UPS and power distribution systems consists of a fixed loss and a loss proportional to operating power. ■ Lighting and people can also be readily estimated using standard values. ■ Air conditioning units create a significant amount of heat from fans and compressors. This heat is exhausted to the outside and does not create a thermal load inside the data center. 10
  • 11. Humidification 11  Humidity describes the amount of water vapor in air  To removing heat, an air conditioner system for a data center is designed to control humidity.  When the desired humidity is attained, the system would operate with a constant amount of water in the air.  Most air conditioning systems the air-cooling function of the air conditioning system causes significant condensation of water vapor and consequent humidity loss.
  • 12. Humidification in the computer centers 12 Clean Steam & HumidificationAir Humidification
  • 13. Case Study: Heat Output Calculation Item Data required Heat output calculation Heat output subtotal IT equipment Total IT load power in Watts Same as total IT load power in watts _____________ Watts UPS with battery Power system rated power in Watts (0.04 x Power system rating) + (0.05 x Total IT load power) _____________ Watts Power distribution Power system rated power in Watts (0.01 x Power system rating) + (0.02 x Total IT load power) _____________ Watts Lighting Floor area in square feet, or Floor area in square meters 1.33 x floor area (sq ft)3, or 14.32 x floor area (sq m) _____________ Watts People Max # of personnel in data center 100 x Max # of personnel _____________ Watts Total Subtotals from above Sum of heat output subtotals _____________ Watts 13
  • 14. Case Study : Heat Output Calculation Item Data required Heat output calculation Heat output subtotal IT equipment Total IT load power in Kilo Watts 50KW 50000 Watts UPS with battery Power system rated power in Kilo Watts (0.04 x 160) + (0.05 x 50) =(6.4+2.5)=8.9KW 8900 Watts Power distribution Power system rated power in Kilo Watts (0.01 x 160) + (0.02 x 50) =(1.6+1)=2.6KW 2600 Watts Lighting Floor area in square feet 1.33 x 3000/1000 3990 Watts People Max # of personnel in data center 100 x 5 500 Watts Total Subtotals from above Sum of heat output subtotals 65990 Watts or 66 Kilo Watts 14
  • 15. Case Study :Heat Output Ratio 15 The thermal output of a typical system is described. A 3,000 SFT, (279 m2) 250 kW rated data center with 20 racks and a maximum staff of 5 is used as an example. 76% 13% 4% 6% 1% Graph View of Heat Output IT Equipment UPS with Battery PDS Lighting People
  • 16. Sizing of Air Conditioning 16 ■ Concepts and fundamentals of air conditioner sizing is based on heat gain, and/or losses in a building. ■ It is obvious that you will need to remove the amount of heat gain - if it is hot outside. Similarly, you'll need to add in the heat loss from your space - if outside temperature is cold. ■ In short, heat gain and loss, must be equally balanced by heat removal, and addition, to get the desired room comfort that we want.
  • 17. Sizing of Air Conditioning(Contd.) 17 ■ The Watt loads of each of these factors can be summed to determine the total thermal load. ■ Expressing all measures of power and cooling in Watts simplifies the process. ■ To cool a room or building its output must be greater than the heat gain. ■ Cooling Load or Air Conditioning Size ≥ Heat or Thermal Load ■ A general rule is that a CRAC(Computer Room Air Conditioning) system rating should be 1.3 times the anticipated IT load rating plus any capacity added for redundancy. ■ Approximate cooling size of the mentioned Data Center is not less than 66 KW or 19 Ton
  • 18. Summary Once the cooling requirements are determined, it is possible to size an air conditioning system. The following factors should be considered:  The size of the cooling load of the equipment (including power equipment)  The size of the cooling load of the entire Data Center  Oversizing to account for humidification effects  Oversizing to create redundancy  Oversizing for future requirements The Watt loads of each of these factors can be summed to determine the total thermal load. 18
  • 19. References ■ http://www.apc.com ■ http://www.p3-inc.com ■ http://www.tombling.com/cooling/heat-load-calculations.htm ■ https://www.cedengineering.com ■ https://www.condair-systems.eu/applications/other/computer-centre 19