Advances in Resin Composites
 Flowable
 Condensable
 Smart composites
 Minimal shrink
 Compomer
 Geomer
 Indirect c...
Flowable composites
Regular composites ….. with
lower filler contents (≤ 60 wt%)
 The material flows readily
 Higher polymerization shrinkag...
Viscosity of flowable composites
REVOLUTION
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
SHEAR RATE [1...
Mechanical properties of flowable composites
Filler content (wt %)
56
68
53
75 80
flowable hybrid
Wear (mm)28 28 26
21 22
...
Nano-filled Flowable Composites
 Utilizes nano-sized fillers.
 Still flows readily
 Excellent aesthetics
 Low wear
 A...
Packable composite
 utilizes different filler systems
1. Fibers
2. Trimodal particle distrebution (interlock at the time of packing)
3. Non-...
Smart Composites
It is a kind of ion-releasing composites
 It releases fluoride, hydroxyl and calcium ions, when
the pH in areas adjacent ...
Minimal shrink composites
The development of minimal-shrink composites
was based on ….
1. Increasing the filler load
 Using prepolymerized composit...
Polymerization shrinkage of
new minimal-shrink composites
Compomers
(Polyacid-modified composites)
To have a kind of modified composite having the
main advantages of glass ionomer cement.
Compositional modifications
 Cer...
Flexure strength
Taher NM. Comparative study of composite, compomer and ormocer bi-axial flexural
strength. Saudi Dent. J....
To overcome some drawbacks of compomers
The filler particles are a kind of
pre-polymerized glass ionomer
agglomerates
Giom...
Rationale
 To get restorations with higher mechanical properties
 To reduce the subsequent effect of the polymerization ...
Chair-side
Start with Light or
chemical-curing inside
the mouth.
Then apply post-curing
heat or light treatment
CAD-CAM
co...
Laboratory Composites
First Generation
Firstly introduced in 1980s as an attempt to
decrease the rate of the polymerization shrinkage and Improv...
Second Generation
Appeared in 1990s and named ceromers. Most of these
materials are light-cured over a cast for 60 seconds...
Fiber-reinforced composites
In many aerospace, automotive, marine, household
and recreational industries … etc
Fiber-reinforced Dental Composites
 Composites of the 2nd generation reinforced with fiber substructure
 Good alternativ...
Dental applications of FRC
1. FRC endodontic post
2. Reinforcing denture bases
3. Implant frameworks
4. Bases of orthodont...
Fiber orientation and material’s properties
Different types of fibers
ManufacturerFiber architectureFiber typeCommercial Product
A. Pre-impregnated, dental laboratory...
Comparisons are always valuable. Aren't they?
 advances in resin composites dental material
 advances in resin composites dental material
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advances in resin composites dental material

  1. 1. Advances in Resin Composites  Flowable  Condensable  Smart composites  Minimal shrink  Compomer  Geomer  Indirect composites  Fiber-reinforced
  2. 2. Flowable composites
  3. 3. Regular composites ….. with lower filler contents (≤ 60 wt%)  The material flows readily  Higher polymerization shrinkage  Lower mechanical properties  Higher wear rates  Used only as 1. Cavity liners 2. Fissure sealants 3. To restore small class V cavities
  4. 4. Viscosity of flowable composites REVOLUTION 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 SHEAR RATE [1/s] APPARENTVISCOSITY [Pa.s] Material Fillercontent (mass%) HenrySchein 41 Starflow 61 Revolution 60 Florestore 50 HENRY SCHEIN FLOWABLE 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 SHEAR RATE [1/s] APPARENTVISCOSITY [Pa.s]
  5. 5. Mechanical properties of flowable composites Filler content (wt %) 56 68 53 75 80 flowable hybrid Wear (mm)28 28 26 21 22 flowable hybrid Fracture toughness 1.36 1.24 2.05 1.90 flowable hybrid
  6. 6. Nano-filled Flowable Composites  Utilizes nano-sized fillers.  Still flows readily  Excellent aesthetics  Low wear  Available in capsules
  7. 7. Packable composite
  8. 8.  utilizes different filler systems 1. Fibers 2. Trimodal particle distrebution (interlock at the time of packing) 3. Non-slumping fillers 4. Resin impregnated fillers  But, the increased viscosity  ↑ incidence of void formation ↓ reduce the adaptability  Usually used in combination with flowable liners Has the ability to be packed like amalgam  Better contact with the adjacent teeth  Better occlusal form
  9. 9. Smart Composites
  10. 10. It is a kind of ion-releasing composites  It releases fluoride, hydroxyl and calcium ions, when the pH in areas adjacent to the restoration drops down (e.g. plaque accumulation)  Recent materials are based on alkaline glass fillers. The release of alkaline ions helps in; 1. Inhibiting bacterial growth 2. Buffering the acids produced by bacteria 3. Reduce the incidence of recurrent caries (Reduce the demineralization)
  11. 11. Minimal shrink composites
  12. 12. The development of minimal-shrink composites was based on …. 1. Increasing the filler load  Using prepolymerized composite fillers  Using nano-sized fillers (Tetric Evoceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent) 2. Using organic matrices with lower polymerization shrinkage  Spiro-orthocarbonate, can produce composites with no setting contraction,  Oxy bis-methacrylates (bifunctional monomer) shows also a reduced rate of the polymerization contraction  Oxirane and silorane-based monomers (Feltick LS, 3M-ESPE)
  13. 13. Polymerization shrinkage of new minimal-shrink composites
  14. 14. Compomers (Polyacid-modified composites)
  15. 15. To have a kind of modified composite having the main advantages of glass ionomer cement. Compositional modifications  Certain liquid monomer (HEMA) is modified by polyacrylic acid grafts  Filler particles similar to the powder of glass ionomer cement (calcium- fluoro-alumino-silicate- glass) Drawbacks:  Using bonding systems still mandatory  Lower wear resistant < regular composites  Insignificant release of fluoride
  16. 16. Flexure strength Taher NM. Comparative study of composite, compomer and ormocer bi-axial flexural strength. Saudi Dent. J. (2002) 14:7-10. Compomers
  17. 17. To overcome some drawbacks of compomers The filler particles are a kind of pre-polymerized glass ionomer agglomerates Giomers are fluoride releasing light-cured restoratives. They show a true hybridization of glass ionomers and composites as they have the fluoride release and recharge of glass ionomers and the aesthetics, handling and physical properties of composite resins. http://www.shofu.com.sg/GiomerList.aspx
  18. 18. Rationale  To get restorations with higher mechanical properties  To reduce the subsequent effect of the polymerization shrinkage (i.e. weak bonding, microleakage, improper contact) Indirect composite restorations
  19. 19. Chair-side Start with Light or chemical-curing inside the mouth. Then apply post-curing heat or light treatment CAD-CAM composites Laboratory Cured with heat & pressure or light & pressure on a cast Fiber-reinforced composites
  20. 20. Laboratory Composites
  21. 21. First Generation Firstly introduced in 1980s as an attempt to decrease the rate of the polymerization shrinkage and Improve the wear resistance of the restoration. ManufacturerProduct commercial name 3M-ESPE1. Visio-gem Kulzer2. Denta Color Ivoclar-Vivadent3. Concept Ivoclar-Vivadent4. Isoset
  22. 22. Second Generation Appeared in 1990s and named ceromers. Most of these materials are light-cured over a cast for 60 seconds and then followed with heat treatment. ManufacturerProduct commercial name Heraeus-Kulzer1. Artglass Kerr2. BelleGlass Ivoclar-Vivadent3. Targis 3M-ESPE4. Simphony
  23. 23. Fiber-reinforced composites
  24. 24. In many aerospace, automotive, marine, household and recreational industries … etc
  25. 25. Fiber-reinforced Dental Composites  Composites of the 2nd generation reinforced with fiber substructure  Good alternative to all and metal-ceramic restorations - Braid - Unidirectional- Mesh - Weave
  26. 26. Dental applications of FRC 1. FRC endodontic post 2. Reinforcing denture bases 3. Implant frameworks 4. Bases of orthodontic appliances 5. Fixed prosthesis 6. Periodontal splints.
  27. 27. Fiber orientation and material’s properties
  28. 28. Different types of fibers ManufacturerFiber architectureFiber typeCommercial Product A. Pre-impregnated, dental laboratory products Jeneric/petron  Ivoclar-Vivadent Ivoclar-Vivadent Unidirectional Unidirectional Mesh Glass Glass Glass  FiberKor  Vectris pontic  Vectris frame &single B. Pre-impregnated, chir-side products: Jeneric/Petron Jeneric/Petron Jeneric/Petron Unidirectional Weave Weave Glass Glass Polyethylene  Splint it  Splint it  Splint it C. Impregnation is required, chair-side products Kerr Dental Venture Interdental Distrebutor BioComp Glasspan Ribbond Braid Unidirectional Weave Unidirectional Braid Leno weave Polyethylene Polyethylene Glass Kevlar Glass Polyethylene  Connect  DVA fibers  Fiber splint  Fiber flex  Class span  Ribbond D. Pre-impregnated, prefabricated posts Bisco Jeneric/petron Unidirectional Unidirectional Carbon Glass  C-Post  FiberKor
  29. 29. Comparisons are always valuable. Aren't they?

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