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Mr. Mahesh Patil
M.A. (Political Science), M.Phil, NET, SET,
Assistant Professor,
Narayanrao Chavan Law College, Nanded,
Maharashtra, India
Cell No (+91) 09860816313
Main object of the Chapter
• To understand what is law (including meaning and
definition).
• To learn its origin and conceptual development.
• To analysis various types / Kinds of Law.
• To see the sources of Law .
• To understand relation between Law and Political
Science.
• To study the composition and powers & function
of Law Commission of India.
Introduction
• Law is a social science and grows and develops with
the growth and development of society. New
developments in society creates new problems and
law is required to deal with those problems. In order
to keep pace with society , the definition and scope
of law must continue to change. The result is that a
definition of law given at a particular time.
• Law is a principle and regulations established in a
community by some authority and applicable to its
people, whether in the form of legislation or of
custom and policies recognized and enforced by
state authority.
• The system of rules which a particular country or
community recognizes as regulating the actions of its
members and which it may enforce by the imposition
of penalties.
• Law is subject matter of jurisprudence. It is any rule of
action and includes any standard or pattern to which
actions are to be conformed. It means a body of rules
of conduct, action or behavior of person, made and
enforced by the State. It expresses a rule of human
action. It is a general rule of external human action
enforced by a sovereign political authority.
Meaning:
• It means a body of rules of conduct, action or behavior
of person, made and enforced by the State. It
expresses a rule of human action. It is a general rule of
external human action enforced by a sovereign political
authority.
• The system of rules which a particular country or
community recognizes as regulating the actions of its
members and which it may enforce by the imposition
of penalties.
• Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social
institutions to govern behavior. Laws can be made by a collective
legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the
executive through decrees and regulations, or by judges through
binding precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions.
• Laws means justice, morality, reason, order, righteousness & etc.
• Laws means statues, Acts. Rules, regulations, orders, ordinances &
etc.
• Law means and involves a uniformity of behavior, a constancy of
happenings or a course of events, rules of action, whether in the
phenomena of nature of in the ways of rational human beings.
• In short, it means an order of the universe, of events, of things or
action as well as it is body of rules of conduct, action or behaviour
of person, made and enforced by the State. It expresses a rule of
human action
Definition :
• Jurists have defined law differently from differently
point of views. It has been called ‘Dharma’ in Hindu
jurisprudence and ‘Hukum’ in Islamic system. Romans
called it Jus & in Germany and France it is called as
Richt and Driot respectively.
• Blockstone: law in its most general and comprehensive
sense signifies a rule of action and is applied
indiscriminately to all kind of actions irrespective of
gender, caste, language, race, birth, colour, and etc.
• Salmonds : the body of principles recognized and a
applied by the state in the administration of justice.
Types / kinds
• General Law : The entire body of law consists of the
general law and specific law. It may be described
as that part of the law, which concerns, and
applies to all persons without discrimination and
which is not limited in its application to a
particular locality, but applies to he whole of the
territory in the country. It is the ordinary law of
the land. It is the law of the realm. The general
law is divided into three classes according to its
sources- such as statute law, equality, common
law,
• Foreign Law/ Private International Law :
• Conventional Law: Conventional law originates in
agreement. Agreement is a law for those who make it
or It is law for those who have agreed to be bound by
it. Conventional rules create legal rights.
• Autonomic Law: it is that specie of enacted law which
has its source in various forms of subordinate legislative
authorities possessed by private persons or bodies of
persons. Thus a university makes its statute
• Special Law: it consists of certain other bodies of legal
rules which apply only under special condition.
• Sir John Salmond makes mention of the following
forms of special laws
• Local Law / Municipal law: it is body of laws which
obtains only in certain parts of the state and not
throughout its territory. Such laws may either be
local customary law or local enacted law. Local
customary law has its roots in those immemorial
customs which prevail in a particular part of the State
and therefore have the force of law.
• the Local enacted law has its source in the local
legislative authority or municipalities to govern their
jurisduration.
• Customary Law :- there are many customs which have
been prevalent in the society before the state came into
existence. They have assumed the force of law in course of
time. It is enforced by the State as law because of its
general approval by the people.
• Example: almost all law of marriage , adoption, succession
etc is based on customs prevalent in ancient Hindu society.
• Early law is customary and really it is not law, but quasi law.
They come into existence due to a number of reasons.
When some kind of action gets general approval and is
generally observed for a long time it becomes a custom. A
custom becomes law, and can really be regarded as law,
only upon its recognition bu the law court or by statute.
• International Law: the law of nations of the 18th
centaury was named as international law by Bentham
in 1780. it consists of rules regulate relations between
states. Oppenheim has defined International law as “
the body of customary and conventional rules which
are considered legally binding by civilized states in
their intercourse with each other.
• It is a body of customs, usages, conventions and
principles of international property and natural
justice as accepted by the nations of world.
• it is an aggregate of rules and regulations recognized
and accepted by states in their relations with each
other.
• Private Law: it is concerned with the matters
concerning the individual more than the public. It
regulates and governs the relations of citizens with
each other. The parties in such cases are private
individual and the state adjudicates the matters in
dispute between individuals through its judicial
organs. Here the state acts as an arbiter. The state
does not regulates all the conducts and relations of
the citizens. It deals with matters such as contracts,
insurance, carriage, damages, personal injuries, civil
wrongs, sales of good, partnership, regulations of
companies, trans of property, trusts and the like.
• Public law: it seeks to regulate the activities of the
state. The important sub-division of public law are-
constitutional law, administrative law. It deals with the
rights and obligations of the state towards its citizens .
• Constitutional Law: it provides for the working of
the constitution of a country. Constitution defines the
composition and functions of the organs of
governments. It decides the nature of political
structure of the country. It determines the rights and
liberties of the individuals. Constitutional law is above
and superior to the ordinary law of the land. It is the
fundamental law of a state which contains the
principles on which government is formed.
• Administrative Law: it is the law and rules concerning
the administration of the executive departments of a
state. It deals with the structure, power and functions
of the organs of administration, limit of their power,,
the methods and procedures followed by them in
exercising their powers and functions and etc. it covers
legislative and judicial powers of the executive. It deals
with day to day activities of official in relations to the
members of the public.
• Substantive and Procedural Law: Substantive law is
that which defines a right and legal powers while
procedural law determines the remedies. Procedural
law is also called law in action as it governs the process
of litigation. Substantive law is concerned with ends
which the administration of justice seeks to achieved.
• For example: Law of contract, trans of property,
negotiable instruments, crimes etc are substantive law
whereas the law of civil procedure or criminal procedure
are procedural law.
Sources of Law
• Legislation.
• Custom.
• Precedent.
• Juristic opinion .
• International conventions.
• Legislation: There are twp obvious reasons for
legislation being regarded as one of the most effective
sources of law. Firstly, it involves laying down of legal
rules by the legislature which the state recognizes as
law. Secondly, it has the force and authority of the
state.
• Legislation means making . It is the source of law
which consists in the declaration of legal rules by a
competent authority.
•
• Custom : it occupies an important place in regulation
of human conduct in almost all the societies. In fact, in
it is one of the oldest source of law- making.
• A custom may be defined as a continuing course of
conduct which by the express approval of the member
of society.
• When a particular conduct is followed by people
continuously for a long time, we call it habit. But if
some conduct or rule is followed by most people of a
particular class or locality. It is not always necessary
that the court should recognize all practices which are
prevalent in a community as custom.
• Precedent: in every country, legal system consists of a
judicial organs. The function of the judicial organs is to give
just decision in disputes. In deciding disputes, the judges are
guided by customs in the beginning. As society progress,
legislation becomes the source of law and the judges decide
cases according to legislative law. Where there is no
legislation on the particular point which arises in changed
conditions, the judges depend on their own sense of right of
right and wrong and decide the disputes. Such decisions
become authority or guide foe subsequent cases of a similar
nature and they are called precedents.
• A precedent is a statement of law found in a judicial decision
of a High Court or a superior Court, meant to be followed by
the same Courts as also by subordinate Courts.
• The term precedent generally means some set pattern guiding
the future conduct. In the judicial field it means the guidance
of past decisions to be applied for future cases.
• Juristic opinion: plays a important role for the source of
law. Juristic express their views on a particular topic, is
counted as base of legal proceedings. Apart from
judgment, jurist express their views on legal matters. It
is sum total of opinion of the judges, well known
lawyers.
• One of the most important sources in law is the juristic
opinion, some legal system consider the juristic opinion
as a n original source of law others consider it as a
subsidiary source of law.
• It means -The body of opinion set forth by jurists in their
books.
• The characters of the juristic opinion as the opinion of
the jurist is not an authoritative source of law. , It is not
binding to the judge, It interprets the codes, Expound the
principles upon which the codes are based.
• International conventions: International conventions are
treaties or agreements between states (the primary actors
in international law). International convention is used
interchangeably with terms like international treaty,
international agreement, compact, or contract between
states.
• A convention is a selection from among two or more
alternatives, where the rule or alternative is agreed upon
among participants.
• It is multilateral treaty, or the instrument negotiated under
the auspices of an international organization, such as the
United Nations .
• Salmonds Classification of sources of Law
Material Sources Formal Sources
Legal Sources Historical Sources
Legislation Precedent Customary Conventional
Law Law
Based on customs Based on agreement
Law Commission of India
• What is Law Commission?
• How Law Commission is established?
• Who is composition of Law Commission?
• What is History of Law Commission of India?
• Importance of Law Commission.
• Function of Law Commission.
• Introduction : Law Commission of India is neither a
constitutional body nor a statutory body. It is truly an ad
hoc and advisory body whose work is to do research
and make recommendations for law reforms such as
amendments and updations of prevalent and inherited
laws. None of these recommendations is binding upon
the Government.
• Establishment: Law Commission of is established by
an order of central government. Who will head the law
commission is completely at the discretion of the
Government. However, it is a convention that a retired
judge of Supreme Court heads India’s Law
Commission. Further, the States also can constitute their
own law commissions.
•
• Composition of Law Commission: The Commission
is headed by a full-time Chairperson. It membership
primarily comprises legal experts, who are entrusted a
mandate by the Government.
• For example, the 21st Law commission would be
comprised of:
• A full-time Chairperson.
• Four full-time Members (including a Member-
Secretary).
• Secretary, Department of Legal Affairs as ex offcio
Member.
• Secretary, Legislative Department as ex offcio Member.
• Not more than five part-time Members.
• The Commission is established for a fixed tenure
(generally three years) and works as an advisory
body to the Ministry of Law and Justice. Before
finalizing its recommendations, the Commission
needs to consult the law ministry. Law
Commission works in close co-ordination and
under the general instruction of Ministry of Law
and Justice. It generally acts as the initiation point
for law reform in the country. Internally, the Law
Commission works in a research-oriented manner.
• 21st Law Commission : In 2015, the Law Ministry had forwarded
a list of 48 former judges of high courts and Supreme Court to the
Prime Minister’s Office to select the next Law Commission
Chairperson. The term of the 20th Law Commission ended on
August 30 last year and the Union Cabinet approved creation of the
21st Law Commission on September 9. The Law Ministry brought
out a notification to create the 21st law panel on September 14 last.
• One of the key issues pending before the law panel is a call on
amending the Indian Penal Code amid allegations of abuse and
arbitrary use of the law. The Law Ministry had urged the
Commission to study the usage of the provisions of Section 124A
(Sedition) of the IPC.
• Former Supreme Court judge Balbir Singh Chauhan was appointed
Chairman of the 21st Law Commission. Mr. Justice Ravi R.
Tripathi, retired judge of the Gujarat High Court was appointed as
Full-time Member.
• On 10 June 2016, Mr. Satya Pal Jain, Additional Solicitor General
of India was appointed as Part-time Member of the Commission
Powers & Functions
• To review and repeal of obsolete laws.
• To examine of existing laws, the revision of central Acts of
general importance.
• To examine existing laws from the gender equality
perspective and suggest necessary amendments.
• To advise and critical analysis of the government's
policies.
Law Commission of India
• Introduction : Law Commission of India is an executive body
established by an order of the Government of India. Its major function
is to work for legal reform. Its membership primarily comprises legal
experts, who are entrusted a mandate by the Government. The
Commission is established for a fixed tenure and works as an advisory
body to the Ministry of Law and Justice.
• The first Law Commission was established during the British Raj
era in 1834 by the Charter Act of 1833. After that, three more
Commissions were established in pre-independent India. The first
Law Commission of independent India was established in 1955
for a three-year term. Since then, nineteen more Commissions
have been established. The 20th Law Commission was
established in 2013 under the Chairmanship of Supreme Court
Judge, D.K Jain. Its tenure was fixed till 2015. The present Law
Commission was established in 2015, and has tenure to 2018
• The Law Commission works in close co-ordination and
under the general instruction of Ministry of Law and
Justice. It generally acts as the initiation point for law
reform in the country. Internally, the Law Commission
works in a research-oriented manner.
• The permanent members of the Commission generally
are responsible for framing the exact topic and
reference to work upon and often takes the services of
eminent law experts and jurists who are familiar with
the matter under review. These experts may either
work part-time with the Commission or may have been
requested to contribute to specific reports or issues
under review
• The recommendations of the commission are not
binding on the government. "They are
recommendations. They may be accepted or rejected.
Action on the said recommendations depends on the
ministries/departments, which are concerned with
the subject matter of the recommendations."[25] This
has resulted in a number of important and critical
recommendations not being implemented. The
commission, however, has continued to work upon its
assigned tasks.
• Composition: chairman of the commission is generally
a retired judge of the Supreme Court has helped the
prominence of the commission.
•
Slide Title
Product A
• Feature 1
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• Feature 3
Product B
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Legislature
LegislatureLegislature
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Human rightHuman right
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Rights
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Equality
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Liberty
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Concept of authority
Concept of authorityConcept of authority
Concept of authority
 
Concept of power
Concept of powerConcept of power
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Concept of law

  • 1. Mr. Mahesh Patil M.A. (Political Science), M.Phil, NET, SET, Assistant Professor, Narayanrao Chavan Law College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India Cell No (+91) 09860816313
  • 2. Main object of the Chapter • To understand what is law (including meaning and definition). • To learn its origin and conceptual development. • To analysis various types / Kinds of Law. • To see the sources of Law . • To understand relation between Law and Political Science. • To study the composition and powers & function of Law Commission of India.
  • 3. Introduction • Law is a social science and grows and develops with the growth and development of society. New developments in society creates new problems and law is required to deal with those problems. In order to keep pace with society , the definition and scope of law must continue to change. The result is that a definition of law given at a particular time. • Law is a principle and regulations established in a community by some authority and applicable to its people, whether in the form of legislation or of custom and policies recognized and enforced by state authority.
  • 4. • The system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties. • Law is subject matter of jurisprudence. It is any rule of action and includes any standard or pattern to which actions are to be conformed. It means a body of rules of conduct, action or behavior of person, made and enforced by the State. It expresses a rule of human action. It is a general rule of external human action enforced by a sovereign political authority.
  • 5. Meaning: • It means a body of rules of conduct, action or behavior of person, made and enforced by the State. It expresses a rule of human action. It is a general rule of external human action enforced by a sovereign political authority. • The system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties.
  • 6. • Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior. Laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or by judges through binding precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. • Laws means justice, morality, reason, order, righteousness & etc. • Laws means statues, Acts. Rules, regulations, orders, ordinances & etc. • Law means and involves a uniformity of behavior, a constancy of happenings or a course of events, rules of action, whether in the phenomena of nature of in the ways of rational human beings. • In short, it means an order of the universe, of events, of things or action as well as it is body of rules of conduct, action or behaviour of person, made and enforced by the State. It expresses a rule of human action
  • 7. Definition : • Jurists have defined law differently from differently point of views. It has been called ‘Dharma’ in Hindu jurisprudence and ‘Hukum’ in Islamic system. Romans called it Jus & in Germany and France it is called as Richt and Driot respectively. • Blockstone: law in its most general and comprehensive sense signifies a rule of action and is applied indiscriminately to all kind of actions irrespective of gender, caste, language, race, birth, colour, and etc. • Salmonds : the body of principles recognized and a applied by the state in the administration of justice.
  • 8. Types / kinds • General Law : The entire body of law consists of the general law and specific law. It may be described as that part of the law, which concerns, and applies to all persons without discrimination and which is not limited in its application to a particular locality, but applies to he whole of the territory in the country. It is the ordinary law of the land. It is the law of the realm. The general law is divided into three classes according to its sources- such as statute law, equality, common law,
  • 9. • Foreign Law/ Private International Law : • Conventional Law: Conventional law originates in agreement. Agreement is a law for those who make it or It is law for those who have agreed to be bound by it. Conventional rules create legal rights. • Autonomic Law: it is that specie of enacted law which has its source in various forms of subordinate legislative authorities possessed by private persons or bodies of persons. Thus a university makes its statute
  • 10. • Special Law: it consists of certain other bodies of legal rules which apply only under special condition. • Sir John Salmond makes mention of the following forms of special laws • Local Law / Municipal law: it is body of laws which obtains only in certain parts of the state and not throughout its territory. Such laws may either be local customary law or local enacted law. Local customary law has its roots in those immemorial customs which prevail in a particular part of the State and therefore have the force of law. • the Local enacted law has its source in the local legislative authority or municipalities to govern their jurisduration.
  • 11. • Customary Law :- there are many customs which have been prevalent in the society before the state came into existence. They have assumed the force of law in course of time. It is enforced by the State as law because of its general approval by the people. • Example: almost all law of marriage , adoption, succession etc is based on customs prevalent in ancient Hindu society. • Early law is customary and really it is not law, but quasi law. They come into existence due to a number of reasons. When some kind of action gets general approval and is generally observed for a long time it becomes a custom. A custom becomes law, and can really be regarded as law, only upon its recognition bu the law court or by statute.
  • 12. • International Law: the law of nations of the 18th centaury was named as international law by Bentham in 1780. it consists of rules regulate relations between states. Oppenheim has defined International law as “ the body of customary and conventional rules which are considered legally binding by civilized states in their intercourse with each other. • It is a body of customs, usages, conventions and principles of international property and natural justice as accepted by the nations of world. • it is an aggregate of rules and regulations recognized and accepted by states in their relations with each other.
  • 13. • Private Law: it is concerned with the matters concerning the individual more than the public. It regulates and governs the relations of citizens with each other. The parties in such cases are private individual and the state adjudicates the matters in dispute between individuals through its judicial organs. Here the state acts as an arbiter. The state does not regulates all the conducts and relations of the citizens. It deals with matters such as contracts, insurance, carriage, damages, personal injuries, civil wrongs, sales of good, partnership, regulations of companies, trans of property, trusts and the like.
  • 14. • Public law: it seeks to regulate the activities of the state. The important sub-division of public law are- constitutional law, administrative law. It deals with the rights and obligations of the state towards its citizens . • Constitutional Law: it provides for the working of the constitution of a country. Constitution defines the composition and functions of the organs of governments. It decides the nature of political structure of the country. It determines the rights and liberties of the individuals. Constitutional law is above and superior to the ordinary law of the land. It is the fundamental law of a state which contains the principles on which government is formed.
  • 15. • Administrative Law: it is the law and rules concerning the administration of the executive departments of a state. It deals with the structure, power and functions of the organs of administration, limit of their power,, the methods and procedures followed by them in exercising their powers and functions and etc. it covers legislative and judicial powers of the executive. It deals with day to day activities of official in relations to the members of the public.
  • 16. • Substantive and Procedural Law: Substantive law is that which defines a right and legal powers while procedural law determines the remedies. Procedural law is also called law in action as it governs the process of litigation. Substantive law is concerned with ends which the administration of justice seeks to achieved. • For example: Law of contract, trans of property, negotiable instruments, crimes etc are substantive law whereas the law of civil procedure or criminal procedure are procedural law.
  • 17. Sources of Law • Legislation. • Custom. • Precedent. • Juristic opinion . • International conventions.
  • 18. • Legislation: There are twp obvious reasons for legislation being regarded as one of the most effective sources of law. Firstly, it involves laying down of legal rules by the legislature which the state recognizes as law. Secondly, it has the force and authority of the state. • Legislation means making . It is the source of law which consists in the declaration of legal rules by a competent authority. •
  • 19. • Custom : it occupies an important place in regulation of human conduct in almost all the societies. In fact, in it is one of the oldest source of law- making. • A custom may be defined as a continuing course of conduct which by the express approval of the member of society. • When a particular conduct is followed by people continuously for a long time, we call it habit. But if some conduct or rule is followed by most people of a particular class or locality. It is not always necessary that the court should recognize all practices which are prevalent in a community as custom.
  • 20. • Precedent: in every country, legal system consists of a judicial organs. The function of the judicial organs is to give just decision in disputes. In deciding disputes, the judges are guided by customs in the beginning. As society progress, legislation becomes the source of law and the judges decide cases according to legislative law. Where there is no legislation on the particular point which arises in changed conditions, the judges depend on their own sense of right of right and wrong and decide the disputes. Such decisions become authority or guide foe subsequent cases of a similar nature and they are called precedents. • A precedent is a statement of law found in a judicial decision of a High Court or a superior Court, meant to be followed by the same Courts as also by subordinate Courts. • The term precedent generally means some set pattern guiding the future conduct. In the judicial field it means the guidance of past decisions to be applied for future cases.
  • 21. • Juristic opinion: plays a important role for the source of law. Juristic express their views on a particular topic, is counted as base of legal proceedings. Apart from judgment, jurist express their views on legal matters. It is sum total of opinion of the judges, well known lawyers. • One of the most important sources in law is the juristic opinion, some legal system consider the juristic opinion as a n original source of law others consider it as a subsidiary source of law. • It means -The body of opinion set forth by jurists in their books. • The characters of the juristic opinion as the opinion of the jurist is not an authoritative source of law. , It is not binding to the judge, It interprets the codes, Expound the principles upon which the codes are based.
  • 22. • International conventions: International conventions are treaties or agreements between states (the primary actors in international law). International convention is used interchangeably with terms like international treaty, international agreement, compact, or contract between states. • A convention is a selection from among two or more alternatives, where the rule or alternative is agreed upon among participants. • It is multilateral treaty, or the instrument negotiated under the auspices of an international organization, such as the United Nations .
  • 23. • Salmonds Classification of sources of Law Material Sources Formal Sources Legal Sources Historical Sources Legislation Precedent Customary Conventional Law Law Based on customs Based on agreement
  • 24. Law Commission of India • What is Law Commission? • How Law Commission is established? • Who is composition of Law Commission? • What is History of Law Commission of India? • Importance of Law Commission. • Function of Law Commission.
  • 25. • Introduction : Law Commission of India is neither a constitutional body nor a statutory body. It is truly an ad hoc and advisory body whose work is to do research and make recommendations for law reforms such as amendments and updations of prevalent and inherited laws. None of these recommendations is binding upon the Government. • Establishment: Law Commission of is established by an order of central government. Who will head the law commission is completely at the discretion of the Government. However, it is a convention that a retired judge of Supreme Court heads India’s Law Commission. Further, the States also can constitute their own law commissions. •
  • 26. • Composition of Law Commission: The Commission is headed by a full-time Chairperson. It membership primarily comprises legal experts, who are entrusted a mandate by the Government. • For example, the 21st Law commission would be comprised of: • A full-time Chairperson. • Four full-time Members (including a Member- Secretary). • Secretary, Department of Legal Affairs as ex offcio Member. • Secretary, Legislative Department as ex offcio Member. • Not more than five part-time Members.
  • 27. • The Commission is established for a fixed tenure (generally three years) and works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice. Before finalizing its recommendations, the Commission needs to consult the law ministry. Law Commission works in close co-ordination and under the general instruction of Ministry of Law and Justice. It generally acts as the initiation point for law reform in the country. Internally, the Law Commission works in a research-oriented manner.
  • 28. • 21st Law Commission : In 2015, the Law Ministry had forwarded a list of 48 former judges of high courts and Supreme Court to the Prime Minister’s Office to select the next Law Commission Chairperson. The term of the 20th Law Commission ended on August 30 last year and the Union Cabinet approved creation of the 21st Law Commission on September 9. The Law Ministry brought out a notification to create the 21st law panel on September 14 last. • One of the key issues pending before the law panel is a call on amending the Indian Penal Code amid allegations of abuse and arbitrary use of the law. The Law Ministry had urged the Commission to study the usage of the provisions of Section 124A (Sedition) of the IPC. • Former Supreme Court judge Balbir Singh Chauhan was appointed Chairman of the 21st Law Commission. Mr. Justice Ravi R. Tripathi, retired judge of the Gujarat High Court was appointed as Full-time Member. • On 10 June 2016, Mr. Satya Pal Jain, Additional Solicitor General of India was appointed as Part-time Member of the Commission
  • 29. Powers & Functions • To review and repeal of obsolete laws. • To examine of existing laws, the revision of central Acts of general importance. • To examine existing laws from the gender equality perspective and suggest necessary amendments. • To advise and critical analysis of the government's policies.
  • 30. Law Commission of India • Introduction : Law Commission of India is an executive body established by an order of the Government of India. Its major function is to work for legal reform. Its membership primarily comprises legal experts, who are entrusted a mandate by the Government. The Commission is established for a fixed tenure and works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice. • The first Law Commission was established during the British Raj era in 1834 by the Charter Act of 1833. After that, three more Commissions were established in pre-independent India. The first Law Commission of independent India was established in 1955 for a three-year term. Since then, nineteen more Commissions have been established. The 20th Law Commission was established in 2013 under the Chairmanship of Supreme Court Judge, D.K Jain. Its tenure was fixed till 2015. The present Law Commission was established in 2015, and has tenure to 2018
  • 31. • The Law Commission works in close co-ordination and under the general instruction of Ministry of Law and Justice. It generally acts as the initiation point for law reform in the country. Internally, the Law Commission works in a research-oriented manner. • The permanent members of the Commission generally are responsible for framing the exact topic and reference to work upon and often takes the services of eminent law experts and jurists who are familiar with the matter under review. These experts may either work part-time with the Commission or may have been requested to contribute to specific reports or issues under review
  • 32. • The recommendations of the commission are not binding on the government. "They are recommendations. They may be accepted or rejected. Action on the said recommendations depends on the ministries/departments, which are concerned with the subject matter of the recommendations."[25] This has resulted in a number of important and critical recommendations not being implemented. The commission, however, has continued to work upon its assigned tasks.
  • 33. • Composition: chairman of the commission is generally a retired judge of the Supreme Court has helped the prominence of the commission. •
  • 34. Slide Title Product A • Feature 1 • Feature 2 • Feature 3 Product B • Feature 1 • Feature 2 • Feature 3