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Dr ASHRAF AZAZ
CHAIN OF
INECTION
: ‫ص‬1 2 071 ‫ص‬
1
The Chain ofThe Chain of
InfectionInfection
02/03/15
2
As healthcareAs healthcare
professionals, it isprofessionals, it is
important toimportant to
understand twounderstand two
things aboutthings about
infectioninfection:
02/03/15
3
1.the various ways infection can
be transmitted
2. the ways the infection chain
can be broken
02/03/15
4
There are sixThere are six
linkslinks
in the chain ofin the chain of
infectioninfection ::02/03/15
5
1st - The Infectious Agent1st - The Infectious Agent
-any disease-causing
microorganism
(pathogen)
02/03/15
6
2nd - The Reservoir Host2nd - The Reservoir Host
-the organism in which the
infectious microbes reside
02/03/15
7
Hosts that do not show any outward signs or
symptoms of a disease but are still capable
of transmitting the disease are known as
carriers.
What are “Carrier Hosts”What are “Carrier Hosts”
02/03/15
8
3rd - The Portal of Exit3rd - The Portal of Exit
-route of escape of the pathogen
from the reservoir.
Examples: respiratory
secretions, blood
exposure, breaks in
skin02/03/15
9
4th - The Route of4th - The Route of
TransmissionTransmission
-method by which the pathogen
gets from the reservoir to the
new host
02/03/15
10
Transmission may occur through:
direct contact
02/03/15
11
air
02/03/15
12
insects
02/03/15
13
5th - The Portal of Entry5th - The Portal of Entry
-route through which the
pathogen enters its new host
02/03/15
14
Respiratory System
inhalation
inhalation
02/03/15
15
Gastrointestinal System
ingestion
ingestion
02/03/15
16
Urinary & Reproductive TractsSexual
Sexual
contact
contact
02/03/15
17
Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier
02/03/15
18
6th - The6th - The Susceptible HostSusceptible Host
-the organism that accepts the
pathogen
The support of pathogen life & its
reproduction depend on the degree
of the host’s resistance.
02/03/15
19
Organisms with strong immuneOrganisms with strong immune
systems are better able to fend offsystems are better able to fend off
pathogens.pathogens.
02/03/15
20
Organisms with weakened immuneOrganisms with weakened immune
systems are more vulnerable to thesystems are more vulnerable to the
support & reproduction of pathogens.support & reproduction of pathogens.
02/03/15
21
-The essential part of patient care
& self-protection.
How to interrupt the chain ofHow to interrupt the chain of
infection:infection:
02/03/15
22
1. Pathogen Identification1. Pathogen Identification
-identification of infectious
agent & appropriate treatment
02/03/15
23
2. Asepsis & Hygiene2. Asepsis & Hygiene
-potential hosts &
carriers must practice
asepsis & maintain
proper personal hygiene
02/03/15
24
3. Control Portals of Exit3. Control Portals of Exit
-healthcare personnel must
practice standard precautions:
02/03/15
25
(Control body secretions & wash
hands according to protocol.)
02/03/15
26
4. Prevent a Route of4. Prevent a Route of
TransmissionTransmission
-prevent direct or indirect contact
by:
1.Proper handwashing
2.Disinfection & sterilization techniques
3.Isolation of infected patients
4.Not working when contagious
02/03/15
27
5. Protect Portal of Entry5. Protect Portal of Entry
-Health professionals must make
sure that ports of entry are not
subjected to pathogens.
(nose, mouth, eyes, urinary tract,
open wounds, etc.)
02/03/15
28
6. Recognition of Susceptible6. Recognition of Susceptible
HostHost
-health professionals must recognize
& protect high-risk patients
02/03/15
29
•Cancer Patients
•AIDS Patients
•Transplant Patients
•Infant & Elderly
Patients
02/03/15
30
Remember--breaking the chain ofRemember--breaking the chain of
infection is the responsibilityinfection is the responsibility
of each health professional.of each health professional.
02/03/15
31
The chain of Infection
Way in for microbesWay in for microbes
• Bad microbe need a way toBad microbe need a way to
get into someone elseget into someone else
before they can cause anbefore they can cause an
infectioninfection
• This can be throughThis can be through
– the food we eatthe food we eat
– inhalation of aerosolsinhalation of aerosols
– open cuts or soresopen cuts or sores
– things we put in our mouthsthings we put in our mouths
02/03/15
32
Breaking the Chain
Source of infection
• Isolate infected people
• Take care with raw food
• Wash pets on a regular basis
• Dispose of nappies and soiled
items appropriately
02/03/15
33
Breaking the Chain
Way out for microbes
Prevent any
 faeces
 vomit
 bodily fluids
 coughs and sneezes
getting onto surfaces or hands
02/03/15
34
Breaking the Chain
Way out for microbes
Prevent any
 faeces
 vomit
 bodily fluids
 coughs and sneezes
getting onto surfaces or hands
02/03/15
35
Breaking the Chain
Spread of infectionSpread of infection
• Wash hands thoroughly ANDWash hands thoroughly AND
regularlyregularly
• Cover cuts and open soresCover cuts and open sores
• Take appropriate precautionTake appropriate precaution
during sexual activitiesduring sexual activities
02/03/15
36
Breaking the Chain
Way out for microbesWay out for microbes
Prevent anyPrevent any
• faecesfaeces
• vomitvomit
• bodily fluidsbodily fluids
• coughs and sneezescoughs and sneezes
getting onto surfaces orgetting onto surfaces or
handshands
02/03/15
37
Breaking the Chain
People at risk fromPeople at risk from
infectioninfection
EveryoneEveryone
• Take appropriate vaccinationsTake appropriate vaccinations
High risk peopleHigh risk people
• Keep away from people who areKeep away from people who are
infectiousinfectious
• Take extra care about cleanlinessTake extra care about cleanliness
• Take extra care when cook andTake extra care when cook and
preparing foodpreparing food
02/03/15
38

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Chain of infection ash

  • 1. Dr ASHRAF AZAZ CHAIN OF INECTION : ‫ص‬1 2 071 ‫ص‬ 1
  • 2. The Chain ofThe Chain of InfectionInfection 02/03/15 2
  • 3. As healthcareAs healthcare professionals, it isprofessionals, it is important toimportant to understand twounderstand two things aboutthings about infectioninfection: 02/03/15 3
  • 4. 1.the various ways infection can be transmitted 2. the ways the infection chain can be broken 02/03/15 4
  • 5. There are sixThere are six linkslinks in the chain ofin the chain of infectioninfection ::02/03/15 5
  • 6. 1st - The Infectious Agent1st - The Infectious Agent -any disease-causing microorganism (pathogen) 02/03/15 6
  • 7. 2nd - The Reservoir Host2nd - The Reservoir Host -the organism in which the infectious microbes reside 02/03/15 7
  • 8. Hosts that do not show any outward signs or symptoms of a disease but are still capable of transmitting the disease are known as carriers. What are “Carrier Hosts”What are “Carrier Hosts” 02/03/15 8
  • 9. 3rd - The Portal of Exit3rd - The Portal of Exit -route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir. Examples: respiratory secretions, blood exposure, breaks in skin02/03/15 9
  • 10. 4th - The Route of4th - The Route of TransmissionTransmission -method by which the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host 02/03/15 10
  • 11. Transmission may occur through: direct contact 02/03/15 11
  • 14. 5th - The Portal of Entry5th - The Portal of Entry -route through which the pathogen enters its new host 02/03/15 14
  • 17. Urinary & Reproductive TractsSexual Sexual contact contact 02/03/15 17
  • 18. Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier 02/03/15 18
  • 19. 6th - The6th - The Susceptible HostSusceptible Host -the organism that accepts the pathogen The support of pathogen life & its reproduction depend on the degree of the host’s resistance. 02/03/15 19
  • 20. Organisms with strong immuneOrganisms with strong immune systems are better able to fend offsystems are better able to fend off pathogens.pathogens. 02/03/15 20
  • 21. Organisms with weakened immuneOrganisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to thesystems are more vulnerable to the support & reproduction of pathogens.support & reproduction of pathogens. 02/03/15 21
  • 22. -The essential part of patient care & self-protection. How to interrupt the chain ofHow to interrupt the chain of infection:infection: 02/03/15 22
  • 23. 1. Pathogen Identification1. Pathogen Identification -identification of infectious agent & appropriate treatment 02/03/15 23
  • 24. 2. Asepsis & Hygiene2. Asepsis & Hygiene -potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintain proper personal hygiene 02/03/15 24
  • 25. 3. Control Portals of Exit3. Control Portals of Exit -healthcare personnel must practice standard precautions: 02/03/15 25
  • 26. (Control body secretions & wash hands according to protocol.) 02/03/15 26
  • 27. 4. Prevent a Route of4. Prevent a Route of TransmissionTransmission -prevent direct or indirect contact by: 1.Proper handwashing 2.Disinfection & sterilization techniques 3.Isolation of infected patients 4.Not working when contagious 02/03/15 27
  • 28. 5. Protect Portal of Entry5. Protect Portal of Entry -Health professionals must make sure that ports of entry are not subjected to pathogens. (nose, mouth, eyes, urinary tract, open wounds, etc.) 02/03/15 28
  • 29. 6. Recognition of Susceptible6. Recognition of Susceptible HostHost -health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients 02/03/15 29
  • 30. •Cancer Patients •AIDS Patients •Transplant Patients •Infant & Elderly Patients 02/03/15 30
  • 31. Remember--breaking the chain ofRemember--breaking the chain of infection is the responsibilityinfection is the responsibility of each health professional.of each health professional. 02/03/15 31
  • 32. The chain of Infection Way in for microbesWay in for microbes • Bad microbe need a way toBad microbe need a way to get into someone elseget into someone else before they can cause anbefore they can cause an infectioninfection • This can be throughThis can be through – the food we eatthe food we eat – inhalation of aerosolsinhalation of aerosols – open cuts or soresopen cuts or sores – things we put in our mouthsthings we put in our mouths 02/03/15 32
  • 33. Breaking the Chain Source of infection • Isolate infected people • Take care with raw food • Wash pets on a regular basis • Dispose of nappies and soiled items appropriately 02/03/15 33
  • 34. Breaking the Chain Way out for microbes Prevent any  faeces  vomit  bodily fluids  coughs and sneezes getting onto surfaces or hands 02/03/15 34
  • 35. Breaking the Chain Way out for microbes Prevent any  faeces  vomit  bodily fluids  coughs and sneezes getting onto surfaces or hands 02/03/15 35
  • 36. Breaking the Chain Spread of infectionSpread of infection • Wash hands thoroughly ANDWash hands thoroughly AND regularlyregularly • Cover cuts and open soresCover cuts and open sores • Take appropriate precautionTake appropriate precaution during sexual activitiesduring sexual activities 02/03/15 36
  • 37. Breaking the Chain Way out for microbesWay out for microbes Prevent anyPrevent any • faecesfaeces • vomitvomit • bodily fluidsbodily fluids • coughs and sneezescoughs and sneezes getting onto surfaces orgetting onto surfaces or handshands 02/03/15 37
  • 38. Breaking the Chain People at risk fromPeople at risk from infectioninfection EveryoneEveryone • Take appropriate vaccinationsTake appropriate vaccinations High risk peopleHigh risk people • Keep away from people who areKeep away from people who are infectiousinfectious • Take extra care about cleanlinessTake extra care about cleanliness • Take extra care when cook andTake extra care when cook and preparing foodpreparing food 02/03/15 38