Terminology used in oral pathology dental


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Terminologies used in oral pathology dental

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Terminology used in oral pathology dental

  1. 1. Terminologies used in Oral Pathology
  2. 2. Terminology/ Nomenclature  Communication  Documentation  Description  Classification/ categorization
  3. 3. Types  General terms  Clinical terms  Histologic terms
  4. 4. Definition Maximum expression in minimum words
  5. 5. General terms
  6. 6. Provisional diagnosis Diagnosis arrived at after history taking and clinical examination but before any investigations. Preliminary educated assumption or guess as to the nature or status of the condition prior to the analysis
  7. 7. Differential diagnosis Process of identifying a particular disease process by differentiating it from all other pathologic processes that may have similar signs and symptoms or clinical course
  8. 8. Final Diagnosis Diagnosis arrived after all the data (History, clinical examination and investigations ) has been collected, analyzed and subjected to logical thought.
  9. 9. Prognosis Prediction of the course, duration and termination of a disease and the likelihood of its response to treatment
  10. 10. Investigations Steps undertaken to confirm a diagnosis which was established following case history taking and physical examination.
  11. 11. Laboratory Investigations Extension of physical examination in which tissue, blood,urine, saliva or any other specimen is obtained from the patients body and subjected to microscopic, biochemical, microbiological or immunological examination
  12. 12. Clinical terms
  13. 13. Inspection Systematic visual assessment of the patient
  14. 14. Palpation Method of examining with the hands using the sense of touch
  15. 15. Percussion Technique of striking the tissues with the fingers or an instrument so that the examiner may listen to the resulting sounds or note the response of the patient to such action
  16. 16. Auscultation Technique of listening to sounds produced in the body using a stethoscope.
  17. 17. Lesion Morphologically altered tissue with objective signs of disease
  18. 18. Symptom Any change in the body or its function that is perceptible to the patient and may indicate a disease. Eg : Pain
  19. 19. Sign Any change in the body or its function that is perceptible to a trained observer and may indicate a specific disease. Eg : Tenderness
  20. 20. Hypersensitivity Exaggerated response to any stimulus which otherwise would not have caused the same degree of response.
  21. 21. Abscess Acute inflammatory reaction localized within the tissue and associated with tissue destruction and liquefaction as
  22. 22. Cellulitis Acute inflammation which spreads diffusely through the tissue spaces and along tissue planes and usually suppurative in nature.
  23. 23. Exudate It is the edema fluid produced by certain inflammatory reactions having a higher specific gravity (1.020 or higher) and a higher protein content (1-6 gm/dl)
  24. 24. Transudate It is the edema fluid produced by certain noninflammatory conditions having a low specific gravity and a low protein content
  25. 25. Macule Well circumscribed flat area of altered coloration varying in size from a pinhead to several cms
  26. 26. Macule
  27. 27. Macule/Patch
  28. 28. Papule Small well circumscribed solid,elevated lesion less than 5 mm in diameter
  29. 29. Nodule well circumscribed solid,elevated lesion more than 5 mm in diameter
  30. 30. Nodule
  31. 31. Plaque
  32. 32. Vesicle Small well circumscribed fluid filled lesion less than 5 mm in diameter
  33. 33. Bulla well circumscribed fluid filled lesion larger than 5 mm in diameter
  34. 34. Bullae
  35. 35. Pustule well circumscribed pus filled lesion smaller than 5 mm in diameter
  36. 36. Erosion Break in the epithelium extending to but not involving the basal cell layer
  37. 37. Erosion
  38. 38. Ulcer Break in the continuity of the entire epithelium with the resultant exposure of the underlying connective tissue
  39. 39. Ulcer
  40. 40. Sinus • Blind tract which connects a cavity lined by granulation tissue to the epithelial surface
  41. 41. Fistula • Communication between two epithelium lined surfaces Example: Oro antral fistula
  42. 42. White lesion • Abnormal area of oral mucosa which appears whiter than the surrounding tissue and is usually slightly raised, roughened or of a different texture than the adjacent normal tissue.
  43. 43. Keratotic White Lesion • White lesion of the oral cavity which cannot be removed by rubbing or scraping
  44. 44. Non Keratotic White Lesion • White lesion of the oral cavity which can be removed by rubbing or scraping
  45. 45. Premalignant lesion • Morphologically altered tissue in which cancer is more likely to occur than its apparently normal counterpart Eg: Leukoplakia
  46. 46. Premalignant Condition • Generalized state associated with significantly increased risk of developing cancer Eg: Iron deficiency anemia
  47. 47. Hamartoma • Tumour like malformation characterized by the presence of particular histologic tissues in improper proportions or distribution with a prominent excess of one type of tissue. Eg: Haemangioma
  48. 48. Teratoma • True neoplasm made up of a number of different types of tissues that are not native to the area in which the tumour occurs.
  49. 49. Choristoma • Microscopically normal cells present in abnormal location Eg: Fordyces granules
  50. 50. Neoplasm • Abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner even after the cessation of the stimulus that evoked the change
  51. 51. Hypertrophy • Increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of the cells Example: Masseteric hypertrophy
  52. 52. Hyperplasia • Increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the number of the cells Example: Gingival hyperplasia
  53. 53. Hypoplasia • Incomplete development of an organ or tissue Example: Enamel hypoplasia
  54. 54. Aplasia • Complete failure of formation of organ/tissue Example: Condylar aplasia
  55. 55. Atrophy • Decrease in the size of an organ or tissue after complete formation Example: Papillary atrophy
  56. 56. Pedunculated
  57. 57. Pedunculated
  58. 58. Sessile
  59. 59. Sessile
  60. 60. Diffuse
  61. 61. Coalescing
  62. 62. Exophytic
  63. 63. Firm
  64. 64. Cheesy
  65. 65. Hard
  66. 66. Histologic terms •
  67. 67. Hyperkeratosis Thickening of the stratum corneum
  68. 68. Acanthosis Thickening /Widening of the stratum spinosum
  69. 69. Spongiosis Intercellular edema
  70. 70. Acantholysis Separation of cells in stratum spinosum resulting in intraepithelial split
  71. 71. Dysplasia Irregular, atypical proliferative changes in the epithelium in response to chronic irritation or inflammation
  72. 72. Anaplasia Reversal of highly differentiated cells into a less differentiated type
  73. 73. Metaplasis • Is the reversible replacement of one differentiated cell type with another mature differentiated cell type
  74. 74. Metastasis • Metastasis is a complex process that involves the spread of a tumor or cancer to distant parts of the body from its original site
  75. 75. Mutation • A relatively permanent change in hereditary material involving either a physical change in chromosome relations or a biochemical change in the codons that make up genes