composite resin dental material


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composite resin dental material

  1. 1. Direct EstheticDirect Esthetic Restorative MaterialsRestorative Materials
  2. 2. Both silicate cement and acrylic resin (PMMA) are Materials fromHistory
  3. 3. Science ofScience of ResinResin CompositesComposites For Direct RestorationsFor Direct Restorations
  4. 4. • Materials made up of 2 /+ distinct, chemically different phases • The resulted material (composite) combine the properties of the phases included Examples • Jell-o & fruits • Concrete • Tooth enamel and dentine • Resin composite Composite !!! What does it mean?
  5. 5. Dental Resin Composites
  6. 6. Matrix phase Dispersed phase (fillers) 1. Organic phase (matrix) 2. Inorganic dispersed phase (fillers) 3. Coupling phase 1. Polymerization- associated additives 2. Coloring additive 3. Ultraviolet stabilizers 4. Radioopacifiers + Coupling phase
  7. 7. Organic Phase (Resin Matrix ) Function 1. Hold all ingredients in one mass 2. Able to polymerize (Responsible for material’s setting ) 3. Accept pigments (Responsible for material’s color ) 4. Responsible for the setting contraction 1. Monomer system - BIS-GMA or UDMA. (viscous monomers) - Silorane resins (in the most recent, minimal-shrink type) 2. Diluents - TEGDMA & HEMA
  8. 8. Dispersed Phase (Fillers ) Function 1. ↑ Mechanical Prop. 2. ↑ Wear resistance 3. ↓ Coeff. of th. Exp. 4. ↓ Poly. shrinkage 1. Inorganic fillers1. Inorganic fillers - Quartz, glass, barium and lithium- Quartz, glass, barium and lithium alumino-silicates, barium fluoridealumino-silicates, barium fluoride - Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), zirconium (Zr)- Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), zirconium (Zr) and yttrium (Y) ionsand yttrium (Y) ions are added toare added to produce radioopacityproduce radioopacity 2. Pre-polymerized organic fillers2. Pre-polymerized organic fillers - Ground resin composites- Ground resin composites 3. Alternative fillers3. Alternative fillers - fibers, tri-modal, non-slumping fillers,- fibers, tri-modal, non-slumping fillers, fluoride-releasing – Nano-sizedfluoride-releasing – Nano-sized fillersfillers
  9. 9. Classification based on fillersize and loading Types Filler size Filler load Traditional types 1. Macro-filled 8-12 µm 75-80 wt% 2. Small particle 1-8 µm 70-85 wt% 3. Hybrid 0.4-1 µm 70-75 wt% 4. Micro-filled 0.04-0.4 µm 50-60 wt% Recent types 5. Nano-hybrid 0.02-2.5 (Av 0.6) µm 70-75 wt% 6. Nano-filled Culsters- 0.06-1.4 µm (5-20 nm) 70-75 wt% Macro-filled Small-particle Hybrid Micro-filled
  10. 10. Anusavice K. Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 2003 Property Traditional Microfilled Small P. Hybrid Compr. strength (MPa) 250-300 250-300 350-400 300-350 Tensile strength (MPa) 50-65 30-50 75-90 70-90 Elastic Modulus (GPa) 8-15 3-6 15-20 7-12 Coeff .Th. Exp. (10-6 /ºC) 25-35 50-60 19-26 30-40 Knoop Hardness 55 5-30 50-60 50-60 Properties of traditional Composites
  11. 11. Quoted from: Deliperi S, Bardwell d. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002; 133:1387-1398
  12. 12. Quoted from: Deliperi S, Bardwell d. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002; 133:1387-1398
  13. 13. Coupling Phase 1.1. Vinyl triethoxy silane (vinyl silane)Vinyl triethoxy silane (vinyl silane) 2.2. γγ--Methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy SilaneMethacryloxy propyl trimethoxy Silane Mechanism of attachmentMechanism of attachment -- They are composed ofThey are composed of bi-functional moleculesbi-functional molecules - The- The silane groupsilane group chemically bonds to the inorganic materialschemically bonds to the inorganic materials - Both the- Both the ethoxy and methoxyethoxy and methoxy groupsgroups react with resin moleculesreact with resin molecules of the matrixof the matrix FunctionFunction 1.1. ↓↓ The water uptakeThe water uptake 2.2. ↓↓ The solubility rateThe solubility rate 3.3. ↓↓ The crack propagationThe crack propagation
  14. 14. Bonding of fillers to resin matrix
  15. 15. Polymerization associated additives  Polymerization initiator….Polymerization initiator…... 1.1. Benzoyl proxideBenzoyl proxide in case of chemical and heat-curedin case of chemical and heat-cured materialsmaterials 2.2. CamphroquinonCamphroquinon in case of light-cured materialsin case of light-cured materials  Polymerization activator…Polymerization activator…Tertiary amineTertiary amine in casein case of chemically-cured materialsof chemically-cured materials  Polymerization inhibitor…Polymerization inhibitor… (hydroquinon)(hydroquinon) preventsprevents material’s polymerization on storagematerial’s polymerization on storage
  16. 16. Chemically-Cured CompositeChemically-Cured Composite
  17. 17. Light-cured compositeLight-cured composite
  18. 18. Effect of classical curing techniques on composite properties Difference Chemical-cured (CC) Light-cured (VLC) Heat-Cured (HC) • Presentation forms 2 paste (Base & Catalyst) Single paste (Syringe, capsules) - 1 paste - Powder and liquid • Mixing Mixing of equal parts of base and catalyst over paper pad by the use of plastic spatula No mixing is required (only direct dispensing from either the syringe or capsules) Mixing of P&L form only • Setting reaction Addition polymerization Addition polymerization Addition polymerization • Polymerization initiator Benzoyl peroxide Camphroquinon Benzoyl peroxide • Polymerization activator - 3ry amine (old) - N-dihydroxy ethyl–P- toluidine UV light, Blue VL, or Laser Heat, or Heat&pressure • Method of application Direct, using bulk technique Direct, using incremental technique Indirect (Laboratory processed)
  19. 19. Property Chemical-cured (CC) Light-cured (VLC) Heat-Cured (HC) • Working time - Limited - The chemical reaction starts once base and catalyst are mixed - Unlimited - The chemical reaction starts when the material is subjected to light - Unlimited - The chemical reaction starts when the material is subjected to heat • Degree of polymerization Higher than VLC and lower than HC The lowest The highest • Residual Monomer • (act as plasticizer) Lower than VLC and higher than HC The highest The lowest • Polymerization shrinkage Higher than VLC and lower than HC The lowest The highest • Strength and hardness Higher than VLC and lower than HC The lowest The highest • Porosity Voids could exist as a result of air trapping during mixing Less Than CC (No Mixing) Less than CC (Depending on the packing technique) • Color stability The lowest, due to presence of 3ry amine and porosities Higher than CC and lower than HC The highest • Bonding to resin bonding agents Lower than VLC and Higher than HC The highest The lowest
  20. 20. • UV stabilizers…UV stabilizers… ((2-hydroxy-4- methoxy2-hydroxy-4- methoxy benzophenone)benzophenone) Provide color stability underProvide color stability under electro-magnetic waveselectro-magnetic waves • Coloring agents (Pigments)….Coloring agents (Pigments)…. To provideTo provide materials with different shadesmaterials with different shades Other Additives
  21. 21. Listen, always keep these Clinical Hints in your mind
  22. 22. Composite polymerization is retarded in presence of Eugenol and oxygen.
  23. 23. It is mandatory to incrementally insert the light-cured material
  24. 24. The chemically-cured materials is no longer be used clinically
  25. 25. Mechanical, Micro-mechanical and inter-penetration means help the composite retain to the tooth structure
  26. 26. Direct applications of resin composites  Filling class III, IV, V and VI cavities in anterior teeth  Filling small and moderate Class I, II, V cavities in post. teeth  Core build-up (strengthening of weakened teeth)  Diastma Closure  Direct laminate veneer
  27. 27. 1. Esthetic. 2. Conservative cavity. 3. Low thermal conductivity. 4. Quite resistance to microleakage 5. No corrosion. 6. Strengthening of the remaining tooth st. 1. Polymerization shrinkage. 2. High coefficient of thermal expansion 3. Pulp irritation due to residual monomer …… i.e. deep cavities should be protected 4. Low wear resistance. 5. Technique sensitive. Advantages Disadvantages
  28. 28. Step By Step Re sto ratio n
  29. 29. Done
  30. 30. What do you exactly know about the modified types of composite restoratives ?