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Bioethics

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For my Capstone Course (Contemporary issues in Organizational Leadership) my group decided to discuss the ethics in regards to medical research and treatment, which has been an ongoing debate in our society.

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Bioethics

  1. 1. BIOETHICS Sharon Larmond David Lord Tracey Perkins Michael Reyna Amanda Walton
  2. 2.  Contemporary version of philosophy or ethics of life and death  Ethics of medicine  Environmental ethics  Ethical issues arising from contemporary "advanced biomedical technology  Civil movement  “Academic" research and discussion  Ethics of medical research and treatment: the study of the moral and ethical choices faced in medical research and in the treatment of patients, especially when the application of advanced technology is involved BIOETHICS DEFINED!
  3. 3. BIOETHICS DEFINED!  The objective of bioethics is to consider how to maintain respect for and protection of the individual in light of our expanding knowledge of the life sciences and their applications http:// www.library.dal.ca/kellogg/Bioethics/definition.htm
  4. 4. 1968 Harvard University recommends brain death standards for organ transplantation. 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  5. 5. 1972 Depression-era Tuskegee Syphilis Study brought to light. 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  6. 6. 1976 New Jersey Supreme Court ruled Karen Ann Quinlan taken off life support. 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  7. 7. 1981 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005  AIDS is first reported in the U.S.
  8. 8. 1999 Dr. Jack Kevorkian is convicted of voluntary euthanasia of a patient with Lou Gehrig’s 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  9. 9. 2001 President Bush permits limited government funding of embryonic stem cell research, using only embryos that had already been destroyed. 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005
  10. 10.  …I SWEAR in the presence of the Almighty and before my family…  …I will treat without exception all who seek my ministrations, so long as the treatment of others is not compromised… THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH
  11. 11.  …I will neither prescribe nor administer a lethal dose of medicine to any patient even if asked nor counsel any such thing nor perform the utmost respect for every human life from fertilization to natural death and reject abortion that deliberately takes a unique human life…  ….I will neither treat any patient nor carry out any research on any human being without the valid informed consent of the subject…. THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH
  12. 12. WHAT ARE THE HOT TOPICS TODAY?  Stem Cells  Issue – Destruction of human embryos to gather stem cells  Solution – scientists have found a way to reprogram human skin cells to act like embryonic stem cells. Eliminates the issue of destroying embryos to get stem cells.  Article - http://www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/11/20/stem.cells.skin/index.html?ir  Video (2:28) - http://www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/11/20/stem.cells.skin/index.html?ir
  13. 13. MORE HOT TOPICS  Reproduction  Gender selection – 3 methods available – one is controversial because it involves creation of human embryos to find the desired gender with the others being discarded.  Article – http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/conditions/11/16/pdg.gender.selection/index.h  End-of-life treatment decisions  A new computer program is being developed that would predict the patient’s preferred treatment compared to the decision of a loved one. Results of the study have shown that in comparison of the choice from the computer and the choice from a loved one, both made the same decision as the patient two-thirds to three-quarters of the time.  Article - http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/06/21/computer.decides/index.html?iref=  Media Representation: i.e. House, MD, Grey’s Anatomy, Scrubs, etc.
  14. 14. EDUCATION OF BIOETHICS  The educational offerings in Bioethics are a fairly new trend. Only since the late 1990’s have schools have been offering Undergraduate, Masters and Doctorate programs in the field.  Currently there are:  28 Schools offering Masters Degree Programs  16 Schools offering Doctorate Degrees  Only a Handful of Undergraduate Degrees
  15. 15. EDUCATION OF BIOETHICS  The mission of most school’s programs is to “provide a deeper understanding of the ethical issues related to patient care and health care practice”. Typically Bioethics Degree programs overlap with other degrees in Law, Public Administration, Health Administration, Nursing or MD fields.  Sample Course Names, provided by the University of Minnesota’s Course Catalog are:  Biomedical Ethics  Ethical and Legal Issues in Genetic Counseling  Gender and the Politics of Health  Moral and Ethical positions in Nursing
  16. 16. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES
  17. 17. SOCIETIES  American Society for Bioethics and Humanities developed a set of core competencies for bioethics consultation that detail the qualifications bioethics consultants must possess in order to operate prospectively and intervene in developing cases.  Encouraging consideration of issues in human values as they relate to health services, the education of healthcare professionals and research.  Conducting educational meetings dealing with such issues.  Stimulating research in areas of such concern.  Contributing to the public discussion of these endeavors and interests including how they relate to public policy.  The International Society of Bioethics. Was founded in 1996 at the proposal of the Spanish medical doctor Marcelo Palacios.  The exclusive aim of the SIBI is to promote, support, disseminate and consolidate the knowledge of Bioethics and to foster a legal, social and ethical analysis of any problem posed by scientific advances, especially in Medicine and Biotechnology. The SIBI carries out these tasks through its Scientific Committee.
  18. 18. DRUG COMPANY ETHICS, DOCTOR RELATIONS  Doctors being bribed by large drug companies to prescribe medicines.  http://www.newstarget.com/016676.html  Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an international humanitarian aid organization that provides emergency medical assistance to populations in danger. The forefront of their campaign is to ensure that disadvantaged populations get the medicines they need.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0999/is_7277_322/ai_ 69651926  http://www.accessmed.msf.org/#
  19. 19. GOVERNMENT
  20. 20. FUTURE POSSIBILITIES AND TRENDS (DISCUSSION)  More topics evolve with societal views  Courses, Degrees, and Institutions will focus more on Bioethics  Possibilities of professional positions in hospitals  Pressure Groups  New groups, agencies, and non-profits may become available for the public to join to fight against immoral actions  New Government groups  New laws  What other trends do you see coming from the Bioethics move of the 21st century?
  21. 21. THANK YOU  The future will be determined in part by happenings that it is impossible to foresee; it will also be influenced by trends that are now existent and observable. ~Emily G. Balch

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