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2) law as rules


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law as rules

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2) law as rules

  1. 1. LAW AS RULES Introduction to Law 1 LAW012 1
  2. 2. LESSON OUTLINE a) Introduction & Definition of Rules b) Function of rules c) Characteristic of rules d) Type of Rules e) Rules as a form of social control f) Legal Rules v Social Rules g) Conclusion 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS RULES?? Definition of Rules • Standard of ruling for a particular activities or conduct – should or should not, how the activities should be conducted. • Lon Fuller - a jurist define law as the enterprise of subjecting human conduct to the governance of rules. Law as a set of rules that governs the behavior of the society • Twining and Miers - define rules as a general norm guiding conduct or action in a given type of situation. 3
  4. 4. • Rules for imposing self-restraint – we might submit to temptation and take property or life of someone in the weak position. 4
  5. 5. • Need to develop a rules in order to avoid uncertainty in the society (rule of change) – since there is a recognize rules of conduct govern the society. • All rules whether legal, customary or moral is considers as normative, laying down the standards of behaviour to which we ought to conform if the rules affect us. • Family, school, government bodies, agencies exists and operate by way of rules. 5
  6. 6. FUNCTION OF RULES • Function of rules according to HLA Hart: a) Truism about human nature – Human vulnerability – people susceptible to physical attack – Approximate Equality – even strongest must sleep at times – Limited altruism – people selfish – Limited resources – Limited understanding and strength of will That’s why we need rules as natural necessity for protection 6
  7. 7. b) ‘Minimum content of law’ to protect society from violence, satisfy needs and survival. – Law must have restrictions on free exercise of violence – Law must be based on mutual forbearance – Law must regulate the use of property – Law must provide creation of obligations – Law must provide sanctions if they are not obeyed. 7
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF RULES • Imperative (very important/crucial) • Unwritten or written • Negative and Positive terms • Deals with punishment/penalty • Command from authority • Have exception • Guide standard of behaviour • Normative – prescribe the desirable or undesirable conduct, lawful or unlawful. • Justification for decision – why rules should be obeyed. 8
  9. 9. TYPES OF RULES 9
  10. 10. PRIMARY RULES • Forbid or require certain actions and can generate duties or obligations (imposing duties). • For a citizen with an internal perspective to the law, the existence of a primary rule will create an obligation for him or her to behave a certain way. • Example: walking out of the Apple Store with an IPod without paying or the law requiring you to stop at a red light - criminal law. 10
  11. 11. SECONDARY RULES • Set up the procedures through which primary rules can be introduced, modified, or enforced (rules about the rules). • Example: a coach is permitted to challenge a call by the referee, but must accept the final decision of the ref following the viewing of the instant replay. • Without secondary rules the society would be very static – must have variation. • 3 types of secondary rules: a) rules of recognition – how to identify law, which rules is valid. b) rules of change - to facilitate the legislative to change the primary rules. 11
  12. 12. c) rules of adjudication - The rules which give power to officials to pass judgment in cases of alleged wrongs e.g. by ordering the payment of money or putting someone in prison 12
  13. 13. Rules as a form of social control 13
  14. 14. What is social control? • Refers to the way members of a society maintain order and promote predictability of behaviour. It is to make sure that the member of the society to conform with society’s expectation. • E.A Ross define ‘social control’ as a broad term to cover not only law but also public opinion, religion, education, custom and other less obvious things such as art. • Apart from legal enforcement, social control seeks to play its informal role to control the behaviour of the society. 14
  15. 15. LEGAL RULES/LAW • Law as a form of social control that declares certain types of act or omission as unlawful and subjected to punishment – criminal law • Criminal law aims at: - Punishment -Deterrence - Retribution • Example??? 15
  16. 16. SOCIAL RULES a) RELIGION • Al-Quran and Bible • Roscoe Pound said that not all matters are governed by law. Therefore, some interests are taken care of by religion. • Durkheim observes that religion is the original source of law, morality, science or philosophy - Imposes moral restrain on action • Different religion promotes different set of beliefs and 16
  17. 17. b) MORAL • Individual beliefs what is right or wrong. • Expectation on morality based on society values, folkways, religious belief. • What is moral and immoral are familiar part of argument – each society shares certain expectation about what is considered appropriate and desirable, good or evil. • Moral obligation is referring to general view supported by our society – adultery as immoral conduct is a view of society. • It is enforced by social pressures such as critism of the culprit and sympathy for the victim. 17
  18. 18. c) ETHIC • Concern with what is right, fair, just or good. • The word ‘ethics’ derived from the Greek word ‘Ethos’ which means character and from the Latin word mores (customs) – how individuals choose to interact with one another. • Example : our ways to respect the elders via talking or by conduct, eat, drink, work, relax. • Ethical rules are branch of morality and usually regulate the conduct of professional people such as lawyers, doctors in dealing with their patients or clients. • It can also be codified i.e. Legal Profession Ethics rules. 18
  19. 19. d) CUSTOMARY RULES • Unwritten laws. • Community based characteristic and it is passed from one generation to another. • Custom is formed through habit and out of practice. It is also based on tradition (Ferdinand Tonnie) • According to Lowie the unwritten laws of customary usage were obeyed far more willingly than our written code. • But for Hart, custom has no legal status unless it is being recognized by law or a particular legal system. • Has no legal status but persuasive. 19
  20. 20. e) FASHIONS • The best style at certain period or at a place – trend in society and must be fit to a certain particular situation or group in society. • According to Austin, law of fashion is the law improperly so called, as it is the laws set and enforced by mere opinion. • Fashions may vary according to age, social class, generation, occupation, sexual orientation etc. 20
  21. 21. f) TABOO • Derived from the word “Tapu”, a Fijian word which means prohibition/forbidden. • It is a strong social prohibition against certain acts that is deemed offensive by a group, culture, society or community. • For e.g., talking about sexual orientation is a taboo in Malay culture, but not in the West, restriction in using offensive language. 21
  22. 22. Legal Rules v Social Rules • Enforcement • Validity • Compliance • Sanction • Dispute settlement 22
  23. 23. SOCIAL RULES LEGAL RULES • Informal form of control • Whereby it not exercised through official institution and no special • Formal form of social control • Involved institutions in society and are characteristic by the ENFORCEMENT 23
  24. 24. SOCIAL RULES LEGAL RULES • Still valid, it’s just that social rules are informal and unofficial. •Made by deliberate act. • Golding states that law is distinguished from other rules such as sports rules, moral in term of its criteria of validity. VALIDITY 24
  25. 25. SOCIAL RULES LEGAL RULES • Informal sanction • In the form of social repercussion such as praise, • Formal sanction • Penal and restitutive punishment are SANCTION 25
  26. 26. SOCIAL RULES LEGAL RULES • Usually done through internal control. • Compliance to social norms as • Usually done via external pressures. • Exercise by either state or COMPLIANCE 26
  27. 27. SOCIAL RULES LEGAL RULES • Informal mode of dispute settlement. • Robert Simon says that it may include the use of physical force, resort to • Formal mode of dispute settlement • Legal and non-legal proceeding (ADR) DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 27
  28. 28. THANK YOU 28